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1.  Safety of poly-L-lactic acid (New-Fill®) in the treatment of facial lipoatrophy: a large observational study among HIV-positive patients 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2014;14(1):474.
Facial lipoatrophy is a frequently reported condition associated with use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) acid has been used to correct facial lipoatrophy in people with HIV since 2004 both in Europe and the United States. The objective of this study was to establish, in real life conditions and in a large sample, the safety of PLLA (New Fill®, Valeant US, Sinclair Pharma Paris, France) to correct facial lipoatrophy among HIV-positive patients.
A longitudinal study was conducted between 2005 and 2008 in France. Data from 4,112 treatment courses (n = 4,112 patients) and 15,665 injections sessions (1 to 5 injection sessions per treatment course) were gathered by 200 physicians trained in the use of PLLA.
The average age of patients (88.3% males) treated for lipoatrophy was 47.1 ± 8.1 years (Mean ± SD); 91.2% of patients had been receiving ARV treatment for 10.9 (±4.2) years; CD4 T-cell count was 535 ± 266 cells/mm3. The duration of facial lipoatrophy was 5 ± 2.8 years and the severity was such that 47.3% of patients required five injection sessions of PLLA and 81.9% of the sessions required two vials of the preparation. The final visit, scheduled two months after the last injection session, was attended by 66.0% of patients (n = 2,713). 48 treatment courses (2.8%) were discontinued due to adverse events (AEs). The overall incidence of AEs per course was 18.8%. Immediate AEs, bleeding (3.4%), bruising (2.3%), pain (2.0%), redness at injection site (1.6%), and swelling of the face (0.7%), occurred in 15.4% of courses and 7.0% of sessions (usually during the first session). Non-immediate AEs, mainly nodules (5.7%), inflammation (0.7%), granuloma (0.3%), discolouration (0.2%), and skin hypertrophy (0.1%), occurred in 6.7% of courses. Non-immediate AEs occurred within a time ranging from 21 days (inflammation) to 101 days (granuloma) and all but three of the 13 cases of granuloma resolved. Product efficacy was rated satisfactory by 95% of the patients and physicians.
This study demonstrated, in real-life conditions and on a large sample, that PLLA injections were feasible, efficient, and safe when performed by trained physicians.
PMCID: PMC4160543  PMID: 25178390
HIV; Lipoatrophy; Poly-L-lactic acid; PLLA; Safety
2.  French 2013 guidelines for antiretroviral therapy of HIV-1 infection in adults 
These guidelines are part of the French Experts’ recommendations for the management of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were made public and submitted to the French health authorities in September 2013. The objective was to provide updated recommendations for antiretroviral treatment (ART) of HIV-positive adults. Guidelines included the following topics: when to start, what to start, specific situations for the choice of the first session of antiretroviral therapy, optimization of antiretroviral therapy after virologic suppression, and management of virologic failure.
Ten members of the French HIV 2013 expert group were responsible for guidelines on ART. They systematically reviewed the most recent literature. The chairman of the subgroup was responsible for drafting the guidelines, which were subsequently discussed within, and finalized by the whole expert group to obtain a consensus. Recommendations were graded for strength and level of evidence using predefined criteria. Economic considerations were part of the decision-making process for selecting preferred first-line options. Potential conflicts of interest were actively managed throughout the whole process.
ART should be initiated in any HIV-positive person, whatever his/her CD4 T-cell count, even when >500/mm3. The level of evidence of the individual benefit of ART in terms of mortality or progression to AIDS increases with decreasing CD4 cell count. Preferred initial regimens include two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine) plus a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (efavirenz or rilpivirine), or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (atazanavir or darunavir). Raltegravir, lopinavir/r, and nevirapine are recommended as alternative third agents, with specific indications and restrictions. Specific situations such as HIV infection in women, primary HIV infection, severe immune suppression with or without identified opportunistic infection, and person who injects drugs are addressed. Options for optimization of ART once virologic suppression is achieved are discussed. Evaluation and management of virologic failure are described, the aim of any intervention in such situation being to reduce plasma viral load to <50 copies/ml.
These guidelines recommend that any HIV-positive individual should be treated with ART. This recommendation was issued both for the patient’s own sake and for promoting treatment as prevention.
PMCID: PMC4062879  PMID: 24942364
antiretroviral treatment; guidelines; first-line therapy; virologic failure; cost of treatment.
3.  Electronic Versus Paper-Based Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Specific to HIV Disease: Reliability Study of the PROQOL-HIV Questionnaire 
Electronic patient-reported outcomes (PRO) provide quick and usually reliable assessments of patients’ health-related quality of life (HRQL).
