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author:("glangeaud, S")
1.  Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarker Candidates Associated with Human WNV Neuroinvasive Disease 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93637.
During the last decade, the epidemiology of WNV in humans has changed in the southern regions of Europe, with high incidence of West Nile fever (WNF) cases, but also of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). The lack of human vaccine or specific treatment against WNV infection imparts a pressing need to characterize indicators associated with neurological involvement. By its intimacy with central nervous system (CNS) structures, modifications in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition could accurately reflect CNS pathological process. Until now, few studies investigated the association between imbalance of CSF elements and severity of WNV infection. The aim of the present study was to apply the iTRAQ technology in order to identify the CSF proteins whose abundances are modified in patients with WNND. Forty-seven proteins were found modified in the CSF of WNND patients as compared to control groups, and most of them are reported for the first time in the context of WNND. On the basis of their known biological functions, several of these proteins were associated with inflammatory response. Among them, Defensin-1 alpha (DEFA1), a protein reported with anti-viral effects, presented the highest increasing fold-change (FC>12). The augmentation of DEFA1 abundance in patients with WNND was confirmed at the CSF, but also in serum, compared to the control individual groups. Furthermore, the DEFA1 serum level was significantly elevated in WNND patients compared to subjects diagnosed for WNF. The present study provided the first insight into the potential CSF biomarkers associated with WNV neuroinvasion. Further investigation in larger cohorts with kinetic sampling could determine the usefulness of measuring DEFA1 as diagnostic or prognostic biomarker of detrimental WNND evolution.
PMCID: PMC3973578  PMID: 24695528
2.  Kinetic Analysis of Mouse Brain Proteome Alterations Following Chikungunya Virus Infection before and after Appearance of Clinical Symptoms 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e91397.
Recent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have been characterized by an increasing number of severe cases with atypical manifestations including neurological complications. In parallel, the risk map of CHIKV outbreaks has expanded because of improved vector competence. These features make CHIKV infection a major public health concern that requires a better understanding of the underlying physiopathological processes for the development of antiviral strategies to protect individuals from severe disease. To decipher the mechanisms of CHIKV infection in the nervous system, a kinetic analysis on the host proteome modifications in the brain of CHIKV-infected mice sampled before and after the onset of clinical symptoms was performed. The combination of 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ proteomic approaches, followed by mass spectrometry protein identification revealed 177 significantly differentially expressed proteins. This kinetic analysis revealed a dramatic down-regulation of proteins before the appearance of the clinical symptoms followed by the increased expression of most of these proteins in the acute symptomatic phase. Bioinformatic analyses of the protein datasets enabled the identification of the major biological processes that were altered during the time course of CHIKV infection, such as integrin signaling and cytoskeleton dynamics, endosome machinery and receptor recycling related to virus transport and synapse function, regulation of gene expression, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. These results reveal the putative mechanisms associated with severe CHIKV infection-mediated neurological disease and highlight the potential markers or targets that can be used to develop diagnostic and/or antiviral tools.
PMCID: PMC3949995  PMID: 24618821
3.  Correction: Altered Protein Networks and Cellular Pathways in Severe West Nile Disease in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):10.1371/annotation/a01d68f4-f23d-4c0a-a0f8-f32432b0efa7.
PMCID: PMC3855818
4.  Altered Protein Networks and Cellular Pathways in Severe West Nile Disease in Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68318.
The recent West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in developed countries, including Europe and the United States, have been associated with significantly higher neuropathology incidence and mortality rate than previously documented. The changing epidemiology, the constant risk of (re-)emergence of more virulent WNV strains, and the lack of effective human antiviral therapy or vaccines makes understanding the pathogenesis of severe disease a priority. Thus, to gain insight into the pathophysiological processes in severe WNV infection, a kinetic analysis of protein expression profiles in the brain of WNV-infected mice was conducted using samples prior to and after the onset of clinical symptoms.
Methodology/Principal Findings
To this end, 2D-DIGE and gel-free iTRAQ labeling approaches were combined, followed by protein identification by mass spectrometry. Using these quantitative proteomic approaches, a set of 148 proteins with modified abundance was identified. The bioinformatics analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) of each protein dataset originating from the different time-point comparisons revealed that four major functions were altered during the course of WNV-infection in mouse brain tissue: i) modification of cytoskeleton maintenance associated with virus circulation; ii) deregulation of the protein ubiquitination pathway; iii) modulation of the inflammatory response; and iv) alteration of neurological development and neuronal cell death. The differential regulation of selected host protein candidates as being representative of these biological processes were validated by western blotting using an original fluorescence-based method.
This study provides novel insights into the in vivo kinetic host reactions against WNV infection and the pathophysiologic processes involved, according to clinical symptoms. This work offers useful clues for anti-viral research and further evaluation of early biomarkers for the diagnosis and prevention of severe neurological disease caused by WNV.
