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author:("goshen, Susan")
1.  A Phase II Trial of a Combination Herbal Supplement for Men with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer 
Background
Men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer are typically observed or treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Non-hormonal, non-toxic treatments to slow the rise of PSA are desirable. We studied a combination herbal supplement, Prostate Health Cocktail (PHC), in prostate cancer cell lines and in a population of men with BCR.
Methods
PC3, LAPC3, and LNCaP cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of PHC suspension. Men previously treated for prostate cancer with surgery, radiation, or both with rising PSA but no radiographic metastases were treated with 3 capsules of PHC daily; the primary endpoint was 50% PSA decline. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were identified using parylene membrane filters.
Results
PHC showed a strong dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect in androgen-sensitive and independent cell lines in vitro and suppression of androgen receptor expression. 40 eligible patients were enrolled in the clinical trial. Median baseline PSA was 2.8 ng/mL (1.1-84.1) and 15 men (38%) had a PSA decline on study (1%-55% reduction) ; 25 (62%) had rising PSA on study. The median duration of PSA stability was 6.4 months. Two patients had grade 2/3 transaminitis; the only other grade 2 toxicities were hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia and flatulence. There were no significant changes in testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. CTCs were identified in 19 men (47%).
Conclusion
Although the primary endpoint was not met, Prostate Health Cocktail was well tolerated and was associated with PSA declines and stabilization in a significant number of patients. This is the first report of detecting CTCs in men with BCR prostate cancer. Randomized studies are needed to better define the effect of PHC in men with BCR.
doi:10.1038/pcan.2014.37
PMCID: PMC4234307  PMID: 25245366
2.  Differential effects of RUNX2 on the androgen receptor in prostate cancer: synergistic stimulation of a gene set exemplified by SNAI2 and subsequent invasiveness 
Cancer research  2014;74(10):2857-2868.
Changes in androgen signaling during prostate carcinogenesis are associated with both inhibition of cellular differentiation and promotion of malignant phenotypes. The androgen receptor (AR)-binding transcription factor (TF) RUNX2 has been linked to prostate cancer (PCa) progression but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully defined. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide influence of RUNX2 on androgen-induced gene expression and AR DNA binding in PCa cells. RUNX2 inhibited the androgen response partly by promoting the dissociation of AR from its target genes such as the tumor suppressor NKX3-1. However, AR activity persists in the presence of RUNX2 at other AR target genes, some of which are co-operatively stimulated by androgen and RUNX2 signaling. These genes are associated with putative enhancers co-occupied by AR and RUNX2. One such gene, the invasion-promoting Snail family TF SNAI2, was co-activated by AR and RUNX2. Indeed, these two TFs together, but neither alone stimulated PCa cell invasiveness, which could be abolished by SNAI2 silencing. In support of our results, an immunohistochemical analysis of SNAI2 in archived primary PCa specimens revealed a correlation with the RUNX2 histoscore; and, simultaneous strong staining for SNAI2, RUNX2 and AR (but not any pair alone) was associated with disease recurrence. Overall, our findings suggest that AR and RUNX2 cooperate to stimulate certain invasion-promoting genes like SNAI2, which might be targeted for individualized PCa therapy.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-2003
PMCID: PMC4051204  PMID: 24648349
combinatorial transcriptional control; mRNA profiling; ChIP-seq; metastasis; invasion; recurrence
3.  Expression and Functional Role of Orphan Receptor GPR158 in Prostate Cancer Growth and Progression 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(2):e0117758.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, after lung cancer, in men from developed countries. In its early stages, primary tumor growth is dependent on androgens, thus generally can be controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eventually however, the disease progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form in need of more effective treatments. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large clan of cell surface proteins that have been implicated as therapeutic targets in PCa growth and progression. The findings reported here provide intriguing evidence of a role for the newly characterized glutamate family member GPR158 in PCa growth and progression. We found that GPR158 promotes PCa cell proliferation independent of androgen receptor (AR) functionality and that this requires its localization in the nucleus of the cell. This suggests that GPR158 acts by mechanisms different from other GPCRs. GPR158 expression is stimulated by androgens and GPR158 stimulates AR expression, implying a potential to sensitize tumors to low androgen conditions during ADT via a positive feedback loop. Further, we found GPR158 expression correlates with a neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation phenotype and promotes anchorage-independent colony formation implying a role for GPR158 in therapeutic progression and tumor formation. GPR158 expression was increased at the invading front of prostate tumors that formed in the genetically defined conditional Pten knockout mouse model, and co-localized with elevated AR expression in the cell nucleus. Kaplan-Meier analysis on a dataset from the Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer genome portal showed that increased GPR158 expression in tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival. Our findings strongly suggest that pharmaceuticals targeting GPR158 activities could represent a novel and innovative approach to the prevention and management of CRPC.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117758
PMCID: PMC4333349  PMID: 25693195
4.  Bayesian hierarchical modeling of patient subpopulations: Efficient designs of Phase II oncology clinical trials 
Clinical trials (London, England)  2013;10(5):720-734.
Background
In oncology, the treatment paradigm is shifting toward personalized medicine, where the goal is to match patients to the treatments most likely to deliver benefit. Treatment effects in various subpopulations may provide some information about treatment effects in other subpopulations.
Purpose
We compare different approaches to Phase II trial design where a new treatment is being investigated in several groups of patients. We compare considering each group in an independent trial to a single trial with hierarchical modeling of the patient groups.
