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1.  Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset 
PLoS Pathogens  2016;12(8):e1005774.
Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort), as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts). We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT) and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker) gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.
Author Summary
Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of HIV infection and contributes in multiple ways to HIV persistence. Here, we gained insights on the association between a pro-inflammatory chemokine, CXCL10/IP-10 and HIV infection in four cohorts of HIV+ individuals, studied at distinct stages of infection (before, primary and chronic stage with spontaneous- and treatment-controlled infection). We further analyzed pathogenic and non-pathogenic SIV infections to address IP-10 levels and the presence of infected cells in tissues (lymph nodes, small and large intestine). We found that elevated systemic IP-10 levels before HIV-1 infection associate with a more rapid disease progression. During primary infection, IP-10 in blood strongly correlated with the amount of infected cells in blood. The animal model showed that IP-10 expression was regionalized in the intestine and highest in the small intestine. Studies of aviremic animals suggest that high IP-10 is indicative of viral replication in lymphoid tissues. Haematopoietic cells rather than epithelial/endothelial cells mainly contributed to the IP-10 production in small intestine (jejunum). The receptor of IP-10 was highly expressed on memory CD4+ T cells, i.e. major target cells for the virus. This study contributes to our understanding of the establishment of HIV reservoirs and why IP-10 associates with HIV/AIDS.
PMCID: PMC4980058  PMID: 27509048
2.  Glutathione S Transferases Polymorphisms Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Lupus Nephritis Treated with Cyclophosphamide 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(3):e0151696.
To investigate association between genetic polymorphisms of GST, CYP and renal outcome or occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in lupus nephritis (LN) treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC). CYC, as a pro-drug, requires bioactivation through multiple hepatic cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases (GST).
We carried out a multicentric retrospective study including 70 patients with proliferative LN treated with CYC. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of the CYP2B6, CYP2C19, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria ≤0.33g/day and serum creatinine ≤124 µmol/l. Partial remission (PR) was defined as proteinuria ≤1.5g/day with a 50% decrease of the baseline proteinuria value and serum creatinine no greater than 25% above baseline.
Most patients were women (84%) and 77% were Caucasian. The mean age at LN diagnosis was 41 ± 10 years. The frequency of patients carrying the GST null genotype GSTT1-, GSTM1-, and the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype were respectively 38%, 60% and 44%. In multivariate analysis, the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype was an independent factor of poor renal outcome (achievement of CR or PR) (OR = 5.01 95% CI [1.02–24.51]) and the sole factor that influenced occurrence of ADRs was the GSTM1 null genotype (OR = 3.34 95% CI [1.064–10.58]). No association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450s gene and efficacy or ADRs was observed.
This study suggests that GST polymorphisms highly impact renal outcome and occurrence of ADRs related to CYC in LN patients.
PMCID: PMC4803192  PMID: 27002825
3.  Late Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation Is Associated with Long-Term Persistence of Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Abnormalities 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0144317.
HIV-induced immunodeficiency is associated with metabolic abnormalities and systemic inflammation. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on restoration of insulin sensitivity, markers of immune activation and inflammation.
Immunological, metabolic and inflammatory status was assessed at antiretroviral therapy initiation and three years later in 208 patients from the ANRS-COPANA cohort. Patients were compared according to their pre-ART CD4+ cell count (group 1: ≤ 200/mm3, n = 66 vs. group 2: > 200/mm3, n = 142).
Median CD4+ cell count increased in both groups after 3 years of successful ART but remained significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (404 vs 572 cells/mm3). Triglyceride and insulin levels were higher or tended to be higher in group 1 than in group 2 at ART initiation (median: 1.32 vs 0.97 mmol/l, p = 0.04 and 7.6 vs 6.8 IU, p = 0.09, respectively) and remained higher after three years of ART (1.42 vs 1.16 mmol/L, p = 0.0009 and 8.9 vs 7.2 IU, p = 0.01). After adjustment for individual characteristics and antiretroviral therapy regimens (protease inhibitor (PI), zidovudine), insulin levels remained significantly higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count. Baseline IL-6, sCD14 and sTNFR2 levels were higher in group 1 than in group 2. Most biomarkers of immune activation/inflammation declined during ART, but IL-6 and hsCRP levels remained higher in patients with low baseline CD4+ cell count than in the other patients (median are respectively 1.4 vs 1.1 pg/ml, p = 0.03 and 2.1 vs 1.3 mg/ml, p = 0.07).
After three years of successful ART, low pretreatment CD4+ T cell count remained associated with elevated insulin, triglyceride, IL-6 and hsCRP levels. These persistent metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities could contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
PMCID: PMC4670073  PMID: 26636578
4.  Immunologic and Virologic Progression in HIV Controllers: The Role of Viral “Blips” and Immune Activation in the ANRS CO21 CODEX Study 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(7):e0131922.
