In this work, a very facile one-pot hydrothermal synthesis approach has been developed for the preparation of ultrathin magnetite nanoplates. The hydrothermal procedure was performed by aging ferrous hydroxide under anaerobic conditions, which is known as Schikorr reaction. Ethylene glycol (EG), which was introduced to the reaction as another solvent, played a critical role in the formation process of these nanoplates. Typically, hexagonal Fe3O4 nanoplates with a thickness of 10 to 15 nm and a side length of 150 to 200 nm have been synthesized with EG/H2O = 1:1 in experiments. Our data suggest that the thickness of Fe3O4 nanoplates decreases, and the shape of the nanoplate becomes more irregular when the concentration of EG increases. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoplates were highly crystallized single crystals and exhibited large coercivity and specific absorption rate coefficient.
Magnetite nanoplates; Schikorr reaction; Ethylene glycol; Ferrous hydroxide
To fabricate high-strength diatomite-based ceramics for dental applications, the layer-by-layer technique was used to coat diatomite particles with cationic [poly(allylamine hydrochloride)] and anionic [poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)] polymers to improve the dispersion and adsorption of positively charged nano-ZrO2 (zirconia) as a reinforcing agent. The modified diatomite particles had reduced particle size, narrower size distribution, and were well dispersed, with good adsorption of nano-ZrO2. To determine the optimum addition levels for nano-ZrO2, ceramics containing 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 wt% nano-ZrO2 were sintered and characterized by the three-point bending test and microhardness test. In addition to scanning electron microscopy, propagation phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to examine the internal structure of the ceramics. The addition of 30 wt% nano-ZrO2 resulted in the highest flexural strength and fracture toughness with reduced porosity. Shear bond strength between the core and veneer of our diatomite ceramics and the most widely used dental ceramics were compared; the shear bond strength value for the diatomite-based ceramics was found to be significantly higher than for other groups (P < 0.05). Our results show that diatomite-based nanocomposite ceramics are good potential candidates for ceramic-based dental materials.
layer-by-layer; diatomite; nanoceramics; zirconia (ZrO2); dental materials
To investigate the effect of ferritin protein overexpression on superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle labeling of C6 rat glioma cells, and track the labeled cells in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Materials and Methods
A plasmid of H-chain of murine ferritin gene was constructed and transfected into C6 cells. The parental and the transfected C6 cells labeled with SPIO were bilaterally inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice. The mice were imaged by multiple T2-weighted MR scans after C6 cell inoculation. The mice were killed 2 weeks later, and the concentration of iron in the tumor tissue was measured by inductively coupled plasma.
The iron concentration in xenografts derived from SPIO-labeled C6 cells that were transfected with ferritin plasmid was significantly higher than that in xenografts from parental C6 cells that were labeled with SPIO but not transfected (p=0.034, N=5). Ferritin-transfected C6 cells showed an improved T2 contrast in vivo compared with parental cells labeled with SPIO but not transfected.
Coordinating ferritin with SPIO can lead to a longer MRI cellular tracking period.
Ferritin reporter; Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particle; Cell tracking; MRI
Compared with other diagnostic methods, ultrasound is proven to be a safe, simple, non-invasive and cost-effective imaging technique, but the resolution is not comparable to that of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast-enhanced ultrasound employing microbubbles can gain a better resolution and is now widely used to diagnose a number of diseases in the clinic. For the last decade, microbubbles have been widely used as ultrasound contrast agents, drug delivery systems and nucleic acid transfection tools. However, microbubbles are not fairly stable enough in some conditions and are not well administrated distributed in the circulation system. On the other hand, magnetic nanoparticles, as MRI contrast agents, can non-specifically penetrate into normal tissues because of their relatively small sizes. By taking advantage of these two kinds of agents, the magnetic microbubbles which couple magnetic iron oxides nanoparticles in the microbubble structure have been explored. The stability of microbubbles can be raised by encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles into the bubble shells and with the guidance of magnetic field, magnetic microbubbles can be delivered to regions of interest, and after appropriate ultrasound exposure, the nanoparticles can be released to the desired area while the magnetic microbubbles collapse. In this review, we summarize magnetic microbubbles used in diagnostic and therapeutic fields, and predict the potential applications of magnetic microbubbles in the future.
Magnetic microbubble; Dual-modality imaging; Drug delivery system; Molecular imaging.
This study sought to map the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and symptom variables onto the EQ-5D.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult US residents with self-reported sleep problems. Respondents provided demographic, comorbidity, and sleep-related information and had completed the ISI and the EQ-5D profile. Respondents were classified into ISI categories indicating no, threshold, moderate, or severe insomnia. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to map the ISI's 7 items (Model I), summary scores (Model II), clinical categories (Model III), and insomnia symptoms (Model IV), onto the EQ-5D. We used 50% of the sample for estimation and 50% for prediction. Prediction accuracy was assessed by mean squared errors (MSEs) and mean absolute errors (MAEs).