Methods
We assume four patient groups with different background response rates and simulate operating characteristics of three trial designs, Simon’s Optimal Two-Stage design, a Bayesian adaptive design with frequent interim analyses, and a Bayesian adaptive design with frequent interim analyses and hierarchical modeling across patient groups.
Results
Simon’s designs are based on 10% Type I and Type II error rates. The independent Bayesian designs are tuned to have similar error rates, but may have a slightly smaller mean sample size due to more frequent interim analyses. Under the null, the mean sample size is 2–4 patients smaller. A hierarchical model across patient groups can provide additional power and a further reduction in mean sample size. Under the null, the addition of the hierarchical model decreases the mean sample size an additional 4–7 patients in each group. Under the alternative hypothesis, power is increased to at least 98% in all groups.
Limitations
Hierarchical borrowing can make finding a single group in which the treatment is promising, if there is only one, more difficult. In a scenario where the treatment is uninteresting in all but one group, power for that one group is reduced to 65%. When the drug appears promising in some groups and not in others, there is potential for borrowing to inflate the Type I error rate.
Conclusions
The Bayesian hierarchical design is more likely to correctly conclude efficacy or futility than the other two designs in many scenarios. The Bayesian hierarchical design is a strong design for addressing possibly differential effects in different groups.
doi:10.1177/1740774513497539
PMCID: PMC4319656  PMID: 23983156
5.  Refining Patient Selection for Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy before Radical Cystectomy 
The Journal of urology  2013;191(1):40-47.
Purpose
We evaluated the survival of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy to confirm the utility of existing clinical tools to identify low risk patients who could be treated with radical cystectomy alone and a high risk group most likely to benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods
We identified patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Patients were considered high risk based on the clinical presence of hydroureteronephrosis, cT3b-T4a disease, and/or histological evidence of lymphovascular invasion, micropapillary or neuroendocrine features on transurethral resection. We evaluated survival (disease specific, progression-free and overall) and rate of pathological up staging. An independent cohort of patients from another institution was used to confirm our findings.
Results
We identified 98 high risk and 199 low risk patients eligible for analysis. High risk patients exhibited decreased 5-year overall survival (47.0% vs 64.8%) and decreased disease specific (64.3% vs 83.5%) and progression-free (62.0% vs 84.1%) survival probabilities compared to low risk patients (p <0.001). Survival outcomes were confirmed in the validation subset. On final pathology 49.2% of low risk patients had disease up staged.
Conclusions
The 5-year disease specific survival of low risk patients was greater than 80%, supporting the distinction of high risk and low risk muscle invasive bladder cancer. The presence of high risk features identifies patients with a poor prognosis who are most likely to benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy, while many of those with low risk disease can undergo surgery up front with good expectations and avoid chemotherapy associated toxicity.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2013.07.061
PMCID: PMC4158919  PMID: 23911605
urinary bladder neoplasms; cystectomy; neoadjuvant therapy; risk; outcomes assessment
6.  Phase I trial of lestaurtinib for children with refractory neuroblastoma: a new approaches to neuroblastoma therapy consortium study 
Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology  2011;68(4):1057-1065.
Purpose
TrkB acts as an oncogenic kinase in a subset of human neuroblastomas. Lestaurtinib, a multi-kinase inhibitor with potent activity against Trk kinases, has demonstrated activity in preclinical models of neuroblastoma.
Methods
Patients with refractory high-risk neuroblastoma received lestaurtinib twice daily for 5 days out of seven in 28-day cycles, starting at 70% of the adult recommended Phase 2 dose. Lestaurtinib dose was escalated using a 3 + 3 design. Pharmacokinetics and plasma phospho-TrkB inhibitory activity were evaluated in the first cycle.
Results
Forty-seven subjects were enrolled, and 10 dose levels explored starting at 25 mg/M2/dose BID. Forty-six subjects were evaluable for response, and 42 subjects were fully evaluable for determination of dose escalation. Asymptomatic and reversible grade 3–4 transaminase elevation was dose limiting in 4 subjects. Reversible pancreatitis (grade 2) was observed in 3 subjects after prolonged treatment at higher dose levels. Other toxicities were mild and reversible. Pharmacokinetic analyses revealed rapid drug absorption, however inter-patient variability was large. Plasma inhibition of phospho-TrkB activity was observed 1 h post-dosing at 85 mg/M2 with uniform inhibition at 120 mg/M2. There were two partial responses and nine subjects had prolonged stable disease at dose levels ≥ 5, (median: 6 cycles). A biologically effective and recommended phase 2 dose of 120 mg/M2/dose BID was established.
Conclusions
Lestaurtinib was well tolerated in patients with refractory neuroblastoma, and a dose level sufficient to inhibit TrkB activity was established. Safety and signs of activity at the higher dose levels warrant further evaluation in neuroblastoma.
doi:10.1007/s00280-011-1581-4
PMCID: PMC4238911  PMID: 21340605
Neuroblastoma; Receptor tyrosine kinase; Targeted therapy; Lestaurtinib; Signal transduction
7.  Phase I Trial of Fenretinide Delivered Orally in a Novel Organized Lipid Complex in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory Neuroblastoma: A Report from the New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy (NANT) Consortium 
Pediatric blood & cancer  2013;60(11):1801-1808.
Background
A phase I study was conducted to determine the maximum-tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics of fenretinide (4-HPR) delivered in an oral powderized lipid complex (LXS) in patients with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma.