Some HIV controllers (HICs) experience CD4+T cell count loss and/or lose their ability to control HIV. In this study, we investigated the rate of immunologic and/or virologic progression (ImmP/VirP) and its determinants in the ANRS CO21/CODEX cohort. Immunologic progression was defined as a lasting fall in CD4+T cell count below 350/mm3 or more than 200/mm3 with a baseline count below 600/mm3. Virologic progression was defined as a HIV viral load (VL) above 2000 copies/mL on two consecutive determinations. Clinical characteristics, immune activation, ultrasensitive HIV VL and total HIV DNA were analyzed. Disease progression was observed in 15 of the 217 patients followed up between 2009 and 2013 (ImmP, n = 10; VirP, n = 5). Progressors had higher ultrasensitive HIV RNA levels at inclusion (i.e. 1-2 years before progression) than non-progressors. ImmP had also lower CD4+T cell nadir and CD4+T cell count at inclusion, and VirP had higher HIV DNA levels in blood. T cell activation and IP10 levels at inclusion were significantly higher in ImmP than in non-progressors. In summary, the lasting loss of CD4+T cells, residual HIV replication and basal levels of immune activation appear to be major determinants of progression in HICs. These factors should be considered for adjusting their follow-up.
PMCID: PMC4493076  PMID: 26146823
5.  High Eomesodermin Expression among CD57+ CD8+ T Cells Identifies a CD8+ T Cell Subset Associated with Viral Control during Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 
Journal of Virology  2014;88(20):11861-11871.
During HIV infection, increased CD57 expression among CD8+ T cells has been associated with immune senescence and defective immune responses. Interestingly, CD57-expressing CD8+ T cells exhibit a dual profile, being simultaneously highly cytotoxic (terminally differentiated effectors) and poorly proliferative (replicative senescent). Recent publications point toward a positive role of CD57-expressing CD8+ T cell subsets, presumably due to their high cytolytic activity. We further investigated the phenotype of CD57-expressing CD8+ T cells in healthy donors and during HIV infection combining CD57 expression to Eomesodermin (EOMES), a T box transcription factor which determines, coordinately with T-bet, effector and memory CD8+ T cell differentiation. We defined in healthy donors two functionally distinct CD57-expressing CD8+ T cell subsets exhibiting different levels of EOMES expression: EOMEShi CD57+ and EOMESint CD57+ CD8+ T cells. EOMEShi CD57+ cells exhibited low cytotoxic activity but preserved proliferative capacity and interleukin 7 (IL-7) receptor expression, whereas EOMESint CD57+ cells exhibited obvious cytotoxic functions and a more terminally differentiated phenotype. We next performed a similar analysis in different contexts of HIV infection: primary infected patients, long-term viremic patients, aviremic patients treated with antiretroviral therapy, and HIV controllers; we demonstrated a higher percentage of CD57-expressing cells in all HIV-infected patients regardless of virological status. When heterogeneity in EOMES expression among CD57 cells was taken into account, we detected significantly higher proportions of EOMEShi CD57+ cells among HIV-specific and nonspecific CD8+ T cells from HIV controllers than in aviremic antiretroviral-treated patients and viremic patients. Importantly, such a peculiar non-terminally differentiated EOMEShi CD57+ phenotypic profile was associated with viral control.
IMPORTANCE This study demonstrates that functional heterogeneity exists among CD57-expressing CD8 T cells, which include both terminally differentiated, highly cytotoxic EOMESint CD57+ CD8+ T cells and less differentiated EOMEShi CD57+ CD8 T cells, which do not exhibit immediate cytotoxic functions but present high proliferative capacity. Interestingly, HIV controllers present a high proportion of EOMEShi CD57 cells among CD57-expressing HIV-specific CD8 T cells compared to both long-term viremic and aviremic antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated patients, suggesting a beneficial role for this cell subset in viral control.
PMCID: PMC4178742  PMID: 25100841
6.  Safety of poly-L-lactic acid (New-Fill®) in the treatment of facial lipoatrophy: a large observational study among HIV-positive patients 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14:474.
Facial lipoatrophy is a frequently reported condition associated with use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) acid has been used to correct facial lipoatrophy in people with HIV since 2004 both in Europe and the United States. The objective of this study was to establish, in real life conditions and in a large sample, the safety of PLLA (New Fill®, Valeant US, Sinclair Pharma Paris, France) to correct facial lipoatrophy among HIV-positive patients.
A longitudinal study was conducted between 2005 and 2008 in France. Data from 4,112 treatment courses (n = 4,112 patients) and 15,665 injections sessions (1 to 5 injection sessions per treatment course) were gathered by 200 physicians trained in the use of PLLA.
The average age of patients (88.3% males) treated for lipoatrophy was 47.1 ± 8.1 years (Mean ± SD); 91.2% of patients had been receiving ARV treatment for 10.9 (±4.2) years; CD4 T-cell count was 535 ± 266 cells/mm3. The duration of facial lipoatrophy was 5 ± 2.8 years and the severity was such that 47.3% of patients required five injection sessions of PLLA and 81.9% of the sessions required two vials of the preparation. The final visit, scheduled two months after the last injection session, was attended by 66.0% of patients (n = 2,713). 48 treatment courses (2.8%) were discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The overall incidence of AEs per course was 18.8%. Immediate AEs, bleeding (3.4%), bruising (2.3%), pain (2.0%), redness at injection site (1.6%), and swelling of the face (0.7%), occurred in 15.4% of courses and 7.0% of sessions (usually during the first session). Non-immediate AEs, mainly nodules (5.7%), inflammation (0.7%), granuloma (0.3%), discolouration (0.2%), and skin hypertrophy (0.1%), occurred in 6.7% of courses. Non-immediate AEs occurred within a time ranging from 21 days (inflammation) to 101 days (granuloma) and all but three of the 13 cases of granuloma resolved. Product efficacy was rated satisfactory by 95% of the patients and physicians.
