Genetic factors underlying trait neuroticism, reflecting a tendency towards negative affective states, may overlap genetic susceptibility for anxiety disorders and help explain the extensive comorbidity amongst internalizing disorders. Genome-wide linkage (GWL) data from several studies of neuroticism and anxiety disorders have been published, providing an opportunity to test such hypotheses and identify genomic regions that harbor genes common to these phenotypes. In all, 11 independent GWL studies of either neuroticism (n=8) or anxiety disorders (n=3) were collected, which comprised of 5341 families with 15 529 individuals. The rank-based genome scan meta-analysis (GSMA) approach was used to analyze each trait separately and combined, and global correlations between results were examined. False discovery rate (FDR) analysis was performed to test for enrichment of significant effects. Using 10 cM intervals, bins nominally significant for both GSMA statistics, PSR and POR, were found on chromosomes 9, 11, 12, and 14 for neuroticism and on chromosomes 1, 5, 15, and 16 for anxiety disorders. Genome-wide, the results for the two phenotypes were significantly correlated, and a combined analysis identified additional nominally significant bins. Although none reached genome-wide significance, an excess of significant PSRP-values were observed, with 12 bins falling under a FDR threshold of 0.50. As demonstrated by our identification of multiple, consistent signals across the genome, meta-analytically combining existing GWL data is a valuable approach to narrowing down regions relevant for anxiety-related phenotypes. This may prove useful for prioritizing emerging genome-wide association data for anxiety disorders.
anxiety; neuroticism; panic disorder; linkage; meta-analysis
Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model is widely used to mimic human focal ischemic stroke in order to study ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in rodents. In tMCAO model, intraluminal suture technique is widely used to achieve ischemia and reperfusion. However, variation of infarct volume in this model often requires large sample size, which hinders the progress of preclinical research. Our previous study demonstrated that infarct volume was related to the success of reperfusion although the reason remained unclear. The aim of present study is to explore the relationship between focal thrombus formation and model reproducibility with respect to infarct volume. We hypothesize that suture-induced thrombosis causes infarct volume variability due to insufficient reperfusion after suture withdrawal. Seventy-two adult male CD-1 mice underwent 90 minutes of tMCAO with or without intraperitoneal administration of heparin. Dynamic synchrotron radiation microangiography (SRA) and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) were performed before and after tMCAO to observe the cerebral vascular morphology and to measure the cerebral blood flow in vivo. Infarct volume and neurological score were examined to evaluate severity of ischemic brain injury. We found that the rate of successful reperfusion was much higher in heparin-treated mice compared to that in heparin-free mice according to the result of SRA and LSCI at 1 and 3 hours after suture withdrawal (p<0.05). Pathological features and SRA revealed that thrombus formed in the internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery or anterior cerebral artery, which blocked reperfusion following tMCAO. LSCI showed that cortical collateral circulation could be disturbed by thrombi. Our results demonstrated that suture-induced thrombosis was a critical element, which affects the success of reperfusion. Appropriate heparin management provides a useful approach for improving reproducibility of reperfusion model in mice.
The objective of this study was to explore the potential of CO2 single contrast in-line phase contrast imaging (PCI) for pre-clinical small intestine investigation. The absorption and phase contrast images of CO2 gas production were attained and compared. A further increase in image contrast was observed in PCI. Compared with CO2-based absorption contrast imaging (ACI), CO2-based PCI significantly enhanced the detection of mucosal microstructures, such as pits and folds. The CO2-based PCI could provide sufficient image contrast for clearly showing the intestinal mucosa in living mice without using barium. We concluded that CO2-based PCI might be a novel and promising imaging method for future studies of gastrointestinal disorders.
A number of studies have reported an association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH), however the reports have demonstrated inconclusive results. To clarify this conflict, we updated the previously performed meta-analysis by Peck et al., which revealed negative results, by investigating the ACE polymorphism and its correlation to PICH.
PubMed and Embase databases (through Dec 2012) were searched for English articles on the relationship of the I/D polymorphism in ACE with PICH in humans. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were estimated and potential sources of heterogeneity and bias were explored.