Procedure
4-HPR/LXS powder (352 - 2210 mg/m2/day) was administered on Days 0 – 6, in 21-day courses, by standard 3+3 design.
Results
Thirty-two patients (median age = 8 years, range 3 – 27 years) enrolled with thirty evaluable for dose escalation. Prior therapies included stem cell transplantation/support (n = 26), 13-cis-retinoic acid (n = 22), 125/131I-MIBG (n = 13), and anti-GD2 antibody (n = 6). 170+ courses were delivered. Course 1 DLTs were a Grade 3 (n = 1) alkaline phosphatase at 352 mg/m2/day. Other major toxicities were Grade 4 (n = 1) alkaline phosphatases on Courses 5 and 6 at 774 mg/m2/day, and Grade 3 (n = 1) ALT/AST elevation on Course 2 at 1700 mg/m2/day. Of twenty-nine response-evaluable patients, six had stable disease (SD)(4 – 26 courses); four with marrow- or bone disease-only had complete responses (CR)(10 - 46 courses). 4-HPR plasma levels were several fold higher (P<0.05) than previously reported using capsular fenretinide. The Day 6 mean peak 4-HPR plasma level at 1700 mg/m2/day was 21 μM. An MTD was not reached.
Conclusions
4-HPR/LXS oral powder obtained higher plasma levels, with minimal toxicity and evidence of anti-tumor activity, than a previous capsule formulation. A recommended phase II schedule of 4-HPR/LXS powder is 1500 mg/m2/day, TID, on Days 0 – 6, of a 21-day course.
doi:10.1002/pbc.24643
PMCID: PMC4066886  PMID: 23813912
fenretinide; neuroblastoma; pediatric; powder; Lym-X-Sorb™
8.  Comparative performance of PET tracers in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer: a critical analysis of literature 
Positron emission tomography (PET) with a number of tracers targeted to particular biological features of cancer has been explored for the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after curative primary treatment. However, these reports are often heterogeneous in study design, patient cohorts, standards of reference for the imaging findings, data analysis, and data reporting. The aim of our study was to address these limitations by extracting and re-analyzing the PET detection data only from studies that satisfied pre-defined sets of patient selection criteria and verification standards. Our investigation analyzed the effects of 5 tracers (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), 11C-acetate (ACET), 11C- or 18F-choline (CHOL), anti-1-amino-3-18F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (FACBC), and radiolabeled ligand targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)), 2 treatment types (radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy), and whether the detected disease was local or metastatic, including lesion type (bone, lymph node, soft tissue). FDG exhibited the lowest detection rate for any suspected disease. ACET tended to be advantageous over CHOL in detecting local recurrence and lymph node lesions, even though the difference was not statistically significant. FACBC had greater likelihood of detecting local recurrence, when compared to CHOL, though this difference was not statistically significant. PSMA tended to show a higher proportion of patients with suspected disease compared to the other four tracers. Patients treated with radiation therapy had greater odds of displaying local recurrence on PET than those treated with radical prostatectomy. We also provide suggestions for future investigations that facilitate communication and the impact of the findings.
PMCID: PMC4171844  PMID: 25250207
PET; prostate; cancer; biochemical; recurrence
9.  CRITICAL ROLE OF STAT3 IN IL-6-MEDIATED DRUG RESISTANCE IN HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA 
Cancer research  2013;73(13):3852-3864.
Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in cancer. Here we have evaluated the role of STAT3 in environment-mediated drug resistance (EMDR) in human neuroblastoma. We determined that STAT3 was not constitutively active in most neuroblastoma cell lines but was rapidly activated upon treatment with interleukin-6 (IL-6) alone and in combination with the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with IL-6 protected them from drug-induced apoptosis in a STAT3-dependent manner because the protective effect of IL-6 was abrogated in the presence of a STAT3 inhibitor and upon STAT3 knockdown. STAT3 was necessary for the upregulation of several survival factors such as survivin (BIRC5) and Bcl-xL (BCL2L1) when cells were exposed to IL-6. Importantly, IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation was enhanced by sIL-6R produced by human monocytes, pointing to an important function of monocytes in promoting IL-6-mediated EMDR. Our data also point to the presence of reciprocal activation of STAT3 between tumor cells and bone marrow stromal cells including not only monocytes but also Treg cells and non-myeloid stromal cells. Thus, the data identify an IL-6/sIL-6R/STAT3 interactive pathway between neuroblastoma cells and their microenvironment that contributes to drug resistance.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-2353
PMCID: PMC3740971  PMID: 23633489
Interleukin-6; STAT3; drug resistance; neuroblastoma; tumor microenvironment
10.  A phase I trial of oxaliplatin in combination with docetaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors 
The primary objective of this trial was to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 preceded by escalating doses of docetaxel 60 mg/m2 (75, 90, 100 mg/m2) administered every 3 weeks. A total of 11 patients were entered; 10 evaluable for response: 4 stable disease (liver, ovary and esophagus) and 1 partial remission (esophagus). At dose level 1, there was 1 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) (grade 3 allergic reaction). At dose level 2, there were 3 DLTs (3 grade 4 neutropenia, grade 3 gastritis, diarrhea, hypophosphatemia, neuro-mood). The MTD is docetaxel 60 mg/m2 with oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2.