Mean (standard deviation) sleep duration for respondents (N = 2,842) was 7.8 (1.9) hours, and mean ISI score was 14.1 (4.8). Mean predicted EQ-5D utility was 0.765 (0.08) from Models I-III, which overlapped with observed utilities 0.765 (0.18). Predicted utility using insomnia symptoms was higher (0.771(0.07)). Based on Model I, predicted utilities increased linearly with improving ISI (0.493 if ISI = 28 vs. 1.00 if ISI = 0, p < 0.01). From Model II, each unit decrease in ISI summary score was associated with a 0.022 (p < 0.001) increase in utility. Predicted utilities were 0.868, 0.809, 0.722, and 0.579, respectively, for the 4 clinical categories, suggesting that lower utility was related to greater insomnia severity. The symptom model (Model IV) indicated a concave sleep-duration function of the EQ-5D; thus, utilities diminished after an optimal amount of sleep. The MSEs/MAEs were substantially lower when predicting EQ-5D > 0.40, and results were comparable in all models.
Findings suggest that mapping relationships between the EQ-5D and insomnia measures could be established. These relationships may be used to estimate insomnia-related treatment effects on health state utilities.
Insomnia; Mapping; Insomnia Severity Index; EQ-5D
The field-induced assembly of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles under alternating magnetic field of different frequency was investigated. It was found that the assembly was dependent upon the difference between colloidal relaxation time and field period. The same experiments on DMSA-coated γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited that the relaxation time may be mainly determined by the magnetic size rather than the physical size. Our results may be valuable for the knowledge of dynamic assembly of colloidal particles.
magnetic field; dynamic assembly; pattern formation; magnetic nanoparticles
An apoptotic tumor cell serves as a potential potent trigger for the initiation of naturally occurring tumor immunity. In the present study, a B16F10 tumor cell vaccine treated with mitoxantrone (MIT) was developed, and its antitumor effect on mice was evaluated. The results indicated that the B16F10 tumor cell vaccine treated with MIT alone or in combination with reserpine (RP) and verapamil (VP) for 12 h triggered apoptosis, and that the expression of CD80, the MHC II class molecule, NKG2D and its ligand were significantly increased compared to the expression levels in the control group. The tumor vaccine immunogenicity was significantly enhanced in the vaccinated mice, resulting in augmented cytotoxicity of splenocytes and NK cells as well as the splenocyte proliferative response compared to the control group mice. Notably, the mice vaccinated with the B16F10 tumor cell vaccine treated with MIT, RP and VP did not generate tumors only after 60 days into the observation, but the mice also generated a powerful immune prophylactic efficiency against the B16F10 tumor cell challenge. These findings demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the B16F10 tumor cell vaccine treated with MIT alone or in combination with RP and VP in the murine model, and suggest that an apoptotic tumor cell vaccine modeled on naturally occurring tumor immune responses in vivo may provide a safe and immunogenic tumor vaccine for potential applications in humans.
tumor vaccine; mitoxantrone; apoptotic cells; reserpine; verapamil
We examined the fiber profiles and the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα and PPARδ/β) and of the PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the plantaris muscles of 15-week-old control (WR), metabolic syndrome (CP), hypertensive (SHR), and type 2 diabetic (GK) rats. The deep regions in the muscles of SHR and GK rats exhibited lower percentages of high-oxidative type I and IIA fibers and higher percentages of low-oxidative type IIB fibers compared with WR and CP rats. The surface regions in the muscles of CP, SHR, and GK rats exhibited lower percentages of high-oxidative type IIA fibers and higher percentages of low-oxidative type IIB fibers compared with WR rats. The muscles of SHR and GK rats had lower oxidative enzyme activity compared with WR rats. The muscles of SHR rats had the lowest PPARδ/β mRNA level. In addition, the muscles of SHR and GK rats had lower PGC-1α mRNA level compared with WR and CP rats. We concluded that the plantaris muscles of rats with hypertension and type 2 diabetes have lower oxidative capacity, which is associated with the decreased level of PGC-1α mRNA.
hypertension; oxidative capacity; PGC-1α mRNA; plantaris muscle; type 2 diabetes
Combination therapy for arterial embolization hyperthermia (AEH) with arsenic
trioxide (As2O3) nanoparticles (ATONs) is a novel
treatment for solid malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate the
feasibility and therapeutic effect of AEH with As2O3
nanoparticles in a rabbit liver cancer model. The protocol was approved by
our institutional animal use committee.