PMCID: PMC3707916  PMID: 23874584
5.  Djeen (Database for Joomla!’s Extensible Engine): a research information management system for flexible multi-technology project administration 
BMC Research Notes  2013;6:223.
With the advance of post-genomic technologies, the need for tools to manage large scale data in biology becomes more pressing. This involves annotating and storing data securely, as well as granting permissions flexibly with several technologies (all array types, flow cytometry, proteomics) for collaborative work and data sharing. This task is not easily achieved with most systems available today.
We developed Djeen (Database for Joomla!’s Extensible Engine), a new Research Information Management System (RIMS) for collaborative projects. Djeen is a user-friendly application, designed to streamline data storage and annotation collaboratively. Its database model, kept simple, is compliant with most technologies and allows storing and managing of heterogeneous data with the same system. Advanced permissions are managed through different roles. Templates allow Minimum Information (MI) compliance.
Djeen allows managing project associated with heterogeneous data types while enforcing annotation integrity and minimum information. Projects are managed within a hierarchy and user permissions are finely-grained for each project, user and group.
Djeen Component source code (version 1.5.1) and installation documentation are available under CeCILL license from and supplementary material.
PMCID: PMC3679982  PMID: 23742665
Database; CMS; Minimum Information; RIMS
6.  Anopheles salivary gland proteomes from major malaria vectors 
BMC Genomics  2012;13:614.
Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. Such antigens could be used for quantitative (mosquito density) and qualitative (mosquito species) immunological evaluation of malaria vectors/host contact. In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined.
In silico analysis of secreted salivary gland protein sequences retrieved from an NCBInr database of six Anopheles species belonging to the Cellia subgenus (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. funestus) and Nyssorhynchus subgenus (An. albimanus and An. darlingi) displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses performed on salivary gland extracts from four Anopheles species (An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. stephensi and An. albimanus) indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance.
This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed.
PMCID: PMC3542285  PMID: 23148599
Anopheles; Salivary proteins; Sequence alignment; Biomarkers; Malaria vectors; Protein diversity
7.  Plasmodium falciparum proteome changes in response to doxycycline treatment 
Malaria Journal  2010;9:141.
The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to most anti-malarial compounds has highlighted the urgency to develop new drugs and to clarify the mechanisms of anti-malarial drugs currently used. Among them, doxycycline is used alone for malaria chemoprophylaxis or in combination with quinine or artemisinin derivatives for malaria treatment. The molecular mechanisms of doxycycline action in P. falciparum have not yet been clearly defined, particularly at the protein level.
A proteomic approach was used to analyse protein expression changes in the schizont stage of the malarial parasite P. falciparum following doxycycline treatment. A comparison of protein expression between treated and untreated protein samples was performed using two complementary proteomic approaches: two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and isobaric tagging reagents for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ).
After doxycycline treatment, 32 and 40 P. falciparum proteins were found to have significantly deregulated expression levels by 2D-DIGE and iTRAQ methods, respectively. Although some of these proteins have been already described as being deregulated by other drug treatments, numerous changes in protein levels seem to be specific to doxycycline treatment, which could perturb apicoplast metabolism. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to confirm this hypothesis.
In this study, a specific response to doxycycline treatment was distinguished and seems to involve mitochondrion and apicoplast organelles. These data provide a starting point for the elucidation of drug targets and the discovery of mechanisms of resistance to anti-malarial compounds.
PMCID: PMC2890676  PMID: 20500856
8.  TranscriptomeBrowser: A Powerful and Flexible Toolbox to Explore Productively the Transcriptional Landscape of the Gene Expression Omnibus Database 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(12):e4001.
As public microarray repositories are constantly growing, we are facing the challenge of designing strategies to provide productive access to the available data.
We used a modified version of the Markov clustering algorithm to systematically extract clusters of co-regulated genes from hundreds of microarray datasets stored in the Gene Expression Omnibus database (n = 1,484). This approach led to the definition of 18,250 transcriptional signatures (TS) that were tested for functional enrichment using the DAVID knowledgebase. Over-representation of functional terms was found in a large proportion of these TS (84%). We developed a JAVA application, TBrowser that comes with an open plug-in architecture and whose interface implements a highly sophisticated search engine supporting several Boolean operators ( User can search and analyze TS containing a list of identifiers (gene symbols or AffyIDs) or associated with a set of functional terms.
As proof of principle, TBrowser was used to define breast cancer cell specific genes and to detect chromosomal abnormalities in tumors. Finally, taking advantage of our large collection of transcriptional signatures, we constructed a comprehensive map that summarizes gene-gene co-regulations observed through all the experiments performed on HGU133A Affymetrix platform. We provide evidences that this map can extend our knowledge of cellular signaling pathways.