This study demonstrated, in real-life conditions and on a large sample, that PLLA injections were feasible, efficient, and safe when performed by trained physicians.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1471-2334-14-474) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4160543  PMID: 25178390
HIV; Lipoatrophy; Poly-L-lactic acid; PLLA; Safety
7.  French 2013 guidelines for antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infection in adults 
These guidelines are part of the French Experts’ recommendations for the management of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were made public and submitted to the French health authorities in September 2013. The objective was to provide updated recommendations for antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-positive adults. Guidelines included the following topics: when to start, what to start, specific situations for the choice of the first session of antiretroviral therapy, optimization of antiretroviral therapy after virologic suppression, and management of virologic failure.
Ten members of the French HIV 2013 expert group were responsible for guidelines on ART. They systematically reviewed the most recent literature. The chairman of the subgroup was responsible for drafting the guidelines, which were subsequently discussed within, and finalized by the whole expert group to obtain a consensus. Recommendations were graded for strength and level of evidence using predefined criteria. Economic considerations were part of the decision-making process for selecting preferred first-line options. Potential conflicts of interest were actively managed throughout the whole process.
ART should be initiated in any HIV-positive person, whatever his/her CD4 T-cell count, even when >500/mm3. The level of evidence of the individual benefit of ART in terms of mortality or progression to AIDS increases with decreasing CD4 cell count. Preferred initial regimens include two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine) plus a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz or rilpivirine), or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (atazanavir or darunavir). Raltegravir, lopinavir/r, and nevirapine are recommended as alternative third agents, with specific indications and restrictions. Specific situations such as HIV infection in women, primary HIV infection, severe immune suppression with or without identified opportunistic infection, and person who injects drugs are addressed. Options for optimization of ART once virologic suppression is achieved are discussed. Evaluation and management of virologic failure are described, the aim of any intervention in such situation being to reduce plasma viral load to <50 copies/ml.
These guidelines recommend that any HIV-positive individual should be treated with ART. This recommendation was issued both for the patient’s own sake and for promoting treatment as prevention.
PMCID: PMC4062879  PMID: 24942364
antiretroviral treatment; guidelines; first-line therapy; virologic failure; cost of treatment.
8.  Electronic Versus Paper-Based Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Specific to HIV Disease: Reliability Study of the PROQOL-HIV Questionnaire 
Electronic patient-reported outcomes (PRO) provide quick and usually reliable assessments of patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQL).
An electronic version of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Quality of Life-human immunodeficiency virus (PROQOL-HIV) questionnaire was developed, and its face validity and reliability were assessed using standard psychometric methods.
A sample of 80 French outpatients (66% male, 52/79; mean age 46.7 years, SD 10.9) were recruited. Paper-based and electronic questionnaires were completed in a randomized crossover design (2-7 day interval). Biomedical data were collected. Questionnaire version and order effects were tested on full-scale scores in a 2-way ANOVA with patients as random effects. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, with 95% confidence interval) for each dimension. Usability testing was carried out from patients’ survey reports, specifically, general satisfaction, ease of completion, quality and clarity of user interface, and motivation to participate in follow-up PROQOL-HIV electronic assessments.
Questionnaire version and administration order effects (N=59 complete cases) were not significant at the 5% level, and no interaction was found between these 2 factors (P=.94). Reliability indexes were acceptable, with Pearson correlations greater than .7 and ICCs ranging from .708 to .939; scores were not statistically different between the two versions. A total of 63 (79%) complete patients’ survey reports were available, and 55% of patients (30/55) reported being satisfied and interested in electronic assessment of their HRQL in clinical follow-up. Individual ratings of PROQOL-HIV user interface (85%-100% of positive responses) confirmed user interface clarity and usability.
The electronic PROQOL-HIV introduces minor modifications to the original paper-based version, following International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) ePRO Task Force guidelines, and shows good reliability and face validity. Patients can complete the computerized PROQOL-HIV questionnaire and the scores from the paper or electronic versions share comparable accuracy and interpretation.
PMCID: PMC4019778  PMID: 24769643
HIV; quality of life; patient-reported outcomes; electronic records; reliability
9.  Effect of adherence as measured by MEMS, ritonavir boosting, and CYP3A5 genotype on atazanavir pharmacokinetics in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients 
To study population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of ritonavir boosted atazanavir using exactly recorded drug intake time by MEMS.
The ANRS134–COPHAR 3 trial was conducted in 35 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients. Atazanavir (300 mg), ritonavir (100 mg), and tenofovir (300 mg) + emtricitabine (200 mg) were supplied in bottles with a MEMS cap to be taken once daily during 6 months. Six concentrations measurements were collected at week 4, then trough levels bimonthly. A model integrating atazanavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics was developed using non-linear mixed effects.
Use of exact dosing history data halved unexplained variability in atazanavir clearance. Ritonavir-atazanavir interaction model suggested that optimal boosting effect is achievable by lower ritonavir exposures. Patients with at least one copy of the CYP3A5*1 allele exhibited 42% increased oral CL.
We provide evidence that variability in atazanavir pharmacokinetics is defined by adherence, CYP3A5 genotype and ritonavir exposure.
