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1.  Effect of Age and Vaccination With a Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine on the Density of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage 
This study evaluated the impact of age and pneumococcal vaccination on the density of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage. Among colonized individuals, density decreased with increasing age. Time-trends analysis revealed that pneumococcal vaccination appeared to lower the density of nasopharyngeal carriage.
Background. This study evaluated the impact of age and pneumococcal vaccination on the density of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage.
Methods. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted in rural Gambia. In 11 villages (the vaccine group), all residents received 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7), while in another 10 villages (the control group), only children <30 months old or born during the study period received PCV-7. Cross-sectional surveys (CSSs) were conducted to collect nasopharyngeal swabs before vaccination (baseline CSS) and 4, 12, and 22 months after vaccination. Pneumococcal density was defined using a semiquantitative classification (range, 1–4) among colonized individuals. An age-trend analysis of density was conducted using data from the baseline CSS. Mean pneumococcal density was compared in CSSs conducted before and after vaccination.
Results. Mean bacterial density among colonized individuals in the baseline CSS was 2.57 for vaccine-type (VT) and non–vaccine-type (NVT) pneumococci; it decreased with age (P < .001 for VT and NVT). There was a decrease in the density of VT carriage following vaccination in individuals older than 5 years (from 2.44 to 1.88; P = .001) and in younger individuals (from 2.57 to 2.11; P = .070) in the vaccinated villages. Similar decreases in density were observed with NVT within vaccinated and control villages. No significant differences were found between vaccinated and control villages in the postvaccination comparisons for either VT or NVT.
Conclusions. A high density of carriage among young subjects might partly explain why children are more efficient than adults in pneumococcal transmission. PCV-7 vaccination lowered the density of VT and of NVT pneumococcal carriage in the before-after vaccination analysis.
Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN51695599.
doi:10.1093/cid/cis554
PMCID: PMC3423933  PMID: 22700830
2.  Trial of Chloramphenicol for Meningitis in Northern Savanna of Africa 
British Medical Journal  1973;3(5876):379-381.
In a controlled trial chloramphenicol proved as effective and much cheaper than penicillin for the treatment of group A meningococcal meningitis in Zaria, Nigeria. A short course of five days cured most patients. Adults and older children were soon able to take chloramphenicol by mouth, which reduced the cost and simplified treatment.
It is suggested that chloramphenicol is a suitable alternative to sulphonamides for the treatment of meningococcal meningitis in those parts of Africa where the organism is sulphonamide-resistant.
PMCID: PMC1586699  PMID: 4199744
3.  Amodiaquine Dosage and Tolerability for Intermittent Preventive Treatment To Prevent Malaria in Children ▿ †  
Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with amodiaquine (SP-AQ) is a highly efficacious regimen for intermittent preventive treatment to prevent malaria in children (IPTc), but the amodiaquine component is not always well tolerated. We determined the association between amodiaquine dosage by body weight and mild adverse events (AEs) and investigated whether alternative age-based regimens could improve dosing accuracy and tolerability, using data from two trials of IPTc in Senegal, one in which AQ dose was determined by age and the other in which it was determined by weight category. Both dosage strategies resulted in some children receiving AQ doses above the recommended therapeutic range. The odds of vomiting increased with increasing amodiaquine dosage. In one study, incidence of fever also increased with increasing dosage. Anthropometric data from 1,956 children were used to predict the dosing accuracy of existing and optimal alternative regimens. Logistic regression models describing the probability of AEs by dosage were used to predict the potential reductions in mild AEs for each regimen. Simple amendments to current AQ dosing schedules based on the child's age could substantially increase dosing accuracy and thus improve the tolerability of IPTc using SP-amodiaquine in situations where weighing the child is impractical.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01161-09
PMCID: PMC2825997  PMID: 20065053
4.  Allergic Complications of Meningococcal Disease I—Clinical Aspects 
British Medical Journal  1973;2(5869):733-737.