doi:10.1007/s00280-013-2171-4
PMCID: PMC3779138  PMID: 23712328
Phase I; Oxaliplatin; Docetaxel; Oxaliplatin and Docetaxel
11.  Membrane-Bound TRAIL Supplements Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity Against Neuroblastoma Cells 
Neuroblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to death induced by soluble, recombinant forms of TRAIL (CD253/TNFSF10) due to low or absent expression of caspase-8 and/or TRAIL-receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2/DR5/CD262/TNFRSF10b). However, their sensitivity to membrane-bound TRAIL on natural killer (NK) cells is not known. Comparing microarray gene expression and response to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, we observed a correlation between TRAIL-R2 expression and the sensitivity of fourteen neuroblastoma cell lines to the cytotoxicity of NK cells activated with IL-2 plus IL-15. Even though most NK cytotoxicity was dependent upon perforin, the cytotoxicity was supplemented by TRAIL in fourteen of seventeen (82%) neuroblastoma cell lines as demonstrated using an anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody. Similarly, a recently developed NK cell expansion system employing IL-2 plus lethally irradiated K562 feeder cells constitutively expressing membrane-bound IL-21 (K562 clone 9.mbIL21) resulted in activated NK cells derived from normal healthy donors and neuroblastoma patients that also utilized TRAIL to supplement cytotoxicity. Exogenous IFNγ up-regulated expression of caspase-8 in three of four neuroblastoma cell lines and increased the contribution of TRAIL to NK cytotoxicity against two of the three lines; however, relatively little inhibition of cytotoxicity was observed when activated NK cells were treated with an anti-IFNγ neutralizing antibody. Constraining the binding of anti-TRAIL neutralizing antibody to membrane-bound TRAIL but not soluble TRAIL indicated that membrane-bound TRAIL alone was responsible for essentially all of the supplemental cytotoxicity. Together, these findings support a role for membrane-bound TRAIL in the cytotoxicity of NK cells against neuroblastoma cells.
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e31829b4493
PMCID: PMC4064791  PMID: 23719242
Neuroblastoma; TRAIL; Natural killer cells; Cytotoxicity
12.  Non-specific filtering of beta-distributed data 
BMC Bioinformatics  2014;15:199.
Background
Non-specific feature selection is a dimension reduction procedure performed prior to cluster analysis of high dimensional molecular data. Not all measured features are expected to show biological variation, so only the most varying are selected for analysis. In DNA methylation studies, DNA methylation is measured as a proportion, bounded between 0 and 1, with variance a function of the mean. Filtering on standard deviation biases the selection of probes to those with mean values near 0.5. We explore the effect this has on clustering, and develop alternate filter methods that utilize a variance stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data and do not share this bias.
Results
We compared results for 11 different non-specific filters on eight Infinium HumanMethylation data sets, selected to span a variety of biological conditions. We found that for data sets having a small fraction of samples showing abnormal methylation of a subset of normally unmethylated CpGs, a characteristic of the CpG island methylator phenotype in cancer, a novel filter statistic that utilized a variance-stabilizing transformation for Beta distributed data outperformed the common filter of using standard deviation of the DNA methylation proportion, or its log-transformed M-value, in its ability to detect the cancer subtype in a cluster analysis. However, the standard deviation filter always performed among the best for distinguishing subgroups of normal tissue. The novel filter and standard deviation filter tended to favour features in different genome contexts; for the same data set, the novel filter always selected more features from CpG island promoters and the standard deviation filter always selected more features from non-CpG island intergenic regions. Interestingly, despite selecting largely non-overlapping sets of features, the two filters did find sample subsets that overlapped for some real data sets.
Conclusions
We found two different filter statistics that tended to prioritize features with different characteristics, each performed well for identifying clusters of cancer and non-cancer tissue, and identifying a cancer CpG island hypermethylation phenotype. Since cluster analysis is for discovery, we would suggest trying both filters on any new data sets, evaluating the overlap of features selected and clusters discovered.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-15-199
PMCID: PMC4230495  PMID: 24943962
13.  Probable fatal drug interaction between intravenous fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen: a case report from a New Approaches to Neuroblastoma (NANT) Phase I study 
BMC Research Notes  2014;7:256.
Background
Patients with relapsed/refractory stage 4 high-risk neuroblastoma were enrolled on a phase I study (NANT2004-03) of intravenous fenretinide emulsion. Pharmacokinetic samples were collected during and after the infusion, and the levels were measured using an HPLC system. A likely case of a fatal drug interaction between fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen is described, including the pharmacokinetics of fenretinide, laboratory data, and post-mortem autopsy in a pediatric neuroblastoma patient treated on this study.
Case presentation
On Day 4 of a scheduled 5-day-infusion of intravenous fenretinide, the patient developed a fever, acetaminophen was started, ceftriaxone initiated for possible bacteremia, and fenretinide level doubled from 56 to 110 μM. Over the next three days, although blood cultures remained negative, the patient’s condition deteriorated rapidly. Acute liver failure was diagnosed on Day 7, and the patient expired on Day 20 of fulminant hepatic failure with associated renal, cardiac, and hemorrhagic/coagulation toxicities. Autopsy showed extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of the liver, marked bile duct proliferation, and abundant hemosiderin, consistent with cholestasis and drug toxicity.