PMCID: PMC3939416  PMID: 23033116
Adenine; analogs & derivatives; therapeutic use; Adult; Aged; Alleles; Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; genetics; Deoxycytidine; analogs & derivatives; therapeutic use; Drug Interactions; Drug Therapy, Combination; Female; Genotype; HIV Infections; drug therapy; HIV Protease Inhibitors; pharmacokinetics; pharmacology; therapeutic use; Humans; Male; Medication Adherence; Middle Aged; Models, Biological; Nonlinear Dynamics; Oligopeptides; pharmacokinetics; therapeutic use; Organophosphonates; therapeutic use; Pharmacogenetics; Pyridines; pharmacokinetics; therapeutic use; Ritonavir; pharmacology; therapeutic use; Young Adult; Atazanavir; Adherence; Pharmacogenetics; Population pharmacokinetics
10.  Immune deficiency could be an early risk factor for altered insulin sensitivity in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: the ANRS COPANA cohort 
Antiviral Therapy  2012;17(1):91-100.
The relationships between immunovirological status, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and fat distribution have not been studied in recently diagnosed (<1 year) antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected patients.
We studied 214 antiretroviral-naïve patients at enrolment in the metabolic sub-study of the ANRS COPANA cohort. We measured clinical, immunovirological and inflammatory parameters, glucose/insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), adipokines, subcutaneous and visceral fat surfaces (SAT and VAT, assessed by computed tomography) and the body fat distribution based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
Median age was 36 years; 28% of the patients were female and 35% of sub-Saharan origin; 20% had low CD4 counts (≤200/mm3). Patients with low CD4 counts were older and more frequently of sub-Saharan Africa origin, had lower BMI but not different SAT/VAT ratio and fat distribution than other patients. They also had lower total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterolemia, higher triglyceridemia and post-OGTT glycemia, higher markers of insulin resistance (insulin during OGTT and HOMA-IR) and of inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6, TNFα, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2). After adjustment for age, sex, geographic origin, BMI and waist circumference, increased insulin resistance was not related to any inflammatory marker. In multivariate analysis, low CD4 count was an independent risk factor for altered insulin sensitivity (β-coefficient for HOMA-IR: +0.90; p=0.001; CD4>500/mm3 as the reference), in addition to older age (β: +0.26 for a 10-year increase; p=0.01) and higher BMI (β: +0.07 for a 1-kg/m2 increase; p=0.003).
In ART-naive patients, severe immune deficiency but not inflammation could be an early risk factor for altered insulin sensitivity.
PMCID: PMC3893638  PMID: 22267473
Adipokines; blood; Adult; Africa South of the Sahara; ethnology; Blood Glucose; analysis; Body Fat Distribution; Body Mass Index; C-Reactive Protein; analysis; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Cohort Studies; Cytokines; blood; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; France; epidemiology; Glucose Tolerance Test; HIV Infections; blood; ethnology; immunology; virology; Humans; Insulin; blood; Insulin Resistance; immunology; Lipoproteins; blood; Male; RNA, Viral; analysis; Risk Factors
11.  Adherence Profiles and Therapeutic Responses of Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Patients Starting Boosted Atazanavir-Based Therapy in the ANRS 134-COPHAR 3 Trial 
The adherence profile of HIV-infected patients predicts the therapeutic outcome, in particular during the early phase of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted a prospective observational multicenter trial monitoring adherence and virological and immunological parameters over the initial 6 months of treatment. Thirty-five subjects were starting a treatment regimen including atazanavir, ritonavir, and emtricitabine-tenofovir. Adherence was assessed using self-completed questionnaires, announced pill counts, and the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) for each drug. Three MEMS measures were defined: the percentages of doses taken, days with the correct dosing, and doses taken on time (±3 h). Dynamic virological suppression (DVS) was defined as a reduction in the plasma HIV-RNA level of >1 log10 per month or <40 copies/ml. The cumulative treatment time was 5,526 days. A high level of adherence was observed. The MEMS-defined adherence for correct dosing (−0.68% per 4-week period, P < 0.03) and timing compliance (−1.60% per 4-week period, P < 0.003) decreased significantly over time. The MEMS-defined adherence data were concordant with the pill counts during the trial but not with the data from the questionnaires. The median [range] percentages of doses taken (100% [50 to 102]), days with the correct dosing (95% [41 to 100]), and doses taken on time (86% [32 to 100]) were significantly associated with DVS in separate models. Among these three measures, the percentage of doses taken on time had the greatest ability to predict DVS. Timing compliance should be supported to optimize DVS during the early phase of treatment by once-daily boosted protease inhibitor-based ART. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT00528060.)
PMCID: PMC3632895  PMID: 23459496
12.  Associations between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Immunologic, Metabolic, Inflammatory Markers in Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Persons: The ANRS CO9 «COPANA» Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74868.
Low 25(OH)D has been associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammation in both general and HIV-infected (mostly treated) populations. We investigated these associations in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected persons.
We measured plasma 25(OH)D, metabolic, immunologic and inflammatory markers in 355 persons (204 Whites, 151 Blacks) at enrollment in the ANRS COPANA cohort.
25(OH)D levels were categorized <10 ng/mL (severe deficiency) and <20 ng/mL (deficiency). Statistical analyses were adjusted for sampling season, ethnicity and the interaction between season and ethnicity.