Out of 717 patients with meningococcal disease 53 showed one or more of the three allergic complications: 47 (6·6%) developed arthritis, 12 (1·7%) developed cutaneous vasculitis, and 6 developed episcleritis. These complications, which were often multiple, occurred six to nine days after the beginning of the illness and three to six days after the start of successful antibiotic therapy. Those patients with severe systemic disease were prone to the complications.
Histological and bacteriological study of the arthritis and vasculitis showed that these lesions were probably not due to persisting infection and suggested that they might be due to immune complex disease.
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PMCID: PMC1589774  PMID: 4268766
7.  Immunodiagnosis of Snake Bite 
British Medical Journal  1974;4(5947):743-745.
Management of a patient with snake bite is influenced by the nature of the offending snake. Species diagnosis based on the patient's history and physical signs is often unreliable and the possibility of making a species diagnosis by immunological means has therefore been investigated. Wound aspirates, blister fluids, sera, and urine samples from patients with snake bite were examined for the presence of species-specific venoms using immunodiffusion. A positive species diagnosis was made in 40 out of 101 patients. Immunodiagnosis was especially successful in patients bitten by the puff adder, Bitis arietans, and the African spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis. A higher success rate could probably be achieved using more specific antisera and more sensitive assay techniques.
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PMCID: PMC1612756  PMID: 4216390
8.  Bites by the Saw-scaled or Carpet Viper (Echis carinatus): Trial of Two Specific Antivenoms 
British Medical Journal  1974;4(5942):437-440.
Echis carinatus is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality from snake bite in Nigeria and in many other parts of the world. Forty-six patients with systemic poisoning by this snake were given echis antivenom made either by the South African Institute for Medical Research (S.A.I.M.R.) or by Behringwerke (North and West African polyvalent antivenom). A simple test of blood coagulability was used to assess whether an adequate neutralizing dose of antivenom had been given. An average of 15·2 ml S.A.I.M.R. antivenom restored normal coagulability permanently in all 23 patients in one group, but in the other group receiving an average dose of 37·9 ml Behringwerke antivenom normal clotting resulted in only 18 out of 23 patients. Local tissue swelling was similar in both groups, but local necrosis occurred in three patients treated with Behringwerke antivenom and in none given S.A.I.M.R. antivenom.
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PMCID: PMC1612524  PMID: 4154124
9.  Allergic Complications of Meningococcal Disease II—Immunological Investigations 
British Medical Journal  1973;2(5869):737-740.
Immunological investigation of four patients with meningococcal meningitis who developed arthritis or cutaneous lesions showed circulating meningococcal antigen at the time of presentation in each patient. It was cleared from the circulation over the next few days. Circulating antibody was detectable in three of the four patients about a week after the onset of the illness. A marked fall in the serum C3 level occurred in two patients at about that time. Deposits of meningococcal antigen, immunoglobulin, and C3 were detected in the synovial fluid white cells of the two patients studied and in one of three skin biopsies examined. These findings suggest that the arthritis and cutaneous lesions of meningococcal meningitis may be due to immune complex formation.
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PMCID: PMC1589813  PMID: 4268767
10.  Meningococcal antibody titres in infants of women immunised with meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine during pregnancy. 
Seventy five Gambian women were immunised with a single dose of a group A+group C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine during the last trimester of pregnancy. IgG antibody titres were measured in mothers and in their infants by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All women had a good response to vaccination and maternal antibodies were high at the time of delivery (23.2 micrograms/ml for group A antibodies and 14.3 micrograms/ml for group C antibodies). However, only a proportion of this antibody crossed the placenta; cord blood:maternal antibody ratios were 30% for group A antibody and 44% for group C antibody, respectively. Considerable variability in cord blood:maternal blood ratios was seen between individuals. This could not be related to age, parity, or ethnic group. Mean group A and group C cord blood:maternal blood ratios were lower in women with serological evidence of syphilis than in seronegative women, and diminished transfer of group A antibody was noted in women with active malarial infection of the placenta. Antibody titres declined rapidly in infants and by the age of 3-4 months these had reached control values. Maternal immunisation may give infants some protection against group A and group C meningococcal disease but only during the first few months of life.