In total, 60 VX2 liver-tumor-bearing rabbits were randomly
assigned to five groups (n = 12/group)
and received AEH with ATONs (Group 1), hepatic arterial embolization with
ATONs (Group 2), lipiodol (Group 3), or saline (Group 4), on day 14 after
tumor implantation. Twelve rabbits that received AEH with ATONs were
prepared for temperature measurements, and were defined as Group 5. Computed
tomography was used to measure the tumors' longest dimension, and
evaluation was performed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in
Solid Tumors. Hepatic toxicity, tumor necrosis rate, vascular endothelial
growth factor level, and microvessel density were determined. Survival rates
were measured using the Kaplan-Meier method. The therapeutic temperature
(42.5°C) was obtained in Group 5. Hepatotoxicity reactions occurred but
were transient in all groups. Tumor growth was delayed and survival was
prolonged in Group 1 (treated with AEH and ATONs). Plasma and tumor vascular
endothelial growth factor and microvessel density were significantly
inhibited in Group 1, while tumor necrosis rates were markedly enhanced
compared with those in the control groups.
ATON-based AEH is a safe and effective treatment that can be targeted at
liver tumors using the dual effects of hyperthermia and chemotherapy. This
therapy can delay tumor growth and noticeably inhibit tumor
Neuronal calcium-activated potassium channels of the BK type are activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca2+ ions. It has been suggested that these channels may play a key neuroprotective role during and after brain ischemia, but this hypothesis has so far not been tested by selective BK-channel manipulations in vivo. To elucidate the in vivo contribution of neuronal BK channels in acute focal cerebral ischemia, we performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice lacking BK channels (homozygous mice lacking the BK channel alpha subunit, BK−/−). MCAO was performed in BK−/− and WT mice for 90 minutes followed by a 7-hour-reperfusion period. Coronal 1 mm thick sections were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride to reveal the infarction area. We found that transient focal cerebral ischemia by MCAO produced larger infarct volume, more severe neurological deficits, and higher post-ischemic mortality in BK−/− mice compared to WT littermates. However, the regional cerebral blood flow was not significantly different between genotypes as measured by Laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry pre-ischemically, intra-ischemically, and post-ischemically, suggesting that the different impact of MCAO in BK−/− vs. WT was not due to vascular BK channels. Furthermore, when NMDA was injected intracerebrally in non-ischemic mice, NMDA-induced neurotoxicity was found to be larger in BK−/− mice compared to WT. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures revealed that BK channels contribute to rapid action potential repolarization, as previously found in acute slices. When these cultures were exposed to ischemia-like conditions this induced significantly more neuronal death in BK−/− than in WT cultures. These results indicate that neuronal BK channels are important for protection against ischemic brain damage.
In recent years, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF)-labeled iron nanoparticles have been synthesized and applied in a number of applications, including the labeling of human cells for monitoring the engraftment process, imaging tumors, sensoring the in vivo molecular environment surrounding nanoparticles and tracing their in vivo biodistribution. These studies demonstrate that NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles provide an efficient probe for cell labeling. Furthermore, the in vivo imaging studies show excellent performance of the NIR fluorophores. However, there is a limited selection of NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles with an optimal wavelength for imaging around 800 nm, where tissue autofluorescence is minimal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop additional alternative NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles for application in this area.
This study manufactured 12-nm DMSA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW (excitation/emission, 774/789 nm), to investigate their applicability in cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The mouse macrophage RAW264.7 was labeled with IRDye800CW-labeled Fe3O4 nanoparticles at concentrations of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 μg/ml for 24 h. The results revealed that the cells were efficiently labeled by the nanoparticles, without any significant effect on cell viability. The nanoparticles were injected into the mouse via the tail vein, at dosages of 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight, and the mouse was discontinuously imaged for 24 h. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles gradually accumulated in liver and kidney regions following injection, reaching maximum concentrations at 6 h post-injection, following which they were gradually removed from these regions. After tracing the nanoparticles throughout the body it was revealed that they mainly distributed in three organs, the liver, spleen and kidney. Real-time live-body imaging effectively reported the dynamic process of the biodistribution and clearance of the nanoparticles in vivo.
IRDye800CW-labeled Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide an effective probe for cell-labeling and in vivo imaging.
Insertional mutagenesis is an effective method for functional genomic studies in various organisms. It can rapidly generate easily tractable mutations. A large-scale insertional mutagenesis with the piggyBac (PB) transposon is currently performed in mice at the Institute of Developmental Biology and Molecular Medicine (IDM), Fudan University in Shanghai, China. This project is carried out via collaborations among multiple groups overseeing interconnected experimental steps and generates a large volume of experimental data continuously. Therefore, the project calls for an efficient database system for recording, management, statistical analysis, and information exchange.
This paper presents a database application called MP-PBmice (insertional mutation mapping system of PB Mutagenesis Information Center), which is developed to serve the on-going large-scale PB insertional mutagenesis project. A lightweight enterprise-level development framework Struts-Spring-Hibernate is used here to ensure constructive and flexible support to the application. The MP-PBmice database system has three major features: strict access-control, efficient workflow control, and good expandability. It supports the collaboration among different groups that enter data and exchange information on daily basis, and is capable of providing real time progress reports for the whole project. MP-PBmice can be easily adapted for other large-scale insertional mutation mapping projects and the source code of this software is freely available at http://www.idmshanghai.cn/PBmice.
