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1.  Myocardial Infarction-induced N-terminal Fragment of Cardiac Myosin-binding Protein C (cMyBP-C) Impairs Myofilament Function in Human Myocardium* 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2014;289(13):8818-8827.
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to proteolytic cleavage of cMyBP-C (hC0C1f) and decreased contractility.
Results: hC0C1f can incorporate into the human cardiac sarcomere, depressing force generation and increasing tension cost.
Conclusion: Interaction between hC0C1f and both actin and α-tropomyosin causes disruption of intact cMyBP-C function.
Significance: Proteolytic cleavage of cMyBP-C is sufficient to cause contractile dysfunction following MI.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with depressed cardiac contractile function and progression to heart failure. Cardiac myosin-binding protein C, a cardiac-specific myofilament protein, is proteolyzed post-MI in humans, which results in an N-terminal fragment, C0-C1f. The presence of C0-C1f in cultured cardiomyocytes results in decreased Ca2+ transients and cell shortening, abnormalities sufficient for the induction of heart failure in a mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the association between C0-C1f and altered contractility in human cardiac myofilaments in vitro. To accomplish this, we generated recombinant human C0-C1f (hC0C1f) and incorporated it into permeabilized human left ventricular myocardium. Mechanical properties were studied at short (2 μm) and long (2.3 μm) sarcomere length (SL). Our data demonstrate that the presence of hC0C1f in the sarcomere had the greatest effect at short, but not long, SL, decreasing maximal force and myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity. Moreover, hC0C1f led to increased cooperative activation, cross-bridge cycling kinetics, and tension cost, with greater effects at short SL. We further established that the effects of hC0C1f occur through direct interaction with actin and α-tropomyosin. Our data demonstrate that the presence of hC0C1f in the sarcomere is sufficient to induce depressed myofilament function and Ca2+ sensitivity in otherwise healthy human donor myocardium. Decreased cardiac function post-MI may result, in part, from the ability of hC0C1f to bind actin and α-tropomyosin, suggesting that cleaved C0-C1f could act as a poison polypeptide and disrupt the interaction of native cardiac myosin-binding protein C with the thin filament.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.541128
PMCID: PMC3979389  PMID: 24509847
Contractile Protein; Heart Failure; Myocardial Infarction; Protein Degradation; Protein-Protein Interactions
2.  Cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C Plays No Regulatory Role in Skeletal Muscle Structure and Function 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e69671.
Myosin binding protein-C (MyBP-C) exists in three major isoforms: slow skeletal, fast skeletal, and cardiac. While cardiac MyBP-C (cMyBP-C) expression is restricted to the heart in the adult, it is transiently expressed in neonatal stages of some skeletal muscles. However, it is unclear whether this expression is necessary for the proper development and function of skeletal muscle. Our aim was to determine whether the absence of cMyBP-C alters the structure, function, or MyBP-C isoform expression in adult skeletal muscle using a cMyBP-C null mouse model (cMyBP-C(t/t)). Slow MyBP-C was expressed in both slow and fast skeletal muscles, whereas fast MyBP-C was mostly restricted to fast skeletal muscles. Expression of these isoforms was unaffected in skeletal muscle from cMyBP-C(t/t) mice. Slow and fast skeletal muscles in cMyBP-C(t/t) mice showed no histological or ultrastructural changes in comparison to the wild-type control. In addition, slow muscle twitch, tetanus tension, and susceptibility to injury were all similar to the wild-type controls. Interestingly, fMyBP-C expression was significantly increased in the cMyBP-C(t/t) hearts undergoing severe dilated cardiomyopathy, though this does not seem to prevent dysfunction. Additionally, expression of both slow and fast isoforms was increased in myopathic skeletal muscles. Our data demonstrate that i) MyBP-C isoforms are differentially regulated in both cardiac and skeletal muscles, ii) cMyBP-C is dispensable for the development of skeletal muscle with no functional or structural consequences in the adult myocyte, and iii) skeletal isoforms can transcomplement in the heart in the absence of cMyBP-C.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069671