PMCID: PMC2528317  PMID: 8653435
11.  The effect of temperature reduction on respiratory rate in febrile illnesses. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1993;68(4):492-495.
A raised respiratory rate is a useful sign in the diagnosis of pneumonia in children. It was observed that children with malaria and other febrile illnesses may also present with a raised respiratory rate. To determine the extent to which increased body temperature contributes to the raised respiratory rate observed in these children the effect of change in body temperature on respiratory rate was measured in 186 sick Gambian children with a raised respiratory rate, including those with pneumonia or malaria. A temperature dependent effect on respiratory rate of 3.7 breaths per minute per degree centigrade was demonstrated for the whole study cohort, with no significant difference between children with pneumonia or malaria. Twenty three per cent of children with pneumonia whose temperature fell had a final respiratory rate below that currently recommended by the World Health Organisation for the diagnosis of pneumonia. It is concluded that respiratory rate is to some extent dependent on body temperature in children with febrile illnesses such as pneumonia and malaria, but that this does not alone account for the raised respiratory rate seen in these children. The effect of reduction in body temperature on respiratory rate does not help to distinguish children with pneumonia from those with malaria. A history of recent use of an antipyretic or other measures to control fever is important when evaluating children for possible pneumonia.
PMCID: PMC1029272  PMID: 8503674
12.  Optimization of a rapid nonisotopic DNA probe assay for Plasmodium falciparum in the Gambia. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(7):1517-1519.
An enzyme-linked synthetic DNA probe which hybridizes to repetitive DNA of Plasmodium falciparum was used in conjunction with a microtiter-based lysis and filtration blood processing procedure. An assay protocol was developed that is more sensitive and robust than previous protocols, which use stored blood and phenol extraction. In comparison with thick smear examination, 33% positive, 60% negative, and 7% conflicting scores were recorded from 390 analyzed clinical samples, and the sensitivity threshold was about 30 parasites per mm3 of blood.
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PMCID: PMC270145  PMID: 1885747
13.  Helicobacter pylori in Gambian children with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1990;65(2):189-191.
Infection with Helicobacter pylori (formerly Campylobacter pylori) was studied by measuring antibody titres to H pylori in Gambian children. Serological evidence of infection was found in 12 of 82 (15%) infants aged less than 20 months; this increased to 62 of 135 (46%) in those aged 40-60 months. Positive serology was found in 41 of 77 (53%) infants with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition (mean age 19 months, range 5-36) compared with 18 of 70 (26%) of age matched healthy controls and nearly a quarter (12/49, 24%) of age matched undernourished (marasmic) subjects. These data show that infection with H pylori is common in the Gambia and that in infancy this infection is associated with chronic diarrhoea and malnutrition.
PMCID: PMC1792228  PMID: 2317065
14.  Latex agglutination test for diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia in children in developing countries. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1989;298(6680):1061-1064.
OBJECTIVE--To prepare and assess the sensitivity and specificity of a latex agglutination test specific for the serotype of antigen in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia in Gambian children. DESIGN--Comparison of agglutination test specific for serotype with culture of blood and lung aspirates, countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis, and commercial latex agglutination tests in diagnosing pneumococcal pneumonia. Cross reaction studies and investigation of 102 control children to determine specificity of agglutination test specific for serotype. SETTING--General medical ward of Medical Research Council laboratories, The Gambia. PATIENTS--101 Gambian children aged between 2 months and 10 years admitted with severe pneumonia. INTERVENTIONS--Serum samples were boiled and treated with edetic acid, and urine samples were boiled and concentrated 25 times before testing. END POINT--A latex agglutination test specific for the serotype of pneumococcal antigen that is sensitive and highly specific for detecting pneumococcus in the urine of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Concentrated urine samples from 16 of the 21 children (76%) with pneumococcal pneumonia established by results of culture of blood or lung aspirates gave a positive result with the agglutination test specific for serotype, whereas only four of the 102 urine samples obtained from control children without pneumonia gave positive results. The serotypes of antigens detected in the urine of children with pneumococcal pneumonia and the serotypes of pneumococci isolated from cultures of blood or lung aspirates were the same in all cases. CONCLUSIONS--When performed on urine samples the agglutination test specific for serotype has a high specificity and is more sensitive than culture of blood or lung aspirates, commercial agglutination tests, or countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in identifying pneumococcal pneumonia. It is easy to use and should be especially useful in communities with limited laboratory facilities.
