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1.  Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Associated with Antibody Responses to Varicella-Zoster Virus and Cytomegalovirus in HIV-Infected Patients 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64327.
Objective
We investigated the relationship of the Herpesviridiae with inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.
Methods
Prospective study including virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. IgG antibodies against herpesviruses, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), endothelial function through flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and blood atherosclerosis biomarkers (hsCRP, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, MDA, sCD14, sCD163, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, D-dimer, and PAI-1) were measured.
Results
136 patients with HIV viral load <200 copies/ml were included. 93.4% patients were infected with herpes simplex virus type-1, 55.9% with herpes simplex virus type-2, 97.1% with varicella-zoster virus, 65.4% with human herpesvirus-6, 91.2% with cytomegalovirus, and 99.3% with Epstein-Barr virus. Previous AIDS diagnosis was associated with higher cytomegalovirus IgG titers (23,000 vs 17,000 AU, P = 0.011) and higher varicella-zoster virus IgG titers (3.19 vs 2.88 AU, P = 0.047), and there was a positive correlation of the Framingham risk score with IgG levels against cytomegalovirus (Spearman's Rho 0.216, P = 0.016) and Herpes simplex virus-2 (Spearman's Rho 0.293, P = 0.001). IgG antibodies against cytomegalovirus correlated in adjusted analysis with the cIMT (P = 0.030). High seropositivity for varicella-zoster virus (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.05–8.01, P = 0.039), and for cytomegalovirus (OR 3.79, 95% CI 1.20–11.97, P = 0.023) were predictors for the highest quartile of the cIMT in adjusted analyses. PAI-1 levels were independently associated with cytomegalovirus IgG titers (P = 0.041), IL-6 and ICAM-1 levels with varicella-zoster virus IgG (P = 0.046 and P = 0.035 respectively), and hsCRP levels with Herpes simplex virus-2 IgG (P = 0.035).
Conclusion
In virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients, antibody responses against herpesviruses are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, and with increased inflammation and coagulation biomarkers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064327
PMCID: PMC3662719  PMID: 23717597
2.  Human Infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae, Spain, 2007–2011 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(2):267-269.
Human infection with Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae was initially reported in 1996, and reports of a total of 18 cases have been published. We describe 6 additional cases that occurred in the Mediterranean coast region of Spain during 2007–2011. Clinicians should consider this infection in patients who have traveled to this area.
doi:10.3201/eid1902.111706
PMCID: PMC3559030  PMID: 23343524
Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae; rickettsiosis; LAR; spotted fever; rickettsiae; infection; bacteria; Hyalomma asiaticum; ticks; vector-borne infections; lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis; Spain
3.  Gender differential on characteristics and outcome of leprosy patients admitted to a long-term care rural hospital in South-Eastern Ethiopia 
Introduction
In previous studies, women are less aware of causation and symptoms of leprosy and have less access to health care coverage than men, thus contributing to their delay in seeking for treatment. We assess the gender differences in leprosy cases admitted to a rural referral hospital in Ethiopia for 7 and a half years.
Methods
Retrospective data of the leprosy patients admitted to referral hospital were collected using leprosy admission registry books from September 2002 to January 2010. Variables were entered in an Excel 97 database.
Results
During the period of study, 839 patients with leprosy were admitted; 541 (64.5%) were male, and 298 (35.6%) female. Fifteen per cent of female patients, and 7.3% of male patients were paucibacillary leprosy cases while 84.8% of female patients and 92.7% of males were multibacillary leprosy cases (p<0.001). Female leprosy patients were younger than male ones (median: 36 versus 44 years) (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-0.98; p<0.001), admission for cardiovascular diseases (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 1.9-29.3; p=0.004), admission for gastroenteritis (OR: 14.0; 95% CI: 1.7-117; p=0.02), admission from out patients clinic (OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.1-4.01; p=0.02), and mortality as final outcome (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-8.0; p=0.02) were independently associated with female gender.