Conclusions
After extensive review of patient data, the clinical course, and the literature, we conclude that observed hepatic toxicity was likely due to a drug interaction between fenretinide and concomitant ceftriaxone and acetaminophen. None of the other 16 patients treated on this study experienced significant hepatic toxicity. Although the prevalence of cholestasis with ceftriaxone usage is relatively high, the potential drug interaction with these concomitant medications has not been previously reported. Concomitant use of fenretinide, ceftriaxone, and acetaminophen should be avoided.
doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-256
PMCID: PMC4006848  PMID: 24755475
Ceftriaxone; Fenretinide; Acetaminophen; Drug interaction; Biliary sludge; Fulminant hepatic failure
14.  Combination of Molecular Alterations and Smoking Intensity Predicts Bladder Cancer Outcome: A Report from the Los Angeles Cancer Surveillance Program 
Cancer  2013;119(4):756-765.
Background
Traditional single-marker and multimarker molecular profiling approaches in bladder cancer do not account for major risk factors and their influence on clinical outcome. This study examined the prognostic value of molecular alterations across all disease stages after accounting for clinicopathological factors and smoking, the most common risk factor for bladder cancer in the developed world, in a population-based cohort.
Methods
Primary bladder tumors from 212 cancer registry patients (median follow-up, 13.2 years) were immunohistochemically profiled for Bax, caspase-3, Apaf-1, Bcl-2, p53, p21, cyclooxygenase-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and E-cadherin alterations. “Smoking intensity” quantified the impact of duration and daily frequency of smoking.
Results
Age, pathological stage, surgical modality, and adjuvant therapy administration were significantly associated with survival. Increasing smoking intensity was independently associated with worse outcome (P<0.001). Apaf-1, E-cadherin and p53 were prognostic for outcome (P=0.005, 0.014 and 0.032, respectively); E-cadherin remained prognostic following multivariable analysis (P=0.040). Combined alterations in all nine biomarkers were prognostic by univariable (P<0.001) and multivariable (P=0.006) analysis. A multivariable model that included all nine biomarkers and smoking intensity had greater accuracy in predicting prognosis than models comprising of standard clinicopathological covariates without or with smoking intensity (P<0.001 and P=0.018, respectively).
Conclusions
Apaf-1, E-cadherin and p53 alterations individually predicted survival in bladder cancer patients. Increasing number of biomarker alterations was significantly associated with worsening survival, although markers comprising the panel were not necessarily prognostic individually. Predictive value of the nine-biomarker panel with smoking intensity was significantly higher than that of routine clinicopathological parameters alone.
doi:10.1002/cncr.27763
PMCID: PMC3565093  PMID: 23319010
15.  Baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT Parameters as Imaging Biomarkers of Overall Survival in Castrate-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer 
The aim of this prospective investigation was to assess the association of parameters derived from baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT with overall survival (OS) in men with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer.
Methods
Eighty-seven men with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT and were followed prospectively for OS. Median follow-up in patients who were alive was 22.2 mo (range, 1.6–62.5 mo). OS was defined as the time between the PET/CT imaging or the start of chemotherapy, whichever was later, and death, with patients who were alive censored at the last follow-up date. PET parameters included maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the most active lesion, sum of SUVmax, and average SUVmax of all metabolically active lesions, after subtraction of patient-specific background-liver average SUV. Comparison of OS was based on univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses of continuous PET parameters adjusted for standard clinical parameters (age, serum prostate-specific antigen level, alkaline phosphatase, use of pain medication, prior chemotherapy, and Gleason score at initial diagnosis). Survival curves based on Kaplan–Meier estimates are presented.
Results
Among the 87 patients, 61 were dead at the time of last follow-up. Median OS was 16.5 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.1–23.4 mo), and the OS probability at 24 mo was 39% ± 6%. For the univariate analysis, the hazard ratios associated with each unit increase were 1.01 (95% CI, 1.006–1.02) for sum of SUVmax (P = 0.002), 1.11 (95% CI, 1.03–1.18) for maximum SUVmax (P = 0.010), and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.99–1.30) for average SUVmax (P = 0.095). For the multivariable analysis adjusting for relevant clinical parameters, the continuous parameter sum of SUVmax remained significant (P = 0.053), with a hazard ratio of 1.01 (95% CI, 1.001–1.02). When sum of SUVmax was grouped into quartile ranges, there was poorer survival probability for the patients in the fourth-quartile range than for those in the first-quartile range, with a univariate hazard ratio of 3.8 (95% CI, 1.8–7.9).
Conclusion
Sum of SUVmax derived from 18F-FDG PET/CT contributes independent prognostic information on OS in men with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer, and this information may be useful in assessing the comparative effectiveness of various conventional and emerging treatment strategies.
doi:10.2967/jnumed.112.114116
PMCID: PMC3783857  PMID: 23785174
18F-FDG; prostate; cancer; castrate-resistant; survival
16.  A phase II study of halichondrin B analogue eribulin mesylate (E7389) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer previously treated with a taxane: a California Cancer Consortium trial 
Journal of Thoracic Oncology  2012;7(3):574-578.
Introduction
Eribulin mesylate (E7389) is an analog of halichondrin B with a unique mechanism of microtubule binding. The activity and toxicity of eribulin were assessed in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with a taxane.
Methods
An open-label phase II study included patients with NSCLC previously treated with platinum and taxane-based therapy, with up to two prior cytotoxic regimens, given for metastatic disease or as adjuvant therapy. Patients were stratified by taxane-sensitivity: taxane-sensitive (TS, progression > 90 days after taxane) or taxane-resistant (TR, progression ≤ 90 days after taxane). Patients received an intravenous infusion of eribulin at 1.4 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 every 21 days. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) and secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
Results
Sixty-six patients were accrued. The ORR was 5% with a median duration of response of 7.8 months. In the TS arm, 3 out of 45 patients (7%) achieved a partial response (PR) and another 11 out of 45 (24%) achieved stable disease (SD) for at least 3 months, whereas in the TR arm, no patients achieved a PR and 4 out of 21 (19%) achieved SD for at least 3 months. Median PFS was 2.9 months in the TS subgroup and 1.2 months in the TR subgroup. The median OS was 12.6 months in the TS subgroup and 8.9 months in the TR subgroup. Toxicities were primarily hematologic; only two patients developed grade 3 neuropathy.