25(OH)D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL), deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL) were highly prevalent (93%, 67% and 24% of patients, respectively). Blacks had significantly lower 25(OH)D than Whites (median: 13 vs. 17 ng/mL, P<0.001), with markedly less pronounced seasonal variation. Smoking and drinking alcohol were associated with having a 25 OHD level<10 ng/mL. In patients with 25(OH)D<10 ng/mL, the proportion of persons with a CD4 count<100/mm3 was higher than in patients with 25(OH)D≥10 ng/mL (18.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.04). Persons with 25 OHD<10 ng/mL had higher levels of hsCRP (1.60 mg/L [IQR: 0.59–5.76] vs. 1.27 mg/L [0.58–3,39], P = 0.03) and resistin (16.81 ng/L [IQR: 13.82–25.74] vs. 11.56 ng/L [IQR: 8.87–20.46], P = 0.02), and, among Blacks only, sTNFR2 (2.92 ng/mL [2.31–4.13] vs. 2.67 ng/mL, [1.90–3.23], P = 0.04). The strength and significance of the association between CD4<100/mm3 and 25 OHD<10 ng/mL were reduced after adjustment on sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and hsCRP levels. In multivariate analysis, a CD4 count <100/mm3, resistin concentration and smoking were independently associated with 25(OH)D<10 ng/mL.
Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with low CD4 counts and increased markers of inflammation in ARV-naïve HIV-infected persons.
PMCID: PMC3776742  PMID: 24058636
13.  Evidence for a Continuous Drift of the HIV-1 Species towards Higher Resistance to Neutralizing Antibodies over the Course of the Epidemic 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(7):e1003477.
We compared the neutralization sensitivity of early/transmitted HIV-1 variants from patients infected by subtype B viruses at 3 periods of the epidemic (1987–1991, 1996–2000, 2006–2010). Infectious pseudotyped viruses expressing envelope glycoproteins representative of the viral quasi-species infecting each patient were tested for sensitivity to neutralization by pools of sera from HIV-1 chronically infected patients and by an updated panel of 13 human monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (HuMoNAbs). A progressive significantly enhanced resistance to neutralization was observed over calendar time, by both human sera and most of the HuMoNAbs tested (b12, VRC01, VRC03, NIH45-46G54W, PG9, PG16, PGT121, PGT128, PGT145). Despite this evolution, a combination of two HuMoNAbs (NIH45-46G54W and PGT128) still would efficiently neutralize the most contemporary transmitted variants. In addition, we observed a significant reduction of the heterologous neutralizing activity of sera from individuals infected most recently (2003–2007) compared to patients infected earlier (1987–1991), suggesting that the increasing resistance of the HIV species to neutralization over time coincided with a decreased immunogenicity. These data provide evidence for an ongoing adaptation of the HIV-1 species to the humoral immunity of the human population, which may add an additional obstacle to the design of an efficient HIV-1 vaccine.
Author Summary
Most of the patients develop autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) during HIV-1 infection. These NAbs drive the viral evolution and lead to the selection of escape variants at the individual level. The aim of our study was to check if, subsequently to the selective pressure exerted by the individual NAbs responses, the HIV-1 species has evolved at the population level towards an enhanced resistance to antibody neutralization. By comparing HIV-1 subtype B variants collected at three periods spanning more than 2 decades, we found a significantly progressive enhanced resistance to neutralization of the HIV-1 species over time. In addition, the enhanced resistance of the HIV species to neutralization coincided with a decreased capability of the virus to induce NAbs in infected patients. Despite this evolution, one combination of two human monoclonal broadly NAbs still were able to neutralize the most recent HIV-1 variants, suggesting that this combination should be preferentially included in future human immunoprophylaxis trials.
PMCID: PMC3701719  PMID: 23853594
14.  Burden of HIV disease and comorbidities on the chances of maintaining employment in the era of sustained combined antiretoviral therapies use 
AIDS (London, England)  2012;26(2):207-215.
Employment status is a major predictor of health status and living conditions, especially among HIV-infected people, a predominantly working-aged population. We aimed to quantify the risk of work cessation following HIV diagnosis in France in 2004–2010 and to measure the respective burden of HIV-related characteristics and of associated comorbidities on this risk.
We used data from the ANRS-COPANA multicenter cohort made of a diversified sample of recently diagnosed HIV-1-infected adults, antiretroviral treatment-naïve at baseline in 2004–2008. Detailed information on living conditions and clinical and biological characteristics were collected prospectively.
The risk of work cessation among the 376 working-aged participants employed at baseline was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Characteristics associated with the risk of work cessation were identified using multivariate Cox models.
The cumulative probability of work cessation reached 14.1% after 2 years and 34.7% after 5 years. Diabetes, hypertension and, to a lesser extent, signs of depression were associated with increased risks of work cessation after accounting for socio-occupational characteristics (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence interval]:5.7 [1.7–18.8], 3.1 [1.5–6.4] and 1.6 [0.9–2.9], respectively). In contrast, HIV disease severity and treatment, and experience of HIV-related discrimination were not statistically associated with the risk of work cessation.
The risk of work cessation during the course of HIV disease has remained substantial in the most recent period in France. Comorbidities, but not characteristics of HIV disease itself, substantially affect chances of maintaining in employment. This provides insights into strategies for limiting the burden of HIV disease for individuals and society.
PMCID: PMC3680952  PMID: 22008658
Adult; Anti-HIV Agents; therapeutic use; Cardiovascular Diseases; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity; Cost of Illness; Depression; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; Diabetes Mellitus; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; Employment; statistics & numerical data; Female; France; HIV Infections; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; HIV-1; Health Status; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Male; Middle Aged; Occupational Health; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Socioeconomic Factors; Truth Disclosure; Employment status; Socioeconomic factors; Comorbidity; HIV-related discrimination; France
15.  A Single HIV-1 Cluster and a Skewed Immune Homeostasis Drive the Early Spread of HIV among Resting CD4+ Cell Subsets within One Month Post-Infection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64219.