MP-PBmice is a web-based application for large-scale insertional mutation mapping onto the mouse genome, implemented with the widely used framework Struts-Spring-Hibernate. This system is already in use by the on-going genome-wide PB insertional mutation mapping project at IDM, Fudan University.
Labeling of cells with nanoparticles for living detection is of interest to various biomedical applications. In this study, novel fluorescent/magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used in high-efficient cellular imaging. The nanoparticles coated with the modified chitosan possessed a magnetic oxide core and a covalently attached fluorescent dye. We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency in labeling cancer cells (SMMC-7721) with the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited a high affinity to cells, which was demonstrated by flow cytometry and magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that cell-labeling efficiency of the nanoparticles was dependent on the incubation time and nanoparticles’ concentration. The minimum detected number of labeled cells was around 104 by using a clinical 1.5-T MRI imager. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy instruments were used to monitor the localization patterns of the magnetic nanoparticles in cells. These new magneto-fluorescent nanoagents have demonstrated the potential for future medical use.
Magnetic nanoparticle; Fluorescence; Chitosan; Magnetic resonance imaging
Labeling of cells with nanoparticles for living detection is of interest to various biomedical applications. In this study, novel fluorescent/magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used in high-efficient cellular imaging. The nanoparticles coated with the modified chitosan possessed a magnetic oxide core and a covalently attached fluorescent dye. We evaluated the feasibility and efficiency in labeling cancer cells (SMMC-7721) with the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles exhibited a high affinity to cells, which was demonstrated by flow cytometry and magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that cell-labeling efficiency of the nanoparticles was dependent on the incubation time and nanoparticles’ concentration. The minimum detected number of labeled cells was around 104by using a clinical 1.5-T MRI imager. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy instruments were used to monitor the localization patterns of the magnetic nanoparticles in cells. These new magneto-fluorescent nanoagents have demonstrated the potential for future medical use.
Magnetic nanoparticle; Fluorescence; Chitosan; Magnetic resonance imaging
Recently, magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3) have shown an increasing number of applications in the field of biomedicine, but some questions have been raised about the potential impact of these nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this work, the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution was designed, prepared, and characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, zeta potential analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy. Then, we have investigated the effect of the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cellular uptake of nanoparticles by SMC displays the dose, the incubation time and surface property dependent patterns. Through the thin section TEM images, we observe that DMSA-Fe2O3 is incorporated into the lysosome of SMCs. The magnetic nanoparticles have no inflammation impact, but decrease the viability of SMCs. The other questions about metabolism and other impacts will be the next subject of further studies.
Magnetic nanoparticles; Iron oxide; Smooth muscle cells; Cellular uptake; Viability
Recently, magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe3O4, γ-Fe2O3) have shown an increasing number of applications in the field of biomedicine, but some questions have been raised about the potential impact of these nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this work, the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution was designed, prepared, and characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, zeta potential analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy. Then, we have investigated the effect of the three types of magnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-Fe2O3, APTS-Fe2O3, and GLU-Fe2O3) on smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Cellular uptake of nanoparticles by SMC displays the dose, the incubation time and surface property dependent patterns. Through the thin section TEM images, we observe that DMSA-Fe2O3is incorporated into the lysosome of SMCs. The magnetic nanoparticles have no inflammation impact, but decrease the viability of SMCs. The other questions about metabolism and other impacts will be the next subject of further studies.
Magnetic nanoparticles; Iron oxide; Smooth muscle cells; Cellular uptake; Viability
DNA transposon piggyBac (PB) is a newly established mutagen for large-scale mutagenesis in mice. We have designed and implemented an integrated database system called PBmice (PB Mutagenesis Information CEnter) for storing, retrieving and displaying the information derived from PB insertions (INSERTs) in the mouse genome. This system is centered on INSERTs with information including their genomic locations and flanking genomic sequences, the expression levels of the hit genes, and the expression patterns of the trapped genes if a trapping vector was used. It also archives mouse phenotyping data linked to INSERTs, and allows users to conduct quick and advanced searches for genotypic and phenotypic information relevant to a particular or a set of INSERT(s). Sequence-based information can be cross-referenced with other genomic databases such as Ensembl, BLAST and GBrowse tools used in PBmice offer enhanced search and display for additional information relevant to INSERTs. The total number and genomic distribution of PB INSERTs, as well as the availability of each PB insertional LINE can also be viewed with user-friendly interfaces. PBmice is freely available at http://www.idmshanghai.cn/PBmice or http://www.scbit.org/PBmice/.