Conclusions
Eribulin mesylate is well tolerated and demonstrates activity in pre-treated, taxane-sensitive NSCLC.
doi:10.1097/JTO.0b013e31823f43ca
PMCID: PMC3288403  PMID: 22198425
Halichondrin B; Eribulin Mesylate; Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Taxane-Refractory; Taxane-Sensitive
17.  Phase III Study of Molecularly Targeted Adjuvant Therapy in Locally Advanced Urothelial Cancer of the Bladder Based on p53 Status  
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2011;29(25):3443-3449.
Introduction
Retrospective studies suggest that p53 alteration is prognostic for recurrence in patients with urothelial bladder cancer and predictive for benefit from combination methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) adjuvant chemotherapy.
Patients and Methods
Patients with pT1/T2N0M0 disease whose tumors demonstrated ≥ 10% nuclear reactivity on centrally performed immunohistochemistry for p53 were offered random assignment to three cycles of adjuvant MVAC versus observation; p53-negative patients were observed. By using a log-rank test with one-sided α = .05 and β = .10, 190 p53-positive patients were planned to be randomly assigned to detect an absolute improvement in probability of recurring by 3 years from 0.50 to 0.30.
Results
A total of 521 patients were registered, 499 underwent p53 assessment, 272 (55%) were positive, and 114 (42%) were randomly assigned. Accrual was halted on the basis of the data and safety monitoring board review of a futility analysis. Overall 5-year probability of recurring was 0.20 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.24) with no difference on the basis of p53 status. Only 67% of patients randomly assigned to MVAC received all three cycles with 12 patients receiving no treatment. There was no difference in recurrence in the randomly assigned patients (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.29 to 2.08; P = .62).
Conclusion
Neither the prognostic value of p53 nor the benefit of MVAC chemotherapy in patients with p53-positive tumors was confirmed, but the high patient refusal rate, lower than expected event rate, and failures to receive assigned therapy severely compromised study power.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2010.34.4028
PMCID: PMC3164246  PMID: 21810677
18.  A Phase I Study of Zoledronic Acid and Low Dose Cyclophosphamide in Recurrent/Refractory Neuroblastoma: A New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy (NANT) Study 
Pediatric blood & cancer  2010;57(2):275-282.
Background
Zoledronic acid, a bisphosphonate, delays progression of bone metastases in adult malignancies. Bone is a common metastatic site of advanced neuroblastoma. We previously reported efficacy of zoledronic acid in a murine model of neuroblastoma bone invasion prompting this Phase I trial of zoledronic acid with cyclophosphamide in children with neuroblastoma and bone metastases. The primary objective was to determine recommended dosing of zoledronic acid for future trials.
Procedure
Escalating doses of intravenous zoledronic acid were given every 28 days with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (25 mg/m2/day). Toxicity, response, zoledronic acid pharmacokinetics, bone turnover markers, serum IL-6, and sIL-6R were evaluated.
Results
Twenty-one patients, median age 7.5 (range 0.8 - 25.6) years were treated with 2 mg/m2 (n=4), 3 mg/m2 (n=3), or 4 mg/m2 (n=14) zoledronic acid. Fourteen patients were evaluable for dose escalation. A median of one (range 1-18) courses was given. Two dose limiting toxicities (Grade 3 hypophosphatemia) occurred at 4 mg/m2 zoledronic acid. Other Grade 3-4 toxicities included hypocalcemia (n=2), elevated transaminases (n=1), neutropenia (n=2), anemia (n=1), lymphopenia (n=1), and hypokalemia (n=1). Osteosclerosis contributed to fractures in one patient after 18 courses. Responses in evaluable patients included 1 partial response, 9 stable disease (median 4.5 courses, range 3-18), and 10 progressions. Zoledronic acid pharmacokinetics were similar to adults. Markers of osteoclast activity and serum IL-6 levels decreased with therapy.
Conclusions
Zoledronic acid with metronomic cyclophosphamide is well tolerated with clinical and biologic responses in recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma. The recommended dose of zoledronic acid is 4 mg/m2 every 28 days.
doi:10.1002/pbc.22821
PMCID: PMC3117015  PMID: 21671363
Phase I; neuroblastoma; bisphosphonate
19.  Prospective Evaluation of 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG PET/CT in Detection of Occult Metastatic Disease in Biochemical Recurrence of Prostate Cancer 
Clinical Nuclear Medicine  2012;37(7):637-643.
Purpose
This study aimed to perform a prospective evaluation of 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of occult metastatic disease in men with prostate cancer and biochemical relapse.
Methods
Thirty-seven men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse (median, 3.2 ng/mL; range, 0.5–40.2 ng/mL) after definitive therapy for localized prostate cancer [26 radical prostatectomy (RP), 11 external beam radiation therapy] and negative conventional imaging underwent 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF PET/CT on 2 separate days within the same week. Studies were interpreted by 2 experienced radiologists in consensus for abnormal uptake suspicious for metastatic disease. The reference standard was a combination of imaging and clinical follow-up. Rank of PSA values for positive and negative PET/CT was compared using analysis of variance adjusting for primary therapy. Association between PSA and scan positivity in patients with RP was evaluated using Wilcoxon rank sum test.