Optimizing therapeutic strategies for an HIV cure requires better understanding the characteristics of early HIV-1 spread among resting CD4+ cells within the first month of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). We studied the immune distribution, diversity, and inducibility of total HIV-DNA among the following cell subsets: monocytes, peripheral blood activated and resting CD4 T cells, long-lived (naive [TN] and central-memory [TCM]) and short-lived (transitional-memory [TTM] and effector-memory cells [TEM]) resting CD4+T cells from 12 acutely-infected individuals recruited at a median 36 days from infection. Cells were sorted for total HIV-DNA quantification, phylogenetic analysis and inducibility, all studied in relation to activation status and cell signaling. One month post-infection, a single CCR5-restricted viral cluster was massively distributed in all resting CD4+ subsets from 88% subjects, while one subject showed a slight diversity. High levels of total HIV-DNA were measured among TN (median 3.4 log copies/million cells), although 10-fold less (p = 0.0005) than in equally infected TCM (4.5), TTM (4.7) and TEM (4.6) cells. CD3−CD4+ monocytes harbored a low viral burden (median 2.3 log copies/million cells), unlike equally infected resting and activated CD4+ T cells (4.5 log copies/million cells). The skewed repartition of resting CD4 subsets influenced their contribution to the pool of resting infected CD4+T cells, two thirds of which consisted of short-lived TTM and TEM subsets, whereas long-lived TN and TCM subsets contributed the balance. Each resting CD4 subset produced HIV in vitro after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28+IL-2 with kinetics and magnitude varying according to subset differentiation, while IL-7 preferentially induced virus production from long-lived resting TN cells. In conclusion, within a month of infection, a clonal HIV-1 cluster is massively distributed among resting CD4 T-cell subsets with a flexible inducibility, suggesting that subset activation and skewed immune homeostasis determine the conditions of viral dissemination and early establishment of the HIV reservoir.
PMCID: PMC3653877  PMID: 23691172
16.  Post-Treatment HIV-1 Controllers with a Long-Term Virological Remission after the Interruption of Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(3):e1003211.
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces HIV-associated morbidities and mortalities but cannot cure the infection. Given the difficulty of eradicating HIV-1, a functional cure for HIV-infected patients appears to be a more reachable short-term goal. We identified 14 HIV patients (post-treatment controllers [PTCs]) whose viremia remained controlled for several years after the interruption of prolonged cART initiated during the primary infection. Most PTCs lacked the protective HLA B alleles that are overrepresented in spontaneous HIV controllers (HICs); instead, they carried risk-associated HLA alleles that were largely absent among the HICs. Accordingly, the PTCs had poorer CD8+ T cell responses and more severe primary infections than the HICs did. Moreover, the incidence of viral control after the interruption of early antiretroviral therapy was higher among the PTCs than has been reported for spontaneous control. Off therapy, the PTCs were able to maintain and, in some cases, further reduce an extremely low viral reservoir. We found that long-lived HIV-infected CD4+ T cells contributed poorly to the total resting HIV reservoir in the PTCs because of a low rate of infection of naïve T cells and a skewed distribution of resting memory CD4+ T cell subsets. Our results show that early and prolonged cART may allow some individuals with a rather unfavorable background to achieve long-term infection control and may have important implications in the search for a functional HIV cure.
Author Summary
There is a renewed scientific interest in developing strategies allowing long-term remission in HIV-1-infected individuals. Very rare (<1%) patients are able to spontaneously control viremia to undetectable levels (HIV controllers, HICs). However, the possibility to translate their mechanisms of control to other patients is uncertain. Starting antiretroviral therapy during primary infection may provide significant benefits to HIV-infected patients (i.e. reduction of viral reservoirs, preservation of immune responses, protection from chronic immune activation). Indeed, we have observed that some HIV-infected patients interrupting a prolonged antiretroviral therapy initiated close to primary infection are able to control viremia afterwards. We present here 14 of such post-treatment controllers (PTCs). We show that PTCs have achieved control of infection through mechanisms that are, at least in part, different from those commonly observed in HICs and that their capacity to control is likely related to early therapeutic intervention. We found that PTCs were able, after therapy interruption, to keep, and in some cases further reduce, a weak viral reservoir. This might be related to the low contribution of long-lived cells to the HIV-reservoir in these patients. Finally, we estimated the probability of maintaining viral control at 24 months post-early treatment interruption to be ∼15%, which is much higher than the one expected for spontaneous control.
PMCID: PMC3597518  PMID: 23516360
17.  Primary HIV infection: the French experience 
Retrovirology  2012;9(Suppl 1):I14.
PMCID: PMC3360390
18.  X4 Tropic Multi-Drug Resistant Quasi-Species Detected at the Time of Primary HIV-1 Infection Remain Exclusive or at Least Dominant Far from PHI 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e23301.