PMCID: PMC2602602  PMID: 19104654
9.  Entropy Measures Quantify Global Splicing Disorders in Cancer 
PLoS Computational Biology  2008;4(3):e1000011.
Most mammalian genes are able to express several splice variants in a phenomenon known as alternative splicing. Serious alterations of alternative splicing occur in cancer tissues, leading to expression of multiple aberrant splice forms. Most studies of alternative splicing defects have focused on the identification of cancer-specific splice variants as potential therapeutic targets. Here, we examine instead the bulk of non-specific transcript isoforms and analyze their level of disorder using a measure of uncertainty called Shannon's entropy. We compare isoform expression entropy in normal and cancer tissues from the same anatomical site for different classes of transcript variations: alternative splicing, polyadenylation, and transcription initiation. Whereas alternative initiation and polyadenylation show no significant gain or loss of entropy between normal and cancer tissues, alternative splicing shows highly significant entropy gains for 13 of the 27 cancers studied. This entropy gain is characterized by a flattening in the expression profile of normal isoforms and is correlated to the level of estimated cellular proliferation in the cancer tissue. Interestingly, the genes that present the highest entropy gain are enriched in splicing factors. We provide here the first quantitative estimate of splicing disruption in cancer. The expression of normal splice variants is widely and significantly disrupted in at least half of the cancers studied. We postulate that such splicing disorders may develop in part from splicing alteration in key splice factors, which in turn significantly impact multiple target genes.
Author Summary
RNA splicing is the process by which gene products are pieced together to form a mature messenger RNA (mRNA). In normal cells, RNA splicing is a tightly controlled process that leads to production of a well-defined set of mRNAs. Cancer cells, however, often produce aberrant, mis-spliced mRNAs. Such disorders have not been quantified to date. To this end, we use a well-known measure of disorder called Shannon's entropy. We show that overall splicing disorders are highly significant in many cancers, and that the extent of disorder may be correlated to the level of cell proliferation in each tumor. Surprisingly, genes that control the splicing mechanism are unusually frequent among genes affected by splicing disorders. This suggests that cancer cells may withstand harmful chain reactions in which splicing defects in key regulatory genes would in turn cause extensive splicing damage. As mis-spliced mRNAs are widely studied for cancer diagnosis, awareness of these global disorders is important to distinguish reliable cancer markers from background noise.
PMCID: PMC2268240  PMID: 18369415
10.  MicroArray Facility: a laboratory information management system with extended support for Nylon based technologies 
BMC Genomics  2006;7:240.
High throughput gene expression profiling (GEP) is becoming a routine technique in life science laboratories. With experimental designs that repeatedly span thousands of genes and hundreds of samples, relying on a dedicated database infrastructure is no longer an option.
GEP technology is a fast moving target, with new approaches constantly broadening the field diversity. This technology heterogeneity, compounded by the informatics complexity of GEP databases, means that software developments have so far focused on mainstream techniques, leaving less typical yet established techniques such as Nylon microarrays at best partially supported.
MAF (MicroArray Facility) is the laboratory database system we have developed for managing the design, production and hybridization of spotted microarrays. Although it can support the widely used glass microarrays and oligo-chips, MAF was designed with the specific idiosyncrasies of Nylon based microarrays in mind. Notably single channel radioactive probes, microarray stripping and reuse, vector control hybridizations and spike-in controls are all natively supported by the software suite. MicroArray Facility is MIAME supportive and dynamically provides feedback on missing annotations to help users estimate effective MIAME compliance. Genomic data such as clone identifiers and gene symbols are also directly annotated by MAF software using standard public resources. The MAGE-ML data format is implemented for full data export. Journalized database operations (audit tracking), data anonymization, material traceability and user/project level confidentiality policies are also managed by MAF.
MicroArray Facility is a complete data management system for microarray producers and end-users. Particular care has been devoted to adequately model Nylon based microarrays. The MAF system, developed and implemented in both private and academic environments, has proved a robust solution for shared facilities and industry service providers alike.
PMCID: PMC1592093  PMID: 16987406
12.  Genomic organization and the tissue distribution of alternatively spliced isoforms of the mouse Spatial gene 
BMC Genomics  2004;5:41.
The stromal component of the thymic microenvironment is critical for T lymphocyte generation. Thymocyte differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated stromal genes controlling thymocyte survival, lineage commitment and selection. The "Stromal Protein Associated with Thymii And Lymph-node" (Spatial) gene encodes a putative transcription factor which may be involved in T-cell development. In the testis, the Spatial gene is also expressed by round spermatids during spermatogenesis.