Results
Result of the 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was positive for nodal disease in 2 patients. True-positive detection rate for occult osseous metastases by 18F-NaF PET/CT was 16.2%. Median PSA levels for positive versus negative PET/CT scans were 4.4 and 2.9 ng/mL, respectively, with the difference marginally significant in prostatectomized men (P = 0.072). Percentages of patients with either 18F-NaF– or 18F-FDG–positive PET/CT in RP and external beam radiation therapy were 10% (n = 10) and undefined (n = 0) for a PSA of 2 ng/mL or less, 29% (n = 7) and 50% (n = 2) for PSA greater than 2 ng/mL but 4 ng/mL or less,60% (n = 5) and 40%(n = 5) for PSA greater than 4 ng/mL but 10 ng/mL or less, and 25% (n = 4) and 25% (n = 4) for PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, respectively.
Conclusions
In biochemical relapse of prostate cancer, 18F-NaF PET/CT is useful in the detection of occult osseous metastases, whereas the yield of 18F-FDG PET/CT is relatively limited. 18F-NaF PET/CT positivity tends to associate with increasing PSA level in prostatectomized men and may occur in lower PSA ranges than conventionally recognized.
doi:10.1097/RLU.0b013e318252d829
PMCID: PMC3375600  PMID: 22691503
18F-NaF; 18F-FDG; prostate; cancer; PSA
20.  An enhancer from the 8q24 prostate cancer risk region is sufficient to direct reporter gene expression to a subset of prostate stem-like epithelial cells in transgenic mice 
Disease Models & Mechanisms  2012;5(3):366-374.
SUMMARY
Regions in the 8q24 gene desert contribute significantly to the risk of prostate cancer and other adult cancers. This region contains several DNA regions with enhancer activity in cultured cells. One such segment, histone acetylation peak 10 (AcP10), contains a risk single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that is significantly associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal, prostate and other cancers. The mechanism by which AcP10 influences cancer risk remains unknown. Here we show that AcP10 contains a sequence that is highly conserved across terrestrial vertebrates and is capable in transgenic mice of directing reporter gene expression to a subset of prostate lumenal epithelial cells. These cells include a small population of Nkx3.1-positive cells that persist even after androgen ablation. Castration-resistant Nkx3.1-positive (CARN) cells were shown by others to function both as stem cells and cells of origin of prostate cancer. Our results thus provide a mechanism by which AcP10 could influence prostate cancer risk.
doi:10.1242/dmm.008458
PMCID: PMC3339830  PMID: 22279083
21.  A Critical Role for GRP78/BiP in the Tumor Microenvironment for Neovascularization During Tumor Growth and Metastasis 
Cancer research  2011;71(8):2848-2857.
GRP78/BiP is a multifunctional protein which plays a major role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein processing, protein quality control, maintaining ER homeostasis and controlling cell signaling and viability. Previously, using a transgene-induced mammary tumor model, we demonstrated that Grp78 heterozygosity not only impeded cancer growth through suppression of tumor cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis, the Grp78+/− mice exhibited dramatic reduction (70%) in the microvessel density (MVD) of the endogenous mammary tumors while having no effect on the MVD of normal organs. This observation suggests that GRP78 may critically regulate the function of the host vasculature within the tumor microenvironment. In this report, we interrogated the role of GRP78 in the tumor microenvironment. In mouse tumor models where wild-type, syngeneic mammary tumor cells were injected into the host, we showed that Grp78+/− mice suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis during the early but not late phase of tumor growth. Growth of metastatic lesions of wild-type, syngeneic melanoma cells in the Grp78+/− mice was potently suppressed. We created conditional heterozygous knockout of GRP78 in the host endothelial cells and demonstrated severe reduction of tumor angiogenesis and metastatic growth with minimal effect on normal tissue MVD. Furthermore, knockdown of GRP78 expression in immortalized human endothelial cells demonstrated that GRP78 is a critical mediator of angiogenesis by regulating cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Our findings suggest that concomitant use of current chemotherapeutic agents and novel therapies against GRP78 may offer a powerful dual approach to arrest cancer initiation, progression and metastasis.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3151
PMCID: PMC3078191  PMID: 21467168
GRP78; tumor angiogenesis; conditional knockout; mouse model; metastatic growth; endothelial cells
22.  GRP78 as potential predictor for breast cancer response to adjuvant taxane therapy 
Few predictive markers exist for response to adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. The 78-kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is a potent anti-apoptotic factor, conferring drug resistance. Recently, we reported that high GRP78 expression in breast cancer specimens predict a shorter recurrence-free survival in patients who received doxorubicin-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Interestingly, the opposite effect was observed in 25 patients who additionally received a taxane. To confirm this potentially paradigm shifting finding, we investigated whether GRP78 is associated with recurrence-free survival in an independent cohort of taxane-treated breast cancer patients. Immunohistochemical staining of GRP78 was performed on archival paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tumor specimens obtained from 48 female breast cancer patients before chemotherapy treatment. These patients received doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, followed by paclitaxel or docetaxel on a clinical trial. GRP78 expression level was evaluated by a pathologist, masked to all clinical and outcome data. Association between GRP78 expression and recurrence-free survival was evaluated. GRP78 positivity predicts a better recurrence-free survival, independent of other prognostic factors [hazard ratio (HR) for moderate positivity: 0.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.087–1.83); HR for strong positivity: 0.16 (95% CI: 0.018–1.50); Ptrend=0.053]. In a pooled analysis with the previous 25 patients, almost identical HRs were obtained with Ptrend=0.024. This provides further evidence that GRP78 is a potential independent predictor for response to taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
doi:10.1002/ijc.25370
PMCID: PMC2972376  PMID: 20473863
23.  Thyroid and Hepatic Function After High Dose 131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) Therapy for Neuroblastoma 
Pediatric blood & cancer  2010;56(2):191-201.