PMCID: PMC3729691  PMID: 23936073
3.  Increase in cardiac myosin binding protein-C plasma levels is a sensitive and cardiac-specific biomarker of myocardial infarction 
Earlier studies have shown that cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is easily releasable into the circulation following myocardial infarction (MI) in animal models and patients. However, since its release kinetics has not been clearly demonstrated, no parameters are available to judge its efficacy as a bona fide biomarker of MI in patients with MI. To make this assessment, plasma levels of cMyBP-C and six known biomarkers of MI were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in patients with MI who had before and after Percutaneous Transcoronary Angioplasty (PTCA), as well as healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls (22.3 ± 2.4 ng/mL (n=54)), plasma levels of cMyBP-C were significantly increased in patients with MI (105.1 ± 8.8 ng/mL (n=65), P<0.001). Out of 65 patients, 24 had very high levels of plasma cMyBP-C (116.5 ± 13.3 ng/mL), indicating high probability of MI. Importantly, cMyBP-C levels were significantly decreased in patients (n=40) at 12 hours post-PTCA (41.2 ± 9.3 ng/mL, P<0.001), compared to the patients with MI. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a plasma cMyBP-C reading of 68.1 ng/mL provided a sensitivity of 66.2% and a specificity of 100%. Also, myoglobin, carbonic anhydrase and creatine kinase-MB levels were significantly increased in MI patients who also had higher cMyBP-C levels. In contrast, levels of cardiac troponin I, glycogen phosphorylase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein were not significantly changed in the samples, indicating the importance of evaluating the differences in release kinetics of these biomarkers in the context of accurate diagnosis. Our findings suggest that circulating cMyBP-C is a sensitive and cardiac-specific biomarker with potential utility for the accurate diagnosis of MI.
PMCID: PMC3683403  PMID: 23785583
Acute coronary syndrome; cardiac biomarker; cardiac myosin binding protein-C; contractile protein; cMyBP-C; myocardial infarction
4.  Pathogenic properties of the N-terminal region of cardiac myosin binding protein-C in vitro 
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) plays a role in sarcomeric structure and stability, as well as modulating heart muscle contraction. The 150 kDa full-length (FL) cMyBP-C has been shown to undergo proteolytic cleavage during ischemia–reperfusion injury, producing an N-terminal 40 kDa fragment (mass 29 kDa) that is predominantly associated with post-ischemic contractile dysfunction. Thus far, the pathogenic properties of such truncated cMyBP-C proteins have not been elucidated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the presence of these 40 kDa fragments is toxic to cardiomyocytes, compared to the 110 kDa C-terminal fragment and FL cMyBP-C. To test this hypothesis, we infected neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes and adult rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes with adenoviruses expressing the FL, 110 and 40 kDa fragments of cMyBP-C, and measured cytotoxicity, Ca2+ transients, contractility, and protein–protein interactions. Here we show that expression of 40 kDa fragments in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes significantly increases LDH release and caspase 3 activity, significantly reduces cell viability, and impairs Ca2+ handling. Adult cardiomyocytes expressing 40 kDa fragments exhibited similar impairment of Ca2+ handling along with a significant reduction of sarcomere length shortening, relaxation velocity, and contraction velocity. Pull-down assays using recombinant proteins showed that the 40 kDa fragment binds significantly to sarcomeric actin, comparable to C0–C2 domains. In addition, we discovered several acetylation sites within the 40 kDa fragment that could potentially affect actomyosin function. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the 40 kDa cleavage fragments of cMyBP-C are toxic to cardiomyocytes and significantly impair contractility and Ca2+ handling via inhibition of actomyosin function. By elucidating the deleterious effects of endogenously expressed cMyBP-C N-terminal fragments on sarcomere function, these data contribute to the understanding of contractile dysfunction following myocardial injury.