The Spatial gene maps to the B3-B4 region of murine chromosome 10 corresponding to the human syntenic region 10q22.1. The mouse Spatial genomic DNA is organised into 10 exons and is alternatively spliced to generate two short isoforms (Spatial-α and -γ) and two other long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε) comprising 5 additional exons on the 3' site. Here, we report the cloning of a new short isoform, Spatial-β, which differs from other isoforms by an additional alternative exon of 69 bases. This new exon encodes an interesting proline-rich signature that could confer to the 34 kDa Spatial-β protein a particular function. By quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR, we have shown that the short isoforms are highly expressed in the thymus while the long isoforms are highly expressed in the testis. We further examined the inter-species conservation of Spatial between several mammals and identified that the protein which is rich in proline and positive amino acids, is highly conserved.
The Spatial gene generates at least five alternative spliced variants: three short isoforms (Spatial-α, -β and -γ) highly expressed in the thymus and two long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε) highly expressed in the testis. These alternative spliced variants could have a tissue specific function.
PMCID: PMC481062  PMID: 15236666
13.  Feature extraction and signal processing for nylon DNA microarrays 
BMC Genomics  2004;5:38.
High-density DNA microarrays require automatic feature extraction methodologies and softwares. These can be a potential source of non-reproducibility of gene expression measurements. Variation in feature location or in signal integration methodology may be a significant contribution to the observed variance in gene expression levels.
We explore sources of variability in feature extraction from DNA microarrays on Nylon membrane with radioactive detection. We introduce a mathematical model of the signal emission and derive methods for correcting biases such as overshining, saturation or variation in probe amount. We also provide a quality metric which can be used qualitatively to flag weak or untrusted signals or quantitatively to modulate the weight of each experiment or gene in higher level analyses (clustering or discriminant analysis).
Our novel feature extraction methodology, based on a mathematical model of the radioactive emission, reduces variability due to saturation, neighbourhood effects and variable probe amount. Furthermore, we provide a fully automatic feature extraction software, BZScan, which implements the algorithms described in this paper.
PMCID: PMC471548  PMID: 15222896
14.  The Strategy of T Cell Antigen-presenting Cell Encounter in Antigen-draining Lymph Nodes Revealed by Imaging of Initial T Cell Activation 
The development of an immune response critically relies on the encounter of rare antigen (Ag)-specific T cells with dendritic cells (DCs) presenting the relevant Ag. How two rare cells find each other in the midst of irrelevant other cells in lymph nodes (LNs) is unknown. Here we show that initial T cell activation clusters are generated near high endothelial venules (HEVs) in the outer paracortex of draining LNs by retention of Ag-specific T cells as they exit from HEVs. We further show that tissue-derived DCs preferentially home in the vicinity of HEVs, thus defining the site of cluster generation. At this location DCs efficiently scan all incoming T cells and selectively retain those specific for the major histocompatibility complex–peptide complexes the DCs present. Such strategic positioning of DCs on the entry route of T cells into the paracortex may foster T cell–DC encounter and thus optimize initial T cell activation in vivo.
PMCID: PMC2194192  PMID: 12953093
T cell activation; dendritic cells; imaging; in vivo
15.  'LABNOTE', a laboratory notebook system designed for academic genomics groups. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1999;27(2):601-607.
We have developed a relational laboratory database system, adapted to the daily book-keeping needs of laboratories that must keep track of information acquired on hundreds or thousands of clones in an effective and user-friendly fashion. Data, whether final or related to experiments in progress, can be accessed in many different ways, e.g. by clone name, by gene, by experiment or through DNA sequence. Updating, import and export of results is made easier by specially developed tools. This system, in network version, serves several groups in our Institute and (over the Internet) elsewhere, and is instrumental in collaborative studies based on expression profiling. It can be used in many similar situations involving progressiveaccumulation of information on sets of clones or related objects.
PMCID: PMC148221  PMID: 9862986
16.  Multiplex messenger assay: simultaneous, quantitative measurement of expression of many genes in the context of T cell activation. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1996;24(8):1435-1442.
The hybridization signature approach, using colony filters and labeled complex probes, can provide high throughput measurement of gene activity. We describe here the implementation of this method to follow the expression levels of 47 genes in resting and activated T cells, as well as in epithelial cells. Using 4-fold spotting of colonies, imaging plate detection and various correction and normalization procedures, the technique is sensitive enough to quantify expression levels for sequences present at 0.005% abundance in the probe. Comparison with Northern blotting shows good consistency between the two methods. Upon activation of a T cell clone by an anti-CD3 antibody variations ranging from 2- to 20-fold are measured, some of which had not been reported previously. This 'multiplex messenger assay' method, performed using available commercial apparatus, can be used in many cases where simultaneous assessment of mRNA levels for many genes is of interest.
PMCID: PMC145825  PMID: 8628675

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