Background
131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) provides targeted radiotherapy for children with neuroblastoma, a malignancy of the sympathetic nervous system. Dissociated radioactive iodide may concentrate in the thyroid, and MIBG is concentrated in the liver after MIBG therapy. The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of 131I-MIBG therapy on thyroid and liver function.
Procedure
Pre and post therapy thyroid and liver functions were reviewed in a total of 194 neuroblastoma patients treated with 131I-MIBG therapy. The cumulative incidence over time was estimated for both thyroid and liver toxicities. The relationship to cumulative dose/kg, number of treatments, time from treatment to follow-up, sex, and patient age was examined.
Results
In patients who presented with Grade 0 or Grade 1 thyroid toxicity at baseline, 12±4% experienced onset or worsening to Grade 2 hypothyroidism and one patient developed Grade 2 hyperthyroidism by two years after 131I-MIBG therapy. At two years post 131I-MIBG therapy, 76±4% patients experienced onset or worsening of hepatic toxicity to any grade, and 23±5% experienced onset of or worsening to Grade 3 or 4 liver toxicity. Liver toxicity usually was transient asymptomatic transaminase elevation, frequently confounded by disease progression and other therapies.
Conclusion
The prophylactic regimen of potassium iodide and potassium perchlorate with 131I-MIBG therapy resulted in a low rate of significant hypothyroidism. Liver abnormalities following 131I-MIBG therapy were primarily reversible and did not result in late toxicity. 131I-MIBG therapy is a promising treatment for children with relapsed neuroblastoma with a relatively low rate of symptomatic thyroid or hepatic dysfunction.
doi:10.1002/pbc.22767
PMCID: PMC3006009  PMID: 20830775
Neuroblastoma; 131I-MIBG; Hypothyroidism
24.  Genome-Scale Screen for DNA Methylation-Based Detection Markers for Ovarian Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(12):e28141.
Background
The identification of sensitive biomarkers for the detection of ovarian cancer is of high clinical relevance for early detection and/or monitoring of disease recurrence. We developed a systematic multi-step biomarker discovery and verification strategy to identify candidate DNA methylation markers for the blood-based detection of ovarian cancer.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We used the Illumina Infinium platform to analyze the DNA methylation status of 27,578 CpG sites in 41 ovarian tumors. We employed a marker selection strategy that emphasized sensitivity by requiring consistency of methylation across tumors, while achieving specificity by excluding markers with methylation in control leukocyte or serum DNA. Our verification strategy involved testing the ability of identified markers to monitor disease burden in serially collected serum samples from ovarian cancer patients who had undergone surgical tumor resection compared to CA-125 levels.
We identified one marker, IFFO1 promoter methylation (IFFO1-M), that is frequently methylated in ovarian tumors and that is rarely detected in the blood of normal controls. When tested in 127 serially collected sera from ovarian cancer patients, IFFO1-M showed post-resection kinetics significantly correlated with serum CA-125 measurements in six out of 16 patients.
Conclusions/Significance
We implemented an effective marker screening and verification strategy, leading to the identification of IFFO1-M as a blood-based candidate marker for sensitive detection of ovarian cancer. Serum levels of IFFO1-M displayed post-resection kinetics consistent with a reflection of disease burden. We anticipate that IFFO1-M and other candidate markers emerging from this marker development pipeline may provide disease detection capabilities that complement existing biomarkers.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028141
PMCID: PMC3233546  PMID: 22163280
25.  Hypertension, diuretics and antihypertensives in relation to bladder cancer 
Carcinogenesis  2010;31(11):1964-1971.
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between hypertension, hypertension medication and bladder cancer risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in Los Angeles. Non-Asians between the ages of 25 and 64 years with histologically confirmed bladder cancers diagnosed between 1987 and 1996 were identified through the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program. A total of 1585 cases and their age-, gender- and race-matched neighborhood controls were included in the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between history of hypertension, medication use and bladder cancer risk. A history of hypertension was not related to bladder cancer; however, among hypertensive individuals, there was a significant difference in bladder cancer risk related to the use of diuretics or antihypertensive drugs (P for heterogeneity = 0.004). Compared with individuals without hypertension, hypertensive individuals who regularly used diuretics/antihypertensives had a similar risk [odds ratio (OR) 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86–1.30], whereas untreated hypertensive subjects had a 35% reduction in risk (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48–0.88). A greater reduction in bladder cancer risk was observed among current-smokers (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.27–0.71) and carriers of GSTM1-null (homozygous absence) genotypes (OR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22–0.85). Similarly, among smokers with GSTM1-null genotype, levels of 4-aminobiphenyl-hemoglobin adducts were significantly lower among untreated hypertensive individuals (45.7 pg/g Hb) compared with individuals without hypertension (79.8 pg/g Hb) (P = 0.009). In conclusion, untreated hypertension was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgq173
PMCID: PMC2966553  PMID: 20732908

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