A total of 805 PICH cases and 1641 control cases obtained from 8 case-control studies were included. The results suggest that in dominant genetic models, the ACE I/D polymorphic variant was associated with a 58% increase in susceptibility risk of PICH (OR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.07–2.35 for DD vs. DI+II). However, in the subgroup analysis based on race, a significant increased risk was found in Asian DD homozygote carriers (OR = 1.76 and 95% CI = 1.16–2.66 for DD vs. DI+II), but not in Caucasian DD homozygote carriers (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.36–3.88, P = 0.784 for DD vs. DI+II). The heterogeneity between studies was remarkable, and its major sources of heterogeneity were due to the year in which the study was published. No potential publication bias was observed in dominant genetic models.
These data demonstrated evidence of a positive association between ACE I/D polymorphism with PICH, and suggested that the ACE gene is a PICH susceptible gene in Asian populations.
To investigate the early determinants of overweight and obesity status at age two years.
A total of 1098 healthy neonates (563 boys and 535 girls) were involved in this community-based prospective study in China. Data on body weight and length were collected at birth, the 3rd and 24th month. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on social demography and feeding patterns of children, etc. Three multivariable logistic regression models were employed to make various comparisons of weight status, i.e., model 1 (obesity vs. non-obesity), model 2 (combined overweight and obesity vs. normal weight, and model 3 (obesity, overweight and normal weight).
Prevalences of overweight/obesity (95th >BMI ≥85th p and BMI ≥95th p, referring to WHO BMI standards) at 2 years of age are 15.8%/11.2% for boys and 12.9%/9.0% for girls, respectively. Being born with macrosomia (OR: 1.80–1.88), relatively greater BMI increment in the first 3 months (OR: 1.15–1.16) and bottle emptying by encouragement at age two (OR: 1.30–1.57) were found in all three models to be significant risk factors for higher BMI status at 2 years. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI (OR: 1.09–1.12), paternal BMI (OR: 1.06), and mixed breastfeeding (OR: 1.54–1.57) or formula feeding (OR: 1.90–1.93) in the first month were identified as significant in models 2 and 3. Child-initiated bottle emptying at age two was observed to increase the risk of obesity by 1.31 times but only in model 1.
Fetal and early postnatal growth and feeding pattern appear to have significant impacts on early childhood overweight and obesity status independent of parental BMI. Policy-based and multidisciplinary approaches to promote breastfeeding and enhancement of feeding skills of care takers may be promising intervention strategies.
An elevated red cell distribution width has been recognized as a predictor of various cardiovascular diseases. Slow coronary flow syndrome is an important angiographic clinical entity with an unknown etiology. This study aimed to examine the relationship between red cell distribution width and the presence of slow coronary flow syndrome.
In total, 185 patients with slow coronary flow syndrome and 183 age- and gender-matched subjects with normal coronary flow (controls) were prospectively enrolled in this study. Red cell distribution width and C-reactive protein were measured upon admission, and the results were compared between the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome and normal controls.
Red cell distribution width levels were significantly higher in the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome than the normal controls. Moreover, the data showed that the plasma C-reactive protein levels were also higher in the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome than in the normal controls. In addition, a multivariate analysis indicated that C-reactive protein and red cell distribution width were the independent variables most strongly associated with slow coronary flow syndrome. Finally, the red cell distribution width was positively correlated with C-reactive protein and mean thrombosis in the myocardial infarction frame counts of the patients with slow coronary flow syndrome.
The data demonstrated that red cell distribution width levels are significantly higher and strongly positively correlated with both C-reactive protein and thrombosis in the myocardial infarction frame counts of patients with slow coronary flow syndrome. These findings suggest that red cell distribution width may be a useful marker for patients with slow coronary flow syndrome.
Red Cell Distribution Width; Slow Coronary Flow Syndrome; C-Reactive Protein; Biomarker; Inflammation
Nowadays, treatments for cholestasis remain largely nonspecific and often ineffective. Recent studies showed that inflammatory injuries and oxidative stress occur in the liver with cholestasis. In this study, we would use corilagin to treat the animal model of acute cholestasis in order to define the activity to interfere with inflammation-related and oxidative stress pathway in cholestatic pathogenesis.
