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author:("graner, Iris")
1.  Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;19(8):1595-1600.
Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p≤0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature.
doi:10.1038/oby.2011.23
PMCID: PMC3175491  PMID: 21394095
2.  Long Term Effects of Conjugated Equine Estrogens Therapies on Domain-Specific Cognitive Function: Results from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA) Extension 
Objectives
Conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) therapies when initiated among older women have been shown to produce small decrements in global cognitive function. We are interested whether these persist after cessation and extend to specific cognitive domains.
Design
Randomized controlled clinical trial
Setting
Fourteen clinical centers of the Women's Health Initiative
Participants
2,304 women aged 65-80 years and free of probable dementia at enrollment
Intervention
0.625 mg/day of CEE, with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 10 mg/day), and matching placebos
Measurements
Annual administrations of a battery of cognitive tests during and following the trial
Methods
General linear models were used to compare on-trial and post-trial mean standardized test scores between treatment groups, with adjustment for baseline risk factors for cognitive impairment.
Results
Assignment to CEE-based therapies was associated with small mean relative decrements in global and several domain-specific cognitive functions on-trial, which largely persisted through up to 4 years post-trial. The strongest statistical evidence was for global cognitive function: 0.07 standard deviation decrements both on-trial (p=0.007) and post-trial (p=0.01). Among domain specific scores, the mean relative decrements were slightly smaller, were less significant, and tended to be larger for CEE-alone therapy.
Conclusions
CEE-based therapies, when initiated after age 65 years, produce a small broad-based decrement in cognitive function that persists after their use is stopped. The differences in cognitive function however are small and would not be detectable or have clinical significance for an individual woman. Differences in effects among cognitive domains suggest that more than one mechanism may be involved.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.02953.x
PMCID: PMC2917208  PMID: 20649689
Postmenopausal hormone therapy; Cognitive function; Women's health

Results 1-2 (2)