Conclusions
Female patients with leprosy admitted to hospital were younger, had a different profile of admission and a higher mortality rate than male ones.
doi:10.1186/1475-9276-11-56
PMCID: PMC3519584  PMID: 23035879
Leprosy; Gender; Sex; Female; Hospital; Ethiopia
4.  Evaluation of endothelial function and subclinical atherosclerosis in association with hepatitis C virus in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2011;11:265.
Background
Relationship of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-infected patients remains controversial. We evaluated endothelial function and subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients with and without HCV.
Methods
Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and circulating levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) were measured in HCV/HIV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT).
Results
63 (31%) HCV/HIV-coinfected and 138 (69%) HIV-monoinfected patients were included. Median soluble vascular CAM-1 (sVCAM-1) and intercellular CAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels were significantly higher in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (P < 0.001 for both cases). Median (interquartile range) FMD was 6.21% (2.86-9.62) in HCV/HIV-coinfected and 5.54% (2.13-9.13) in HIV-monoinfected patients (P = 0.37). Adjustment for variables associated with HCV and FMD disclosed similar results. FMD correlated inversely with cIMT and age. Carotid IMT did not differ between HCV/HIV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected patients in unadjusted (0.61 [0.55-0.65] mm vs 0.60 [0.53-0.72] mm; P = 0.39) or adjusted analyses.
Conclusion
HCV infection was associated with higher levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1, but no evidence of increased subclinical atherosclerosis was found when endothelial function was evaluated through FMD, or when assessing the cIMT.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-265
PMCID: PMC3198698  PMID: 21967471
5.  Predictors of Pneumococcal Co-infection for Patients with Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2011;17(8):1475-1478.
We conducted a systematic investigation of pneumococcal co-infection in patients with a diagnosis of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and any risk factor for complications or with severity criteria. We found 14% prevalence, with one third of patients having nonpneumonic infections. A severity assessment score >1 and high C-reactive protein levels were predictors of pneumococcal co-infection.
doi:10.3201/eid1708.101673
PMCID: PMC3381536  PMID: 21801627
respiratory infections; viruses; bacteria; influenza; pneumococcal; pandemic; Streptococcus pneumoniae; influenza A; H1N1; dispatch
6.  Performance of Genotypic Algorithms for Predicting HIV-1 Tropism Measured against the Enhanced-Sensitivity Trofile Coreceptor Tropism Assay ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(11):4135-4139.
The objectives of this study were to assess the performance of genotypic algorithms for predicting CXCR4-using virus, with enhanced sensitivity Trofile HIV coreceptor tropism assay (ES Trofile) as the reference, and to compare the concordance/accuracy of genotypic tests with ES Trofile and with the original Trofile assay. Paired phenotypic and genotypic determinations of HIV-1 coreceptor usage were compared in plasma samples from HIV-1-infected patients. Sequencing of the third hypervariable (V3) loop of the viral gene and phenotypic assays were performed for each sample. Genotypic rules used to predict tropism were Geno2pheno (false-positive rate at 1 to 20%), position-specific scoring matrix X4R5 (PSSMX4R5) and PSSMsinsi (where “sinsi” stands for syncytium inducing and non-syncytium inducing), and the 11/25, 11/24/25, and net charge rules. Two hundred forty-four phenotypic and genotypic samples were tested. Coreceptor usage was obtained from ES Trofile for 145 (59%) samples and from Trofile for 99 (41%) samples. The highest concordance (82.6%) was obtained with PSSMX4R5 when ES Trofile was used as the reference. Geno2pheno at a 20% false-positive rate showed the highest sensitivity (76.7%) for CXCR4-using virus detection with ES Trofile. Samples from naïve subjects and those with CD4 cell counts between 200 and 500 cells/mm3 showed the best predictive performance. Overall, the accuracy of the bioinformatics tools to detect CXCR4-using virus was similar for ES Trofile and Trofile; however, the negative predictive values for genotypic tools with ES Trofile were slightly higher than they were with Trofile. The accuracy of genotypic algorithms for detecting CXCR4-using viruses is high when using ES Trofile as the reference. Results are similar to those obtained with Trofile. The concordance with ES Trofile is better with higher CD4 cell counts and nonexposure to antiretroviral therapy.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01204-10
PMCID: PMC3020874  PMID: 20861336
7.  Comparison of Combined Nose-Throat Swabs with Nasopharyngeal Aspirates for Detection of Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 2009 Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(10):3492-3495.