Rats were administrated with alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate to establish model of cholestasis and divided into corilagin, ursodeoxycholic acid, dexamethasone, model and normal groups with treatment of related agent. At 24h, 48h and 72h time points after administration, living condition, serum markers of liver damage, pathological changes of hepatic tissue, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO) were examined and observed.
Compared to model group, corilagin had remarkable effect on living condition, pathological manifestation of liver tissue, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, (P<0.01), but no effect on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). With corilagin intervention, levels of MPO, MDA and translocation of NF-κB were notably decreased, and levels of SOD and NO were markedly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
It is shown that corilagin is a potential component to relieve cholestasis through inflammation-related and oxidation-related pathway.
In this study, we proposed a generic speckle simulation for optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal, by convolving the point spread function (PSF) of the OCT system with the numerically synthesized random sample field. We validated our model and used the simulation method to study the statistical properties of cross-correlation coefficients (XCC) between Ascans which have been recently applied in transverse motion analysis by our group. The results of simulation show that over sampling is essential for accurate motion tracking; exponential decay of OCT signal leads to an under estimate of motion which can be corrected; lateral heterogeneity of sample leads to an over estimate of motion for a few pixels corresponding to the structural boundary.
The risk of ischemic stroke increases substantially with age, making it the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the world. Numerous studies demonstrated that genes, RNAs, and proteins are involved in the occurrence and development of stroke. Current studies found that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are also closely related to the pathological process of stroke. miRNAs are a group of short, noncoding RNA molecules playing important role in posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression and they have emerged as regulators of ischemic preconditioning and ischemic postconditioning. Here we give an overview of the expression and function of miRNAs in the brain, miRNAs as biomarkers during cerebral ischemia, and clinical applications and limitations of miRNAs. Future prospects of miRNAs are also discussed.
The pathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been recently advanced, while it is still challenged with high morbidity and poor prognosis. Infliximab, a monoclonal antibody of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), has emerged as an efficient treatment with many clinical benefits such as quick disease activity reduction and IBD patient life quality improvement. However, the biological effects of infliximab on IBD need to be elucidated. This paper reviewed the clinical use and recently advanced biological action of infliximab on IBD. By forming the stable complex with the soluble or the membrane form of TNF in fluid environment or on cell surface of immune cell, fibroblast, endothelium, and epithelium, infliximab quenches TNF activity and performs the important biological actions which lead to amelioration and remission of immune responses. The mechanisms of infliximab treatment for IBD were intensively discussed. The recent advances on two topics including predictors and side effects of infliximab treatment were also reviewed.
The Macleaya spp., including Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa, are traditional anti-virus, inflammation eliminating, and insecticide herb medicines for their isoquinoline alkaloids. They are also known as the basis of the popular natural animal food addictive in Europe. However, few studies especially at genomics level were conducted on them. Hence, we performed the Macleaya spp. transcriptome and integrated it with iTRAQ proteome analysis in order to identify potential genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis.
Methodology and Principal Findings
We elaborately designed the transcriptome, proteome and metabolism profiling for 10 samples of both species to explore their alkaloids biosynthesis. From the transcriptome data, we obtained 69367 and 78255 unigenes for M. cordata and M. microcarpa, in which about two thirds of them were similar to sequences in public databases. By metabolism profiling, reverse patterns for alkaloids sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, and allocryptopine were observed in different organs of two species. We characterized the expressions of enzymes in alkaloid biosynthesis pathways. We also identified more than 1000 proteins from iTRAQ proteome data. Our results strongly suggest that the root maybe the organ for major alkaloids biosynthesis of Macleaya spp. Except for biosynthesis, the alkaloids storage and transport were also important for their accumulation. The ultrastructure of laticifers by SEM helps us to prove the alkaloids maybe accumulated in the mature roots.
To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of Macleaya spp. This work provides clues to the identification of the potential modulate genes involved in alkaloids biosynthesis in Macleaya spp., and sheds light on researches for non-model medicinal plants by integrating different high-throughput technologies.
Background and aims: Synchronous liver metastasis (SLM) remains a significant problem in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC). The system of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Met plays an important role in cancer invasion and metastasis and is being developed to be targeted drugs. We aimed to investigate the role of HGF/Met in SLM based on a case-matched study and comparison between primary tumors and matched metastases.