An electronic version of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Quality of Life-human immunodeficiency virus (PROQOL-HIV) questionnaire was developed, and its face validity and reliability were assessed using standard psychometric methods.
A sample of 80 French outpatients (66% male, 52/79; mean age 46.7 years, SD 10.9) were recruited. Paper-based and electronic questionnaires were completed in a randomized crossover design (2-7 day interval). Biomedical data were collected. Questionnaire version and order effects were tested on full-scale scores in a 2-way ANOVA with patients as random effects. Test-retest reliability was evaluated using Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, with 95% confidence interval) for each dimension. Usability testing was carried out from patients’ survey reports, specifically, general satisfaction, ease of completion, quality and clarity of user interface, and motivation to participate in follow-up PROQOL-HIV electronic assessments.
Questionnaire version and administration order effects (N=59 complete cases) were not significant at the 5% level, and no interaction was found between these 2 factors (P=.94). Reliability indexes were acceptable, with Pearson correlations greater than .7 and ICCs ranging from .708 to .939; scores were not statistically different between the two versions. A total of 63 (79%) complete patients’ survey reports were available, and 55% of patients (30/55) reported being satisfied and interested in electronic assessment of their HRQL in clinical follow-up. Individual ratings of PROQOL-HIV user interface (85%-100% of positive responses) confirmed user interface clarity and usability.
The electronic PROQOL-HIV introduces minor modifications to the original paper-based version, following International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) ePRO Task Force guidelines, and shows good reliability and face validity. Patients can complete the computerized PROQOL-HIV questionnaire and the scores from the paper or electronic versions share comparable accuracy and interpretation.
PMCID: PMC4019778  PMID: 24769643
HIV; quality of life; patient-reported outcomes; electronic records; reliability
4.  Effect of adherence as measured by MEMS, ritonavir boosting, and CYP3A5 genotype on atazanavir pharmacokinetics in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients 
To study population pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of ritonavir boosted atazanavir using exactly recorded drug intake time by MEMS.
The ANRS134–COPHAR 3 trial was conducted in 35 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients. Atazanavir (300 mg), ritonavir (100 mg), and tenofovir (300 mg) + emtricitabine (200 mg) were supplied in bottles with a MEMS cap to be taken once daily during 6 months. Six concentrations measurements were collected at week 4, then trough levels bimonthly. A model integrating atazanavir and ritonavir pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics was developed using non-linear mixed effects.
Use of exact dosing history data halved unexplained variability in atazanavir clearance. Ritonavir-atazanavir interaction model suggested that optimal boosting effect is achievable by lower ritonavir exposures. Patients with at least one copy of the CYP3A5*1 allele exhibited 42% increased oral CL.
We provide evidence that variability in atazanavir pharmacokinetics is defined by adherence, CYP3A5 genotype and ritonavir exposure.
PMCID: PMC3939416  PMID: 23033116
Adenine; analogs & derivatives; therapeutic use; Adult; Aged; Alleles; Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; genetics; Deoxycytidine; analogs & derivatives; therapeutic use; Drug Interactions; Drug Therapy, Combination; Female; Genotype; HIV Infections; drug therapy; HIV Protease Inhibitors; pharmacokinetics; pharmacology; therapeutic use; Humans; Male; Medication Adherence; Middle Aged; Models, Biological; Nonlinear Dynamics; Oligopeptides; pharmacokinetics; therapeutic use; Organophosphonates; therapeutic use; Pharmacogenetics; Pyridines; pharmacokinetics; therapeutic use; Ritonavir; pharmacology; therapeutic use; Young Adult; Atazanavir; Adherence; Pharmacogenetics; Population pharmacokinetics
5.  Immune deficiency could be an early risk factor for altered insulin sensitivity in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected patients: the ANRS COPANA cohort 
Antiviral Therapy  2012;17(1):91-100.
The relationships between immunovirological status, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance and fat distribution have not been studied in recently diagnosed (<1 year) antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected patients.
We studied 214 antiretroviral-naïve patients at enrolment in the metabolic sub-study of the ANRS COPANA cohort. We measured clinical, immunovirological and inflammatory parameters, glucose/insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), adipokines, subcutaneous and visceral fat surfaces (SAT and VAT, assessed by computed tomography) and the body fat distribution based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
Median age was 36 years; 28% of the patients were female and 35% of sub-Saharan origin; 20% had low CD4 counts (≤200/mm3). Patients with low CD4 counts were older and more frequently of sub-Saharan Africa origin, had lower BMI but not different SAT/VAT ratio and fat distribution than other patients. They also had lower total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterolemia, higher triglyceridemia and post-OGTT glycemia, higher markers of insulin resistance (insulin during OGTT and HOMA-IR) and of inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6, TNFα, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2). After adjustment for age, sex, geographic origin, BMI and waist circumference, increased insulin resistance was not related to any inflammatory marker. In multivariate analysis, low CD4 count was an independent risk factor for altered insulin sensitivity (β-coefficient for HOMA-IR: +0.90; p=0.001; CD4>500/mm3 as the reference), in addition to older age (β: +0.26 for a 10-year increase; p=0.01) and higher BMI (β: +0.07 for a 1-kg/m2 increase; p=0.003).