doi:10.1007/s10974-012-9292-y
PMCID: PMC3368277  PMID: 22527638
Proteolysis; Pathogenesis; Muscle contractility; Actin; Acetylation; Ca2+; Transients
5.  Cardiac myosin binding protein-C is a potential diagnostic biomarker for myocardial infarction 
Cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) is a thick filament assembly protein that stabilizes sarcomeric structure and regulates cardiac function; however, the profile of cMyBP-C degradation after myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. We hypothesized that cMyBP-C is sensitive to proteolysis and is specifically increased in the bloodstream post-MI in rats and humans. Under these circumstances, elevated levels of degraded cMyBP-C could be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm MI. To test this hypothesis, we first established that cMyBP-C dephosphorylation is directly associated with increased degradation of this myofilament protein, leading to its release in vitro. Using neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes in vitro, we were able to correlate the induction of hypoxic stress with increased cMyBP-C dephosphorylation, degradation, and the specific release of N′-fragments. Next, to define the proteolytic pattern of cMyBP-C post-MI, the left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated in adult male rats. Degradation of cMyBP-C was confirmed by a reduction in total cMyBP-C and the presence of degradation products in the infarct tissue. Phosphorylation levels of cMyBP-C were greatly reduced in ischemic areas of the MI heart compared to non-ischemic regions and sham control hearts. Post-MI plasma samples from these rats, as well as humans, were assayed for cMyBP-C and its fragments by sandwich ELISA and immunoprecipitation analyses. Results showed significantly elevated levels of cMyBP-C in the plasma of all post-MI samples. Overall, this study suggests that cMyBP-C is an easily releasable myofilament protein that is dephosphorylated, degraded and released into the circulation post-MI. The presence of elevated levels of cMyBP-C in the blood provides a promising novel biomarker able to accurately rule in MI, thus aiding in the further assessment of ischemic heart disease.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.09.011
PMCID: PMC3246118  PMID: 21971072
Myosin binding protein-C; Phosphorylation; Cardiac troponin I; Cardiac biomarker
6.  (E)-2-({2-[(E)-(Hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy}meth­yl)-3-phenyl­acrylonitrile 
In the title compound, C17H14N2O2, the hy­droxy­ethanimine group adopts an anti­periplanar conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains running along the c axis.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812003923
PMCID: PMC3297320  PMID: 22412510
7.  Transcription Regulation of ezrA and Its Effect on Cell Division of Bacillus subtilis 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(17):5926-5932.
The EzrA protein of Bacillus subtilis is a negative regulator for FtsZ (Z)-ring formation. It is able to modulate the frequency and position of Z-ring formation during cell division. The loss of this protein results in cells with multiple Z rings located at polar as well as medial sites; it also lowers the critical concentration of FtsZ required for ring formation (P. A. Levin, I. G. Kurster, and A. D. Grossman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:9642-9647, 1999). We have studied the regulation of ezrA expression during the growth of B. subtilis and its effects on the intracellular level of EzrA as well as the cell length of B. subtilis. With the aid of promoter probing, primer extension, in vitro transcription, and Western blotting analyses, two overlapping σA-type promoters, P1 and P2, located about 100 bp upstream of the initiation codon of ezrA, have been identified. P1, supposed to be an extended −10 promoter, was responsible for most of the ezrA expression during the growth of B. subtilis. Disruption of this promoter reduced the intracellular level of EzrA very significantly compared with disruption of P2. Moreover, deletion of both promoters completely abolished EzrA in B. subtilis. More importantly, the cell length and percentage of filamentous cells of B. subtilis were significantly increased by disruption of the promoter(s). Thus, EzrA is required for efficient cell division during the growth of B. subtilis, despite serving as a negative regulator for Z-ring formation.
doi:10.1128/JB.186.17.5926-5932.2004
PMCID: PMC516839  PMID: 15317798

Results 1-7 (7)