Methods: A group of 30 patients with SLM and other two groups of patients without SLM in a hospital database were collected. They were matched into according to clinicopathological factors. 81 patients were included in the study. Their tissues of primary colorectal cancers, lymph nodes and liver metastases were collected to detect HGF and Met expression by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR.
Results: Expression of HGF and Met at the protein level and the RNA level in primary CRCs with SLM were significantly higher than that in primary colorectal carcinomas without liver metastases (all P value<0.05). Their expression was only related to SLM when concurrent with regional lymph node metastasis (all P value<0.05) but had little influence on SLM without involvement of lymph node metastasis (all P value>0.05). Comparison their expression between primary tumors and matched metastases, major concordance and minor difference existed.
Conclusions: HGF and Met may exert functions in the development of SLM when concurrent with lymph node metastases but had little influence on SLM without lymph node metastasis, further indicating their roles and potential values for a subtype of colorectal cancer metastasis. Major concordance and minor difference exist between primary tumors and matched metastases, which further provides evidence for evaluating the response to their inhibitors based on primary tumors or metastases.
colorectal carcinoma; synchronous liver metastasis; hepatocyte growth factor; Met.
Background: The difference of inflammatory response between the pathogenesis of cerebral large- and small vessel disease after stroke remains unclear. In present study, we aim to determine the association of circulating inflammatory markers with different stroke subtype.
Methods: 99 patients with non-cardioembolic stroke were divided into large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small-artery occlusion (SAO) according to TOAST classification. A panel of plasma inflammatory markers including leukocyte, lymphocyte, CRP, fibrinogen, D-dimer, CD40L, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17 and TNF-α were measured within 72 hours following cerebral ischemia. The relation of their levels in plasma with stroke subtype was further studied. All statistical data analysis was performed by SPSS 17.0 software.
Results: We found that only CRP were closely associated with stroke subtype (p<0.05). Compared to SAO subgroup, the plasma levels of CRP was higher in LAA subgroup (p<0.05). The predictive efficiency of CRP more than 3.2 for LAA was 85.7% sensitivity. The influencing factor of CRP includes IL-6, lymphocyte, fibrinogen and D-dimer.
Conclusion: LAA had a stronger activation of inflammation than SAO in the pathogenesis, which was associated with the changes of CRP.
CRP; Cytokine; Inflammation; Stroke subtype
AIM: To investigate the associations between interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-1RN polymorphisms and gastric cancers among the Tibet, Hui and Han ethnicities.
METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood of 210, 205, and 202 healthy volunteers and from 155, 158, and 197 gastric cancer patients from the Tibet, Hui, and Han populations, respectively. Polymorphisms in IL-1B and IL-1RN were analyzed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: Carriers of the IL-1B-31 CC genotype had an increased risk of intestinal type gastric cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 2.17, P = 0.037] in the Tibet ethnicity. Carriers of the IL-1B 2/L genotype had an increased risk of both intestinal and diffuse types of gastric cancer (OR = 2.08, 2.31, P = 0.007, 0.016, respectively) in the Hui ethnicity. In the Han population, carriers of the IL-1B-31 CC, IL-1B-511CT, TT genotypes had increased risk of intestinal type gastric cancer (OR = 2.51, 2.74, 5.66, P = 0.005, 0.002, 0.000, respectively).
CONCLUSION: IL-1B and IL-RN genotypes may differentially contribute to gastric cancer among the Tibet, Hui, and Han ethnicities in the Qinghai area of China.
Gastric cancer; Interleukin-1B; Interleukin-1RN; Polymorphism; Risk of gastric cancer
A variety of species and experimental designs have been used to study genetic influences on alcohol dependence, ethanol response, and related traits. Integration of these heterogeneous data can be used to produce a ranked target gene list for additional investigation.
In this study, we performed a unique multi-species evidence-based data integration using three microarray experiments in mice or humans that generated an initial alcohol dependence (AD) related genes list, human linkage and association results, and gene sets implicated in C. elegans and Drosophila. We then used permutation and false discovery rate (FDR) analyses on the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) dataset from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to evaluate the ranking results and weighting matrices. We found one weighting score matrix could increase FDR based q-values for a list of 47 genes with a score greater than 2. Our follow up functional enrichment tests revealed these genes were primarily involved in brain responses to ethanol and neural adaptations occurring with alcoholism.
