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1.  EVER2 protein binds TRADD to promote TNF-α-induced apoptosis 
Cell Death & Disease  2013;4(2):e499-.
EVER1 and 2 confer resistance to cutaneous oncogenic human papillomavirus infections by downregulating the activating protein 1 (AP-1) signaling pathway. Defects in their expression are associated with susceptibility to epidermodysplasia verruciformis, which is characterized by persistent β-HPV infection, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) overproduction in keratinocytes and the development of skin cancers. TNF-α-induced apoptosis is a key defense strategy, preventing the persistence of the virus within cells, but the role of EVER proteins in this cell death mechanism triggered by extrinsic stimuli is unknown. We show here that EVER2 induces TNF-α- and TRAIL-dependant apoptosis. It interacts with the N-terminal domain of TRADD, impairs the recruitment of TRAF2 and RIPK1 and promotes apoptosis. The skin cancer-associated EVER2 I306 allele results in an impaired TRADD–EVER2 interaction, with lower levels of cell death following treatment with TNF-α. These data highlight a new, critical function of EVER2 in controlling cell survival in response to death stimuli.
PMCID: PMC3734840  PMID: 23429285
EVER2; TRADD; apoptosis; polymorphism
3.  Nasal airway ion transport is linked to the cystic fibrosis phenotype in adult patients 
Thorax  2004;59(11):971-976.
Background: This study was conducted to determine whether the major nasal airway ion transport abnormalities in cystic fibrosis (that is, defective cAMP regulated chloride secretion and basal sodium hyperabsorption) are related to the clinical expression of cystic fibrosis and/or to the genotype.
Methods: Nasal potential difference was measured in 79 adult patients with cystic fibrosis for whom clinical status, respiratory function, and CFTR genotype were determined.
Results: In univariate and multivariate analysis, patients with pancreatic insufficiency were more likely to have low responses to low chloride (odds ratio (OR) 8.6 (95% CI 1.3 to 58.5), p = 0.03) and isoproterenol (OR 11.2 (95% CI 1.3 to 93.9), p = 0.03) solutions. Similarly, in univariate and multivariate analysis, patients with poor respiratory function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second <50% of predicted value) were more likely to have an enhanced response to amiloride solution (OR 3.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 11.0), p = 0.02). However, there was no significant relationship between nasal potential difference and the severity of the genotype.
Conclusions: Nasal epithelial ion transport in cystic fibrosis is linked to the clinical expression of the disease. The pancreatic status appears to be mostly related to the defect in epithelial chloride secretion whereas the respiratory status is mostly related to abnormal sodium transport and the regulatory function of the CFTR protein.
PMCID: PMC1746881  PMID: 15516474
4.  Short- and Long-Term Effects of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination of Children on Penicillin Resistance 
Recent observations have shown that wide-scale vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines was associated with a reduction in invasive disease, supporting the expectation that vaccination could help reduce carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and control the spread of resistant strains. However, it is too early to assess whether these effects can be sustained in the long term. Here, we used mathematical modeling to investigate time changes in pneumococcal colonization and resistance induced by conjugate vaccination in an environment where antibiotic exposure is high and resistance is widespread. According to model predictions, vaccination induced a decrease in carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci to very low levels, typically in 10 to 15 years under epidemiologically realistic conditions. Almost simultaneously, non-vaccine-type pneumococci spread in the community. Consequently, while there was a short-term decrease in the overall carriage rate, it was followed after a few years by a renewed, although limited, increase. Vaccination with a heptavalent vaccine did not affect the extent to which antibiotic resistance was selected: in all cases, the distribution of resistance levels peaked at high levels (MIC > 2 μg/ml) after 20 years. With a vaccine optimally designed to include all serotypes currently exhibiting decreased susceptibility to penicillin G, the selection of resistance was slowed down, although not prevented. These results suggest that because of serotype replacement, the effects of vaccination observed today may not be sustained in the long term. As a consequence, vaccination alone may not be successful in controlling selection for resistance in S. pneumoniae.
PMCID: PMC415598  PMID: 15155223
5.  Bacterial Resistance to Penicillin G by Decreased Affinity of Penicillin-Binding Proteins: A Mathematical Model 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2003;9(4):411-417.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis have very similar mechanisms of resistance to penicillin G. Although penicillin resistance is now common in S. pneumoniae, it is still rare in N. meningitidis. Using a mathematical model, we studied determinants of this difference and attempted to anticipate trends in meningococcal resistance to penicillin G. The model predicted that pneumococcal resistance in a population similar to that of France might emerge after 20 years of widespread use of β-lactam antibiotics; this period may vary from 10 to 30 years. The distribution of resistance levels became bimodal with time, a pattern that has been observed worldwide. The model suggests that simple differences in the natural history of colonization, interhuman contact, and exposure to β-lactam antibiotics explain major differences in the epidemiology of resistance of S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis.
PMCID: PMC2957969  PMID: 12702219
antibiotic resistance, mathematical models, Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitidis; penicillin G, microbiology, epidemiology, selection, transmission, perspective

Results 1-5 (5)