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1.  Arabidopsis AIP1-2 restricted by WER-mediated patterning modulates planar polarity 
Development (Cambridge, England)  2015;142(1):151-161.
The coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) is crucial for the development of diverse multicellular organisms. Small Rac/Rho-family GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton contribute to planar polarity formation at sites of polarity establishment in animals and plants. Yet, upstream pathways coordinating planar polarity differ strikingly between kingdoms. In the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, a concentration gradient of the phytohormone auxin coordinates polar recruitment of Rho-of-plant (ROP) to sites of polar epidermal hair initiation. However, little is known about cytoskeletal components and interactions that contribute to this planar polarity or about their relation to the patterning machinery. Here, we show that ACTIN7 (ACT7) represents a main actin isoform required for planar polarity of root hair positioning, interacting with the negative modulator ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2 (AIP1-2). ACT7, AIP1-2 and their genetic interaction are required for coordinated planar polarity of ROP downstream of ethylene signalling. Strikingly, AIP1-2 displays hair cell file-enriched expression, restricted by WEREWOLF (WER)-dependent patterning and modified by ethylene and auxin action. Hence, our findings reveal AIP1-2, expressed under control of the WER-dependent patterning machinery and the ethylene signalling pathway, as a modulator of actin-mediated planar polarity.
Summary: Planar polarity in Arabidopsis is shaped by ACTIN-INTERACTING PROTEIN1-2, which is under the control of WEREWOLF-dependent patterning and ethylene signalling.
doi:10.1242/dev.111013
PMCID: PMC4299142  PMID: 25428588
AIP1; Arabidopsis; WEREWOLF; Actin; Patterning; Planar polarity
2.  Endocytosis restricts Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin to the cell division plane during late cytokinesis 
The EMBO Journal  2009;29(3):546-558.
Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check remains elusive. Here, we report that localization of the Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin in the plane of cell division is maintained by sterol-dependent endocytosis involving a clathrin- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A-dependent mechanism. On genetic or pharmacological interference with endocytosis, KNOLLE mis-localizes to lateral plasma membranes after cell-plate fusion. Fluorescence-loss-in-photo-bleaching and fluorescence-recovery-after-photo-bleaching experiments reveal lateral diffusion of GFP-KNOLLE from the plane of division to lateral membranes. In an endocytosis-defective sterol biosynthesis mutant displaying lateral KNOLLE diffusion, KNOLLE secretory trafficking remains unaffected. Thus, restriction of lateral diffusion by endocytosis may serve to maintain specificity of syntaxin localization during late cytokinesis.
doi:10.1038/emboj.2009.363
PMCID: PMC2789941  PMID: 19959995
Arabidopsis; cytokinesis; endocytosis; KNOLLE syntaxin; sterols
3.  Insight into the early steps of root hair formation revealed by the procuste1 cellulose synthase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana 
BMC Plant Biology  2008;8:57.
Background
Formation of plant root hairs originating from epidermal cells involves selection of a polar initiation site and production of an initial hair bulge which requires local cell wall loosening. In Arabidopsis the polar initiation site is located towards the basal end of epidermal cells. However little is currently understood about the mechanism for the selection of the hair initiation site or the mechanism by which localised hair outgrowth is achieved. The Arabidopsis procuste1 (prc1-1) cellulose synthase mutant was studied in order to investigate the role of the cell wall loosening during the early stages of hair formation.
Results
The prc1-1 mutant exhibits uncontrolled, preferential bulging of trichoblast cells coupled with mislocalised hair positioning. Combining the prc1-1 mutant with root hair defective6-1 (rhd6-1), which on its own is almost completely devoid of root hairs results in a significant restoration of root hair formation. The pEXPANSIN7::GFP (pEXP7::GFP) marker which is specifically expressed in trichoblast cell files of wild-type roots, is absent in the rhd6-1 mutant. However, pEXP7::GFP expression in the rhd6-1/prc1-1 double mutant is restored in a subset of epidermal cells which have either formed a root hair or exhibit a bulged phenotype consistent with a function for EXP7 during the early stages of hair formation.
Conclusion
These results show that RHD6 acts upstream of the normal cell wall loosening event which involves EXP7 expression and that in the absence of a functional RHD6 the loosening and accompanying EXP7 expression is blocked. In the prc1-1 mutant background, the requirement for RHD6 during hair initiation is reduced which may result from a weaker cell wall structure mimicking the cell wall loosening events during hair formation.
doi:10.1186/1471-2229-8-57
PMCID: PMC2396171  PMID: 18485206
4.  Functional characterization of the KNOLLE-interacting t-SNARE AtSNAP33 and its role in plant cytokinesis 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2001;155(2):239-250.
