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1.  Phenotypic and functional activation of alveolar macrophages, T lymphocytes and NK cells in patients with systemic sclerosis and primary Sjögren's syndrome. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(9):574-579.
OBJECTIVES--Attempts to differentiate between the pathogenesis of the severe pulmonary manifestations observed in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and the mild form in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) were performed by studying cell populations recovered during bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). METHODS AND RESULTS--Two-colour flow cytometric analysis of BAL fluid lymphocytes showed a similar degree of phenotypic activation (DR+) of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets and CD16+ NK cells in patients with SSc (n = 13) and pSS (n = 11) groups and healthy controls (n = 11). Alveolar macrophages expressed the CD14 antigen at significantly increased densities in patients with SSc. Alveolar macrophage activation in SSc was also suggested by increased IL-6 concentrations in neat BAL fluid and increases in macrophage production of TNF alpha and EGF in vitro. SSc patients also had increased proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils in BAL fluid. No correlations were found between any cellular subsets or cytokine levels in BAL fluid and lung status at the time of lavage in SSc or pSS patients or the subsequent course of the pulmonary function in SSc patients. CONCLUSION--It is concluded that the phenotypical activation of alveolar helper/inducer (DR+CD4+) and suppressor/cytotoxic (DR+CD8+) T lymphocytes and NK (DR+CD16+) cells is not a prerequisite for the development of lung fibrosis in SSc or bronchial hyper-responsiveness in pSS. Alveolar macrophage activation may contribute to the development of lung fibrosis in SSc.
PMCID: PMC1005408  PMID: 7979595
2.  Circadian rhythm of serum interleukin-6 in rheumatoid arthritis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1994;53(8):521-524.
OBJECTIVES--To test the hypothesis of a diurnal variation in circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory connective tissue diseases. METHODS--Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were measured at three hour intervals from 7:30 to 22:30 in 48 patients with different rheumatic diseases as well as ten healthy controls. In four of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, serum IL-6 levels were measured before and after one week of treatment with prednisolone 15-20 mg daily. RESULTS--IL-6 and TNF-alpha could not be detected in serum from healthy controls. However, serum IL-6 levels were substantially increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed a statistically significant circadian variation in levels of IL-6. Peak values appeared in the morning and low values in the afternoon and evening. In contrast, levels were low and stable in other connective tissue diseases. Levels of TNF-alpha were low in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and high in patients with other connective tissue diseases, but without circadian rhythm. After treatment with prednisolone, levels of serum IL-6 decreased significantly, but the circadian rhythm remained. CONCLUSIONS--The circadian rhythm of circulating IL-6 might correspond to the circadian rhythm of symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis. The diurnal variation of IL-6, and possibly other cytokines, might explain the conflicting results previously reported on the inter-relationship between circulating IL-6 levels and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC1005392  PMID: 7944637
3.  Response of anaemia in rheumatoid arthritis to treatment with subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1992;51(6):747-752.
Eleven patients with chronic inflammatory arthritides and haemoglobin concentrations less than 105 g/l with symptoms from their anaemia were treated with a dose of 250 IU/kg/week of recombinant human erythropoietin for six weeks. The treatment was given as subcutaneous injections five days a week. All patients had active inflammatory disease. Nine patients responded to treatment with an increase in haemoglobin of more than 15 g/l. The mean (SD) haemoglobin concentration increased from 93.0 (8.0) g/l before treatment to 115.0 (12.0) g/l after six weeks. There was no correlation between the initial serum concentration of erythropoietin and the response. It was concluded that anaemia in chronic inflammatory arthritides responds to treatment with subcutaneous injections of recombinant human erythropoietin.
PMCID: PMC1004739  PMID: 1616357
4.  Deposition of eosinophil cationic protein in vascular lesions in temporal arteritis. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(12):946-949.
The possible role of the eosinophil and its cytotoxic granule proteins in the vascular lesions seen in temporal arteritis was elucidated. Sixteen sections of biopsy specimens from arteria temporalis showing giant cell arteritis were stained for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) by polyclonal antibodies and the immunoperoxidase method. Activated eosinophils were identified by monoclonal antibodies linked to alkaline phosphatase. Activated eosinophils and secreted ECP were seen in all layers of the inflamed vessels and were most evident in necrotic lesions and thrombi. Only a small number of granulocytes seen in the adventitia were immunoreactive for cathepsin G, and no extracellular deposits of this neutrophil granule protein were seen. A few immunoreactive eosinophils were found in the adventitia in two of five negative temporal artery biopsy specimens from patients with polymyalgia rheumatica. All eight coronary artery biopsy specimens with atherosclerotic lesions showed no activated eosinophils or secreted ECP. These findings indicate that eosinophils are involved in the vascular lesion in temporal arteritis and suggest that cytotoxic eosinophil granule proteins may contribute to the necrotic lesions and the development of thrombi.
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PMCID: PMC1004589  PMID: 1768167
5.  Neutrophil function in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome: relation to infection propensity. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(10):685-690.
The function of neutrophils was studied in 23 consecutive patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and in 35 healthy controls. Nineteen patients (83%) had extraglandular symptoms and nine patients (39%) had recurrent bacterial infections. The patients had a marked reduction of neutrophil adherence, especially those with recurrent bacterial infections, and reduced opsonic activity of plasma. Increased random migration of isolated neutrophils was found in the patients with a propensity for bacterial infections. Chemotaxis and chemokinesis, phagocytosis, chemiluminescence production, and the intracellular neutrophil contents of lactoferrin and lysozyme were normal. The various aspects of neutrophil function tested in this study were not related to disease duration or to inflammatory disease activity. The impaired neutrophil adherence may play a part in the increased propensity for bacterial infections seen in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1004531  PMID: 1958091
6.  Hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate in synovial fluid from patients with inflammatory arthritides. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1991;50(10):669-672.
As nucleotide catabolism increases during tissue injury the appearance of purine metabolites in inflamed synovial fluid might be of value in understanding the joint damage in inflammatory arthritides. In this study, therefore, synovial and plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate in 16 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (three with psoriatic arthropathy) were analysed. It was found that their plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine were greater than those of a reference group of healthy subjects. The synovial fluid concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, and urate were higher than corresponding concentrations in plasma. Positive correlations were found between the respective plasma and synovial fluid values of xanthine and urate. These findings indicate a local enhanced purine metabolism in inflamed joint tissue and diffusion of oxypurines from joint cavity to plasma. No relation was found between measured metabolites and disease duration, radiological joint findings, or synovial fluid cells. Except for a weak correlation between plasma urate and serum haptoglobin, measured purine metabolites were not related to laboratory measures of systemic inflammation.
PMCID: PMC1004526  PMID: 1958086
7.  Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. 
The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine inhalation in a consecutive series of 21 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome was studied prospectively. Slight to severe BHR was seen in 12/20 (60%) of the patients. Ten of 12 patients with BHR (83%) had a non-productive cough, wheezing, or intermittent breathlessness. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was more common in patients with extraglandular symptoms (10/14, 71%) than in those with only glandular symptoms (29%). Spirometrically 29% (6/21) of the patients had 'small airways' disease', and all those had BHR. Of 6/21 (29%) who had diffuse interstitial lung disease, two had BHR. Three of the four patients with obstructive lung function were challenged with methacholine and two of them had BHR. Only two patients with BHR had normal spirometry findings. The data showed that respiratory disease--mostly mild or moderate but even severe bronchial hyperresponsiveness--is commonly seen in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1004322  PMID: 1994866

Results 1-7 (7)