These results, along with our experimental validation of specific genes in mice, C. elegans and Drosophila, suggest that a cross-species evidence-based approach is useful to identify candidate genes contributing to alcoholism.
Previous studies revealed that curcumin is neuroprotective in diseases of the central nervous system such as cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. However, the effect of curcumin on intracerebral hemorrhage remains unclear. We, therefore, investigated the pre-clinical effect of curcumin treatment on neurological outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage, using a mouse model. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by autologous blood injection into the right basal ganglia. Curcumin (150 mg/kg) was administered 15 min after intracerebral hemorrhage. Grid walk and neurological scores were evaluated at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days post-injury. Mice were killed at 24 h or 28 days following injury, for histological examination. Evans Blue and water content in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres were measured to evaluate the extent of blood–brain barrier disruption and brain edema. Zonula occludens-1 was detected by immunostaining. In situ zymography was used to measure the localization and focal enzymatic activity of matrix metalloproteinase. Our results demonstrated that curcumin reduced brain edema, measured by alleviated water content and Evans Blue leakage at 24 h (p<0.05). Lateral ventricle measurements indicated that curcumin reduced brain tissue loss in the ipsilateral hemisphere (p<0.05). The same dose of curcumin also significantly attenuated neurological deficits at 1 and 3 days of intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.05). Immunostaining showed that tight junction continuity around the hematoma was better sustained in curcumin-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. At 24 h, the number of matrix metalloproteinase-positive cells was significantly reduced by curcumin (p<0.05). Our study suggests that curcumin ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage damage by preventing matrix metalloproteinase-mediated blood–brain barrier damage and brain edema, which might provide therapeutic potential for intracerebral hemorrhage.
Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions that are highly comorbid with each other and related phenotypes such as depression, likely due to a shared genetic basis. Fear-related behaviors in mice have long been investigated as potential models of anxiety disorders, making integration of information from both murine and human genetic data a powerful strategy for identifying potential susceptibility genes for these conditions.
We combined genome-wide association analysis of fear-related behaviours with strain distribution pattern analysis in heterogeneous stock mice to identify a preliminary list of 52 novel candidate genes. We ranked these according to three complementary sources of prior anxiety-related genetic data: (1) extant linkage and knock-out studies in mice, (2) a meta-analysis of human linkage scans, and (3) a preliminary human genomewide association study. We genotyped tagging SNPs covering the nine top-ranked regions in a two-stage association study of 1316 subjects from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders chosen for high or low genetic loading for anxiety-spectrum phenotypes (anxiety disorders, neuroticism, and major depression).
Multiple SNPs in the PPARGC1A gene demonstrated association in both stages that survived gene-wise correction for multiple testing.
Integration of genetic data across human and murine studies suggests PPARGC1A as a potential susceptibility gene for anxiety-related disorders.
anxiety disorder; depression; internalizing; candidate gene; genetic association; data integration
The G-403A polymorphism in RANTES gene may be involved in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) through increasing RANTES-mediated leukocyte trafficking and activation. However, studies investigating the relationship between G-403A polymorphism and CAD yielded contradictory and inconclusive results. In order to shed some light on these inconsistent findings, a meta analysis was performed to clarify the role of G-403A polymorphism of RANTES gene in the susceptibility of CAD.
A systemic literature search of PubMed and EMBASE was conducted from their inception to March 23, 2012, to retrieve related studies. In addition, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science was searched, authors of relevant studies were contacted, and reference lists of the included studies and their related citations in PubMed were reviewed for additional pertinent studies.
A total of 8 eligible studies were identified, with a total of 4252 CAD cases and 2150 controls. There was no evidence of significant association between G-403A polymorphism and CAD risk in any genetic model or pairwise comparisons (additive model: OR = 1.046, 95% CI = 0.883–1.239, I2 = 65.9%; recessive model: OR = 1.140, 95% CI = 0.774–1.678, I2 = 53.1%; dominant model: OR = 1.000, 95% CI = 0.820–1.21), I2 = 62.6%; AA vs GG: OR = 1.141, 95% CI = 0.734–1.773, I2 = 61.2%; GA vs GG: OR = 0.993, 95% CI = 0.800–1.232, I2 = 64.6%). Subgroup analysis and meta regression indicated that ethnicity and genotyping method accounted for the significant heterogeneity among studies. In the stratified analysis by ethnic group, G-403A polymorphism was found to be associated with increased CAD risk in Caucasian population whereas its protective role was observed in Asian population in some but not all comparisons.