Cytokinesis requires membrane fusion during cleavage-furrow ingression in animals and cell plate formation in plants. In Arabidopsis, the Sec1 homologue KEULE (KEU) and the cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE (KN) cooperate to promote vesicle fusion in the cell division plane. Here, we characterize AtSNAP33, an Arabidopsis homologue of the t-SNARE SNAP25, that was identified as a KN interactor in a yeast two-hybrid screen. AtSNAP33 is a ubiquitously expressed membrane-associated protein that accumulated at the plasma membrane and during cell division colocalized with KN at the forming cell plate. A T-DNA insertion in the AtSNAP33 gene caused loss of AtSNAP33 function, resulting in a lethal dwarf phenotype. atsnap33 plantlets gradually developed large necrotic lesions on cotyledons and rosette leaves, resembling pathogen-induced cellular responses, and eventually died before flowering. In addition, mutant seedlings displayed cytokinetic defects, and atsnap33 in combination with the cytokinesis mutant keu was embryo lethal. Analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed two further SNAP25-like proteins that also interacted with KN in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Our results suggest that AtSNAP33, the first SNAP25 homologue characterized in plants, is involved in diverse membrane fusion processes, including cell plate formation, and that AtSNAP33 function in cytokinesis may be replaced partially by other SNAP25 homologues.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200107126
PMCID: PMC2198836  PMID: 11591731
Arabidopsis; cytokinesis; vesicle trafficking; SNARE complex; SNAP25
5.  Arabidopsis  SABRE and CLASP interact to stabilize cell division plane orientation and planar polarity 
Nature Communications  2013;4:2779.
The orientation of cell division and the coordination of cell polarity within the plane of the tissue layer (planar polarity) contribute to shape diverse multicellular organisms. The root of Arabidopsis thaliana displays regularly oriented cell divisions, cell elongation and planar polarity providing a plant model system to study these processes. Here we report that the SABRE protein, which shares similarity with proteins of unknown function throughout eukaryotes, has important roles in orienting cell division and planar polarity. SABRE localizes at the plasma membrane, endomembranes, mitotic spindle and cell plate. SABRE stabilizes the orientation of CLASP-labelled preprophase band microtubules predicting the cell division plane, and of cortical microtubules driving cell elongation. During planar polarity establishment, sabre is epistatic to clasp at directing polar membrane domains of Rho-of-plant GTPases. Our findings mechanistically link SABRE to CLASP-dependent microtubule organization, shedding new light on the function of SABRE-related proteins in eukaryotes.
Cell and planar polarity are important for the organization of cells within organisms. Pietra et al. demonstrate in Arabidopsis that the SABRE protein is important for mediating cell and planar polarity by stabilizing the orientation of microtubules during cell division and cell elongation.
doi:10.1038/ncomms3779
PMCID: PMC3868209  PMID: 24240534
6.  High lipid order of Arabidopsis cell-plate membranes mediated by sterol and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A function 
The Plant Journal  2014;80(5):745-757.
Membranes of eukaryotic cells contain high lipid-order sterol-rich domains that are thought to mediate temporal and spatial organization of cellular processes. Sterols are crucial for execution of cytokinesis, the last stage of cell division, in diverse eukaryotes. The cell plate of higher-plant cells is the membrane structure that separates daughter cells during somatic cytokinesis. Cell-plate formation in Arabidopsis relies on sterol- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A (DRP1A)-dependent endocytosis. However, functional relationships between lipid membrane order or lipid packing and endocytic machinery components during eukaryotic cytokinesis have not been elucidated. Using ratiometric live imaging of lipid order-sensitive fluorescent probes, we show that the cell plate of Arabidopsis thaliana represents a dynamic, high lipid-order membrane domain. The cell-plate lipid order was found to be sensitive to pharmacological and genetic alterations of sterol composition. Sterols co-localize with DRP1A at the cell plate, and DRP1A accumulates in detergent-resistant membrane fractions. Modifications of sterol concentration or composition reduce cell-plate membrane order and affect DRP1A localization. Strikingly, DRP1A function itself is essential for high lipid order at the cell plate. Our findings provide evidence that the cell plate represents a high lipid-order domain, and pave the way to explore potential feedback between lipid order and function of dynamin-related proteins during cytokinesis.
doi:10.1111/tpj.12674
PMCID: PMC4280860  PMID: 25234576
membrane order; sterol; cytokinesis; DRP1A; Arabidopsis

Results 1-6 (6)