Data assessing the diagnostic accuracies of use of different respiratory samples for the detection of the novel influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus by molecular methods are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of combined nose and throat swabs (CNTS) with that of nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA). This was a prospective study of adults and children with suspected influenza. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR testing was used for the virological diagnosis. Of the 2,473 patients included, 264 with paired CNTS and NPA were randomly selected. Novel influenza A/H1N1 virus was identified in at least one sample for 115 (43.6%) patients, the majority of them young adults. In 109 patients (94.8%) the virus was identified in the CNTS, and in 98 (85.2%) it was identified in the NPA (P = 0.02). In 93 patients (80.1%), the virus was identified in both specimens. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.82 (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in accuracy between the specimens when patients were stratified according to demographic or clinical characteristics except in the case of women, in whom the sensitivity of CNTS was higher (P = 0.01). The combination of CNTS and NPA had a significantly higher sensitivity in identifying the virus than did each method alone (P = 0.02 for the comparison of the combination of both sampling methods with CNTS, and P < 0.001 for the comparison with NPA). We conclude that in patients with the novel influenza A/H1N1 virus, the diagnostic yield of CNTS is higher than that of NPA. The combination of both sampling methods increases the likelihood of diagnosing the virus.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01105-10
PMCID: PMC2953095  PMID: 20702662
8.  Early changes in inflammatory and pro-thrombotic biomarkers in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy with abacavir or tenofovir 
Background
Abacavir has been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated longitudinal changes in pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients initiating abacavir or tenofovir.
Methods
Consecutive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine were included. Plasma levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured at baseline and at different time points throughout 48 weeks. Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, ART status at inclusion, viral load, lipodystrophy, Framingham score and hepatitis C virus co-infection status.
Results
50 patients were analyzed, 28 initiating abacavir and 22 tenofovir. The endothelial biomarker sVCAM-1 declined significantly in both treatment groups. hsCRP tended to increase soon after starting therapy with abacavir, a trend that was not seen in those initiating tenofovir. IL-6 significantly increased only at week 24 from baseline in patients on abacavir (+225%, p < 0.01) although the differences were not significant between groups. The procoagulant biomarker PAI-1 plasma levels increased from baseline at week 12 (+57%; p = 0.017), week 24 (+72%; p = 0.008), and week 48 (+149%; p < 0.001) in patients on tenofovir, but differences between groups were not statistically significant.
Conclusion
Changes in biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function are not different in viremic patients starting ART with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. These changes occur in the early phases of treatment and include anti- and pro-atherosclerotic effects with both drugs.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-11-40
PMCID: PMC3042932  PMID: 21294867
9.  Drug Resistance Mutations in HIV-Infected Patients in the Spanish Drug Resistance Database Failing Tipranavir and Darunavir Therapy▿  
The presence of resistance mutations in patients failing tipranavir or darunavir was examined at the national drug resistance database of the Spanish AIDS Research Network. Although mutations emerging during tipranavir and darunavir failures differed considerably, cross-resistance was found in up to half of the patients tested. Interestingly, mutation 54L, which is associated with tipranavir hypersusceptibility, was selected in half of the darunavir failures. Thus, resistance testing seems mandatory to ensure the benefit of the sequential use of these drugs.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00160-10
PMCID: PMC2897318  PMID: 20479204

Results 1-9 (9)