Data from the current meta-analysis do not support the existence of a relationship between G-403A polymorphism and the development of CAD, and large sample size study employing unified genotyping method is needed to further evaluate the influence of G-403A polymorphism on susceptibility of CAD.
Recently, several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer which are two closely related diseases. Among those SNPs, some of them are shared by both the diseases, reflecting there is possible genetic similarity between the diseases. Here we tested the hypothesis that whether those shared SNPs are common predictor for risks or prognosis of COPD and lung cancer. Two SNPs (rs6495309 and rs1051730) located in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 3 (CHRNA3) gene were genotyped in 1511 patients with COPD, 1559 lung cancer cases and 1677 controls in southern and eastern Chinese populations. We found that the rs6495309CC and rs6495309CT/CC variant genotypes were associated with increased risks of COPD (OR = 1.32, 95% C.I. = 1.14–1.54) and lung cancer (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.31–1.87), respectively. The rs6495309CC genotype contributed to more rapid decline of annual Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in both COPD cases and controls (P<0.05), and it was associated with advanced stages of COPD (P = 0.033); the rs6495309CT/CC genotypes conferred a poor survival for lung cancer (HR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.13–1.75). The luciferase assays further showed that nicotine and other tobacco chemicals had diverse effects on the luciferase activity of the rs6495309C or T alleles. However, none of these effects were found for another SNP, rs1051730G>A. The data show a statistical association and suggest biological plausibility that the rs6495309T>C polymorphism contributed to increased risks and poor prognosis of both COPD and lung cancer.
Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) share a common risk factor in cigarette smoking and a large portion of patients with lung cancer suffer from COPD synchronously. We therefore hypothesized that COPD is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. Our aim was to investigate the intrinsic linkage of COPD (or emphysema, chronic bronchitis and asthma) and lung cancer.
The present hospital-based case-control study included 1,069 patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer and 1,132 age frequency matched cancer-free controls. The odds ratios (ORs) for the associations between each previous pulmonary disease and lung cancer were estimated with logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, family history of cancer, BMI and pack year smoking. In meta-analysis, the pooled effects of previous pulmonary diseases were analyzed with random effects models; and stratification analyses were conducted on smoking status and ethnicity.
In the case-control study, previous COPD was associated with the odds for increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00∼1.68); so were emphysema (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.03∼2.32) and chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 0.99∼1.67); while asthma was associated with odds for decreased risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.16∼0.53). These associations were more pronounced in smokers (P<.05 for all strata), but not in non-smokers. In meta-analysis, 35 studies (22,010 cases and 44,438 controls) were identified. COPD was significantly associated with the odds for increased risk of lung cancer (pooled OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.85–4.11), so were emphysema (OR = 3.02; 95% CI = 2.41–3.79) and chronic bronchitis (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.49–2.36); and these associations were more pronounced in smokers than in non-smokers (P<.001 respectively). No significant association was observed for asthma.
Previous COPD could increase the risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers.
Super-paramagnetic microbeads are widely used for cell isolation. Evaluation of the binding affinity of microbeads to cells using optical microscopy has been limited by its small scope. Here, magnetic property of microbeads was first investigated by using synchrotron radiation (SR) in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging (PCI). The cell line mouse LLC (Lewis lung carcinoma) was selected for cell adhesion studies. Targeted microbeads were prepared by attaching anti-VEGFR2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) antibody to the shell of the microbeads. The bound microbeads were found to better adhere to LLC cells than unbound ones. PCI dynamically and clearly showed the magnetization and demagnetization of microbeads in PE-50 tube. The cells incubated with different types of microbeads were imaged by PCI, which provided clear and real-time visualization of the cell isolation. Therefore, PCI might be considered as a novel and efficient tool for further cell isolation studies.
AIM: To investigate the value of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) double contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCUS) imaging for evaluation of gastric lesions.