Our objective was to analyze the evolution of resistance mutations (RM) and viral tropism of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains detected at primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). MDR HIV strain was defined as the presence of genotypic resistance to at least 1 antiretroviral of the 3 classes. Tropism determinations (CCR5 or CXCR4) were performed on baseline plasma HIV-RNA and/or PBMC-HIV-DNA samples, then during follow-up using population-based sequencing of V3 loop and phenotypic tests. Clonal analysis was performed at baseline for env, RT and protease genes, and for HIV-DNA env gene during follow-up. Five patients were eligible. At baseline, RT, protease and env clones from HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA were highly homogenous for each patient; genotypic tropism was R5 in 3 (A,B,C) and X4 in 2 patients (D,E). MDR strains persisted in HIV-DNA throughout follow-up in all patients. For patient A, tropism remained R5 with concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Clonal analysis on Month (M) 78 HIV-DNA evidenced exclusively R5 (21/21) variants. In patient B, clonal analysis at M36 showed exclusively R5 variants (19/19) using both genotypic and phenotypic tests. In patient C, baseline tropism was R5 by genotypic test and R5/X4 by phenotypic test. An expansion of these X4 clones was evidenced by clonal analysis on M72 HIV-DNA (12/14 X4 and 2/14 R5 variants). In patient D, baseline tropism was X4 with concordance between both techniques and HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA remained X4-tropic up to M72, confirmed by the clonal analysis. Patient E harboured highly homogenous X4-using population at baseline; tropism was unchanged at M1 and M18. In all patients, the initial MDR population was highly homogenous initially, supporting the early expansion of a monoclonal population and its long-term persistence. X4-tropic variants present at baseline were still exclusive (patients D and E) or dominant (at least one time point, patient C) far from PHI.
PMCID: PMC3160852  PMID: 21887243
19.  Low Frequency of CXCR4-Using Viruses in Patients at the Time of Primary Non-Subtype-B HIV-1 Infection ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(10):3487-3491.
We used genotypic and phenotypic assays to estimate the frequency of X4/DM viruses in 131 patients infected with non-subtype-B viruses at the time of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). All patients were enrolled in the French PRIMO Cohort from 1996 to 2007. Most strains belonged to CRF02_AG (51.1%) and subtype A (14.5%). Sixteen viruses (12.2%) were classified as CXCR4 tropic (“X4 strains”) by the combined criteria of amino acids 11 and 25 of the V3 loop (11/25) and net charge rules and/or the SVMgeno2pheno10% algorithm: 6 strains by the combined genotypic rule, 7 by the SVMgeno2pheno10% algorithm, and 3, clustering in subtype D, by both algorithms. However, only one strain (0.8%), belonging to subtype A, was defined as a dual-tropic (DM) virus by the phenotypic assay. The 67 CRF02_AG strains included 2 classified as X4 strains by the combined genotypic rule (3%) and 2 others classified as X4 strains by SVMgeno2pheno10% (3%), but none of these 4 strains was an X4 or DM strain according to the phenotypic assay. These results suggest that the cellular virus reservoir was established with X4 strains in very few non-subtype-B-infected patients at the time of PHI. Genotypic predictions can overestimate the proportion of non-subtype-B X4 viruses at PHI.
PMCID: PMC2953081  PMID: 20686090
20.  The French national prospective cohort of patients co-infected with HIV and HCV (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH): Early findings, 2006-2010 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:303.
In France, it is estimated that 24% of HIV-infected patients are also infected with HCV. Longitudinal studies addressing clinical and public health questions related to HIV-HCV co-infection (HIV-HCV clinical progression and its determinants including genetic dimension, patients' experience with these two diseases and their treatments) are limited. The ANRS CO 13 HEPAVIH cohort was set up to explore these critical questions.
To describe the cohort aims and organization, monitoring and data collection procedures, baseline characteristics, as well as follow-up findings to date.
Inclusion criteria in the cohort were: age > 18 years, HIV-1 infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or sustained response to HCV treatment. A standardized medical questionnaire collecting socio-demographic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, histological, ultrasound and endoscopic data is administered at enrolment, then every six months for cirrhotic patients or yearly for non-cirrhotic patients. Also, a self-administered questionnaire documenting socio-behavioral data and adherence to HIV and/or HCV treatments is administered at enrolment and yearly thereafter.
A total of 1,175 patients were included from January 2006 to December 2008. Their median age at enrolment was 45 years and 70.2% were male. The median CD4 cell count was 442 (IQR: 304-633) cells/μl and HIV RNA plasma viral load was undetectable in 68.8%. Most participants (71.6%) were on HAART. Among the 1,048 HIV-HCV chronically co-infected patients, HCV genotype 1 was predominant (56%) and cirrhosis was present in 25%. As of January, 2010, after a median follow-up of 16.7 months (IQR: 11.3-25.3), 13 new cases of decompensated cirrhosis, nine hepatocellular carcinomas and 20 HCV-related deaths were reported, resulting in a cumulative HCV-related severe event rate of 1.9/100 person-years (95% CI: 1.3-2.5). The rate of HCV-related severe events was higher in cirrhotic patients and those with a low CD4 cells count, but did not differ according to sex, age, alcohol consumption, CDC clinical stage or HCV status.
The ANRS CO 13 HEPAVIH is a nation-wide cohort using a large network of HIV treatment, infectious diseases and internal medicine clinics in France, and thus is highly representative of the French population living with these two viruses and in care.
PMCID: PMC2988047  PMID: 20969743
21.  Simplified Assessment of Antiretroviral Adherence and Prediction of Virological Efficacy in HIV-Infected Patients in Cambodia 
AIDS Research and Treatment  2009;2010:142076.