PMCID: PMC1836447  PMID: 2497890
15.  Human retroviral infections in The Gambia: prevalence and clinical features 
The prevalence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV 1) is lower in west Africa than in other parts of Africa. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV 2) has been isolated from west African patients and may be transmitted by heterosexual contact. The prevalence of antibodies to HIV 1 and HIV 2 was studied by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) among various groups of subjects in The Gambia, west Africa—namely, prostitutes, blood donors, patients with suspected infection with HIV, patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases, and patients with tuberculosis. Four cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) due to infection with HIV 1 were detected, of which three had been acquired abroad. No other subject was found to be positive for antibodies to HIV 1. The prevalence of antibodies to HIV 2 among the patients attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases was found to have increased from 0/117 in 1984 to 10/185 (5%) in the last six months of 1986. One out of 278 blood donors was positive for antibodies to HIV 2 as were 10 out of 80 patients with suspected AIDS.
HIV 2 seems to be transmitted sexually, and, although it has been present for only a short time, it seems to be endemic in The Gambia and is pathogenic.
PMCID: PMC2544698  PMID: 3122966
16.  Fibrin degradation products in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with pneumococcal meningitis. 
Raised levels of fibrin degradation products were found in the cerebrospinal fluid of nearly all of 35 patients with pneumococcal meningitis. The mean level was higher in patients who died subsequently than in those who survived. Cerebrospinal fluid from patients with pneumococcal meningitis showed increased fibrinolytic activity as assessed by clot lysis, suggesting local production of fibrin degradation products within the subarachnoid space.
PMCID: PMC1082975  PMID: 501385
17.  Meningococcal infection and proteolytic control. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1978;31(12):1177-1181.
Cascade enzyme inhibitors (C1-esterase inhibitor, C3b inactivator, antithrombin III) and other major proteolytic enzyme inhibitors (alpha 1 trypsin inhibitor, alpha 1 chymotrypsin inhibitor, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, alpha 2 macroglobulin) as well as C3 and alpha 1 acid glycoprotein, have been examined in the sera of Nigerian patients suffering from meningococcal infection of varied severity. Patients with meningococcaemia had lower serum concentrations of important inhibitors than did patients with localised meningitic infection. Within the coccaemic group, those who died had the lowest values, notably of antithrombin III and alpha 2 macroglobulin (and also of C3). The clinical end-result of meningococcal infection may be related to the degree of disequilibrium of the linked system of proteolytic control induced by the meningococcal endotoxin.
PMCID: PMC1145527  PMID: 85637
18.  A cerebrospinal fluid leucocidin in pyogenic meningitis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1978;31(7):688-691.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for their cytotoxicity to polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes (PMN) using a 51Cr release assay. Most samples from patients with pyogenic meningitis damaged PMN while normal CSF samples did not. No difference was found between the cytotoxic activity of CSF from patients with pneumococcal meningitis and from patients with meningococcal meningitis. It is, therefore, unlikely that a CSF leucocidin plays an important part in producing the high mortality of pneumococcal meningitis.
PMCID: PMC1145375  PMID: 670425
19.  Prevention of secondary cases of meningococcal disease in household contacts by vaccination. 
British Medical Journal  1978;1(6123):1317-1319.