METHODS: 2D and 3D DCUS imaging with both oral and intravenous administrations of contrast agents was used to assess gastroscopiclly-confirmed gastric lesions in 46 patients with benign and malignant diseases. Initially, liquid-based ultrasound contrast agent (Xinzhang®) was given orally at dose of 500-600 mL for conventional ultrasound examination of the gastric lesions, and then a microbubble-based contrast agent (SonoVue) was injected intravenously at dose of 1.2-2.4 mL in bolus fashion to assess the perfusion pattern of the lesions using contrast imaging modes. The parameters derived from time-intensity curves including the arrival time (AT), time to peak (TTP), peak intensity (PI) and enhanced intensity (EI) were measured on the 2D DCUS imaging. 3D DCUS of the lesions was acquired to demonstrate the value of this imaging mode.
RESULTS: There were 22 cases with benign lesions including chronic gastritis (n = 5), gastric ulcer (n = 9), gastric polyps (n = 3), gastric stromal tumors (n = 5), and 24 cases with malignant lesions including gastric cancer (n = 20), gastric cardia carcinoma (n = 3) and post-operative recurrent gastric cancer (n = 1) in the study. The oral contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) imaging of the stomach clearly demonstrated the anatomy of the stomach and morphologic features of gastric lesions. With optimal scanning window and imaging display under oral CEUS, intravenous CEUS clearly showed the perfusion of gastric lesions with various characteristic manifestations. Both 2D and 3D DCUS images clearly demonstrated normal gastric wall as a three-layer structure, from the inside out, hyperechoic mucosa, hypoechoic muscularis and hyperechoic serosa, respectively. There were statistical significant differences of AT (8.68 ± 2.06 vs 10.43 ± 2.75, P = 0.017), PI (34.64 ± 6.63 vs 29.58 ± 8.22, P = 0.023) and EI (29.72 ± 6.69 vs 22.66 ± 7.01, P = 0.001) between malignant lesions and normal gastric wall. However, no differences of AT, PI and EI between benign lesions and normal gastric wall tissue were found. 3D DCUS could intuitively display morphological features and vascularities of the lesions with multiplanar and volume views. 3D DCUS imaging provided comprehensive information complementary to 2D imaging. The crater or wellhead appearances and feeding vessels as well as distorted nourishing vasculature of gastric carcinoma were better seen with 3D imaging than 2D imaging.
CONCLUSION: DCUS imaging can simultaneously display the anatomic and perfusion features of gastric lesions. 3D DCUS can provide additional information to 2D DCUS for evaluation of gastric lesions.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography; Gastric lesions; Two-dimensional imaging; Three-dimensional imaging; Contrast media
HES/HEY genes encode a family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors with both bHLH and Orange domain. HES/HEY proteins are direct targets of the Notch signaling pathway and play an essential role in developmental decisions, such as the developments of nervous system, somitogenesis, blood vessel and heart. Despite their important functions, the origin and evolution of this HES/HEY gene family has yet to be elucidated.
Methods and Findings
In this study, we identified genes of the HES/HEY family in representative species and performed evolutionary analysis to elucidate their origin and evolutionary process. Our results showed that the HES/HEY genes only existed in metazoans and may originate from the common ancestor of metazoans. We identified HES/HEY genes in more than 10 species representing the main lineages. Combining the bHLH and Orange domain sequences, we constructed the phylogenetic trees by different methods (Bayesian, ML, NJ and ME) and classified the HES/HEY gene family into four groups. Our results indicated that this gene family had undergone three expansions, which were along with the origins of Eumetazoa, vertebrate, and teleost. Gene structure analysis revealed that the HES/HEY genes were involved in exon and/or intron loss in different species lineages. Genes of this family were duplicated in bony fishes and doubled than other vertebrates. Furthermore, we studied the teleost-specific duplications in zebrafish and investigated the expression pattern of duplicated genes in different tissues by RT-PCR. Finally, we proposed a model to show the evolution of this gene family with processes of expansion, exon/intron loss, and motif loss.
Our study revealed the evolution of HES/HEY gene family, the expression and function divergence of duplicated genes, which also provide clues for the research of Notch function in development. This study shows a model of gene family analysis with gene structure evolution and duplication.