Background. Adherence to antiviral therapy is important for HIV-infected people living in low- and middle-income countries, because of poor access to alternative regimens. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adherence in Cambodian patients enrolled in the ESTHER program and treated with WHO first-line regimen for at least 6 months. The survey was based on a self-report questionnaire, drug assay, MCV measurement, visual analog scale, and viral load HIV RNA. Results. Two hundred fifty-nine patients treated for a median of 16 months participated in the survey. At inclusion in the program, 158 patients (61%) were ARV-naïve. The virological success rate was 71% overall and 81% in previously ARV-naive patients. Considered individually, the measures suggested perfect adherence in 71% to 93% of patients. In multivariate analysis adjusted for sex and therapeutic status before HAART initiation, only the biological markers were associated with virological efficacy. Self-funded treatment before entry to the program was highly predictive of virological failure. Conclusion. Adherence was excellent in these Cambodian patients. Biological markers were predictive of virological efficacy. MCV might thus serve as a simple alternative for assessing adherence and predicting virological efficacy among patients receiving AZT- or d4T-based regimens.
PMCID: PMC3065847  PMID: 21490902
22.  Population pharmacokinetic analysis of lamivudine, stavudine and zidovudine in controlled HIV-infected patients on HAART 
This work aimed at building a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for lamivudine (LMV), stavudine (STV) and zidovudine (ZDV), estimating their inter and intraindividual PK variability and investigating the influence of different covariates.
Population PK of LMV, STV and ZDV was separately evaluated from plasma concentrations obtained in 54, 39 and 27 HIV1-infected patients, respectively, enrolled in the COPHAR1-ANRS102 trial. The primary objective of this trial was to study the pharmacokinetics of indinavir (IDV) and nelfinavir (NFV) in treated patients with a sustained virological response. Concentrations of nucleoside analogs (NA) were measured in plasma as a secondary objective. A one compartment model with first order elimination was used, with zero order absorption for LMV and first order absorption for STV and ZDV.
Mean parameters (inter-patient variability in CV%) of LMV, STV and ZDV were: oral volume of distribution (V/F) 145L (52%), 24 L (81%) and 248 L (80%), oral clearance (Cl/F) 32 L/h, 16 L/h (74%) and 124 L/h (51%), respectively. For LMV, absorption duration (Ta) was 1.46 h (64%). For STV and ZDV, ka was 0.46 h−1 and 2.9 h−1, respectively. We found a systematic effect of combination with NFV vs IDV. We found that intra-patient variability was greater than inter-patient variability (except for STV) and greater than 55% for the three drugs.
This trial enabled the estimation of the population PK parameters of three NA in patients with a sustained virological response, and the median curves could be used as references for concentration-controlled strategies. We observed, as for the protease inhibitors, a great variability of PK parameters.
PMCID: PMC2703659  PMID: 17694300
Adult; Aged; Anti-HIV Agents; pharmacokinetics; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Drug Interactions; Female; HIV Infections; drug therapy; Humans; Indinavir; pharmacology; Lamivudine; pharmacokinetics; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Biological; Nelfinavir; pharmacology; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; pharmacokinetics; Stavudine; pharmacokinetics; Tissue Distribution; Zidovudine; pharmacokinetics; Nucleoside analogs; Drug-drug interactions; Population pharmacokinetics.
24.  Distinct Genetic Loci Control Plasma HIV-RNA and Cellular HIV-DNA Levels in HIV-1 Infection: The ANRS Genome Wide Association 01 Study 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(12):e3907.
Previous studies of the HIV-1 disease have shown that HLA and Chemokine receptor genetic variants influence disease progression and early viral load. We performed a Genome Wide Association study in a cohort of 605 HIV-1-infected seroconverters for detection of novel genetic factors that influence plasma HIV-RNA and cellular HIV-DNA levels. Most of the SNPs strongly associated with HIV-RNA levels were localised in the 6p21 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region and were in the vicinity of class I and III genes. Moreover, protective alleles for four disease-associated SNPs in the MHC locus (rs2395029, rs13199524, rs12198173 and rs3093662) were strikingly over-represented among forty-five Long Term HIV controllers. Furthermore, we show that the HIV-DNA levels (reflecting the HIV reservoir) are associated with the same four SNPs, but also with two additional SNPs on chromosome 17 (rs6503919; intergenic region flanked by the DDX40 and YPEL2 genes) and chromosome 8 (rs2575735; within the Syndecan 2 gene). Our data provide evidence that the MHC controls both HIV replication and HIV reservoir. They also indicate that two additional genomic loci may influence the HIV reservoir.
PMCID: PMC2603319  PMID: 19107206
25.  Resting Regulatory CD4 T Cells: A Site of HIV Persistence in Patients on Long-Term Effective Antiretroviral Therapy 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(10):e3305.
In HIV-infected patients on long-term HAART, virus persistence in resting long-lived CD4 T cells is a major barrier to curing the infection. Cell quiescence, by favouring HIV latency, reduces the risk of recognition and cell destruction by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Several cell-activation-based approaches have been proposed to disrupt cell quiescence and then virus latency, but these approaches have not eradicated the virus. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a CD4+ T-cell subset with particular activation properties. We investigated the role of these cells in virus persistence in patients on long-term HAART.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We found evidence of infection of resting Tregs (HLADR−CD69−CD25hiFoxP3+CD4+ T cells) purified from patients on prolonged HAART. HIV DNA harbouring cells appear more abundant in the Treg subset than in non-Tregs. The half-life of the Treg reservoir was estimated at 20 months. Since Tregs from patients on prolonged HAART showed hyporesponsiveness to cell activation and inhibition of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-related functions upon activation, therapeutics targeting cell quiescence to induce virus expression may not be appropriate for purging the Treg reservoir.
Our results identify Tregs as a particular compartment within the latent reservoir that may require a specific approach for its purging.
PMCID: PMC2551739  PMID: 18827929

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