Household contacts of patients with group A meningococcal infection were vaccinated with either meningococcal vaccine or tetanus toxoid. Five of the 523 subjects who received tetanus toxoid developed meningococcal meningitis and another four probably had meningococcal disease. Only one possible case of meningococcal infection occurred among 520 contacts vaccinated with meningococcal vaccine. Vaccination had no effect on nasopharyngeal carriage of meningococci. Vaccination of household contacts of patients with group A meningococcal infections is an effective way of using limited supplies of meningococcal vaccine, though its value would be limited in an epidemic. Secondary cases of meningococcal infection often occur within a few days of the index case, and, although vaccine alone seemed to provide adequate prophylaxis in these Nigerian subjects, additional chemoprophylaxis may be needed to cover this critical period.
PMCID: PMC1604678  PMID: 417754
20.  Antiglobulins in Nigerians with rheumatoid disease. 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  1975;34(2):142-145.
The levels of IgG and IgM antiglobulins in the sera of Nigerian patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, seronegative arthritis, and Reiter's syndrome have been studied using an immunosorbent of glutaraldehyde insolubilized human IgG. No conclusion could be reached in the case of IgM antiglobulins because of the relatively high threshold of detectability in the quantitation procedure, but all groups of patients had significantly higher levels of IgG antiglobulins than did a group of healthy Nigerians.
PMCID: PMC1006362  PMID: 806269
21.  Chemotactic activity of cerebrospinal fluid in pyogenic meningitis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1978;31(3):213-216.
Cerebrospinal fluid from patients with pyogenic meningitis was found to be chemotactic for polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes. No significant difference was found between the mean chemotactic activity of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from patients with pneumococcal meningitis or meningococcal meningitis. The chemotactic factor present in cerebrospinal fluid is probably a low molecular weight protein, perhaps a complement component.
PMCID: PMC1145230  PMID: 641194
22.  Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulins and complement in meningococcal meningitis. 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  1977;30(8):720-722.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) were measured in 107 patients with meningococcal meningitis. Levels were correlated significantly with CSF total protein, and both CSF immunoglobulin and protein increased with age. C3 was measured in the CSF of 38 patients and was also closely correlated with the CSF protein level. C3 breakdown products were found in all six CSFs tested. The CSF immunoglobulin and complement were thought to have leaked from the plasma due to inflammation of the meninges and had little value in diagnosis or prognosis.
PMCID: PMC476532  PMID: 599185
23.  Persistent measles infection in malnourished children. 
British Medical Journal  1977;1(6077):1633-1635.
Thirty malnourished and 25 well-nourished children were studied six to 31 days after the onset of a measles rash. Evidence of the virus was found in 40% of the malnourished children but in none of the well-nourished controls. Giant cells were found in the nasal secretions of five out of 17 malnourished children and measles antigen was detected in the lymphocytes of eight out of 28. The malnourished children showed depressed cell-mediated immunity to measles and candida antigens and a low response to meningococcal vaccine. Fifteen died from intercurrent infections. Malnutrition was thought to have depressed the immune response in these children, resulting in a severe and prolonged attack of measles. This, in turn, led to further damage to the immune system and more severe malnutrition. Thus these children were made susceptible to intercurrent infection.
PMCID: PMC1607735  PMID: 871699
24.  Lymphocytic infiltration of the brain in sleeping sickness. 
British Medical Journal  1976;2(6047):1291-1292.
Cerebrospinal fluid mononuclear cells from 40 patients with advanced Gambian sleeping sickness were examined for intracytoplasmic immunoglobulin and for B- and T-lymphocyte markers. About 5% of mononuclear cells were plasma cells. Most of the lymphocytes present were B cells. These findings suggest that the considerable lymphocytic infiltration of the nervous system seen in advanced sleeping sickness is not a cell-mediated immune reaction to trypanosomes. Immune complexes may play a part in producing the brain damage characteristic of this disease.
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PMCID: PMC1689967  PMID: 1087170

Results 1-25 (54)