In ART-naive patients, severe immune deficiency but not inflammation could be an early risk factor for altered insulin sensitivity.
PMCID: PMC3893638  PMID: 22267473
Adipokines; blood; Adult; Africa South of the Sahara; ethnology; Blood Glucose; analysis; Body Fat Distribution; Body Mass Index; C-Reactive Protein; analysis; CD4 Lymphocyte Count; Cohort Studies; Cytokines; blood; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; France; epidemiology; Glucose Tolerance Test; HIV Infections; blood; ethnology; immunology; virology; Humans; Insulin; blood; Insulin Resistance; immunology; Lipoproteins; blood; Male; RNA, Viral; analysis; Risk Factors
6.  Adherence Profiles and Therapeutic Responses of Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Patients Starting Boosted Atazanavir-Based Therapy in the ANRS 134-COPHAR 3 Trial 
The adherence profile of HIV-infected patients predicts the therapeutic outcome, in particular during the early phase of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted a prospective observational multicenter trial monitoring adherence and virological and immunological parameters over the initial 6 months of treatment. Thirty-five subjects were starting a treatment regimen including atazanavir, ritonavir, and emtricitabine-tenofovir. Adherence was assessed using self-completed questionnaires, announced pill counts, and the medication event monitoring system (MEMS) for each drug. Three MEMS measures were defined: the percentages of doses taken, days with the correct dosing, and doses taken on time (±3 h). Dynamic virological suppression (DVS) was defined as a reduction in the plasma HIV-RNA level of >1 log10 per month or <40 copies/ml. The cumulative treatment time was 5,526 days. A high level of adherence was observed. The MEMS-defined adherence for correct dosing (−0.68% per 4-week period, P < 0.03) and timing compliance (−1.60% per 4-week period, P < 0.003) decreased significantly over time. The MEMS-defined adherence data were concordant with the pill counts during the trial but not with the data from the questionnaires. The median [range] percentages of doses taken (100% [50 to 102]), days with the correct dosing (95% [41 to 100]), and doses taken on time (86% [32 to 100]) were significantly associated with DVS in separate models. Among these three measures, the percentage of doses taken on time had the greatest ability to predict DVS. Timing compliance should be supported to optimize DVS during the early phase of treatment by once-daily boosted protease inhibitor-based ART. (This study has been registered at under registration no. NCT00528060.)
PMCID: PMC3632895  PMID: 23459496
7.  Associations between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Immunologic, Metabolic, Inflammatory Markers in Treatment-Naive HIV-Infected Persons: The ANRS CO9 «COPANA» Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e74868.
Low 25(OH)D has been associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammation in both general and HIV-infected (mostly treated) populations. We investigated these associations in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected persons.
We measured plasma 25(OH)D, metabolic, immunologic and inflammatory markers in 355 persons (204 Whites, 151 Blacks) at enrollment in the ANRS COPANA cohort.
25(OH)D levels were categorized <10 ng/mL (severe deficiency) and <20 ng/mL (deficiency). Statistical analyses were adjusted for sampling season, ethnicity and the interaction between season and ethnicity.
25(OH)D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL), deficiency (<20 ng/mL) and severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL) were highly prevalent (93%, 67% and 24% of patients, respectively). Blacks had significantly lower 25(OH)D than Whites (median: 13 vs. 17 ng/mL, P<0.001), with markedly less pronounced seasonal variation. Smoking and drinking alcohol were associated with having a 25 OHD level<10 ng/mL. In patients with 25(OH)D<10 ng/mL, the proportion of persons with a CD4 count<100/mm3 was higher than in patients with 25(OH)D≥10 ng/mL (18.8% vs. 10.7%, P = 0.04). Persons with 25 OHD<10 ng/mL had higher levels of hsCRP (1.60 mg/L [IQR: 0.59–5.76] vs. 1.27 mg/L [0.58–3,39], P = 0.03) and resistin (16.81 ng/L [IQR: 13.82–25.74] vs. 11.56 ng/L [IQR: 8.87–20.46], P = 0.02), and, among Blacks only, sTNFR2 (2.92 ng/mL [2.31–4.13] vs. 2.67 ng/mL, [1.90–3.23], P = 0.04). The strength and significance of the association between CD4<100/mm3 and 25 OHD<10 ng/mL were reduced after adjustment on sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and hsCRP levels. In multivariate analysis, a CD4 count <100/mm3, resistin concentration and smoking were independently associated with 25(OH)D<10 ng/mL.
Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with low CD4 counts and increased markers of inflammation in ARV-naïve HIV-infected persons.
PMCID: PMC3776742  PMID: 24058636
8.  Evidence for a Continuous Drift of the HIV-1 Species towards Higher Resistance to Neutralizing Antibodies over the Course of the Epidemic 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(7):e1003477.
We compared the neutralization sensitivity of early/transmitted HIV-1 variants from patients infected by subtype B viruses at 3 periods of the epidemic (1987–1991, 1996–2000, 2006–2010). Infectious pseudotyped viruses expressing envelope glycoproteins representative of the viral quasi-species infecting each patient were tested for sensitivity to neutralization by pools of sera from HIV-1 chronically infected patients and by an updated panel of 13 human monoclonal neutralizing antibodies (HuMoNAbs). A progressive significantly enhanced resistance to neutralization was observed over calendar time, by both human sera and most of the HuMoNAbs tested (b12, VRC01, VRC03, NIH45-46G54W, PG9, PG16, PGT121, PGT128, PGT145). Despite this evolution, a combination of two HuMoNAbs (NIH45-46G54W and PGT128) still would efficiently neutralize the most contemporary transmitted variants. In addition, we observed a significant reduction of the heterologous neutralizing activity of sera from individuals infected most recently (2003–2007) compared to patients infected earlier (1987–1991), suggesting that the increasing resistance of the HIV species to neutralization over time coincided with a decreased immunogenicity. These data provide evidence for an ongoing adaptation of the HIV-1 species to the humoral immunity of the human population, which may add an additional obstacle to the design of an efficient HIV-1 vaccine.
Author Summary
Most of the patients develop autologous neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) during HIV-1 infection. These NAbs drive the viral evolution and lead to the selection of escape variants at the individual level. The aim of our study was to check if, subsequently to the selective pressure exerted by the individual NAbs responses, the HIV-1 species has evolved at the population level towards an enhanced resistance to antibody neutralization. By comparing HIV-1 subtype B variants collected at three periods spanning more than 2 decades, we found a significantly progressive enhanced resistance to neutralization of the HIV-1 species over time. In addition, the enhanced resistance of the HIV species to neutralization coincided with a decreased capability of the virus to induce NAbs in infected patients. Despite this evolution, one combination of two human monoclonal broadly NAbs still were able to neutralize the most recent HIV-1 variants, suggesting that this combination should be preferentially included in future human immunoprophylaxis trials.
PMCID: PMC3701719  PMID: 23853594
9.  Burden of HIV disease and comorbidities on the chances of maintaining employment in the era of sustained combined antiretoviral therapies use 
AIDS (London, England)  2012;26(2):207-215.
Employment status is a major predictor of health status and living conditions, especially among HIV-infected people, a predominantly working-aged population. We aimed to quantify the risk of work cessation following HIV diagnosis in France in 2004–2010 and to measure the respective burden of HIV-related characteristics and of associated comorbidities on this risk.
We used data from the ANRS-COPANA multicenter cohort made of a diversified sample of recently diagnosed HIV-1-infected adults, antiretroviral treatment-naïve at baseline in 2004–2008. Detailed information on living conditions and clinical and biological characteristics were collected prospectively.
The risk of work cessation among the 376 working-aged participants employed at baseline was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Characteristics associated with the risk of work cessation were identified using multivariate Cox models.
The cumulative probability of work cessation reached 14.1% after 2 years and 34.7% after 5 years. Diabetes, hypertension and, to a lesser extent, signs of depression were associated with increased risks of work cessation after accounting for socio-occupational characteristics (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence interval]:5.7 [1.7–18.8], 3.1 [1.5–6.4] and 1.6 [0.9–2.9], respectively). In contrast, HIV disease severity and treatment, and experience of HIV-related discrimination were not statistically associated with the risk of work cessation.
The risk of work cessation during the course of HIV disease has remained substantial in the most recent period in France. Comorbidities, but not characteristics of HIV disease itself, substantially affect chances of maintaining in employment. This provides insights into strategies for limiting the burden of HIV disease for individuals and society.
PMCID: PMC3680952  PMID: 22008658
Adult; Anti-HIV Agents; therapeutic use; Cardiovascular Diseases; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; Cohort Studies; Comorbidity; Cost of Illness; Depression; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; Diabetes Mellitus; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; Employment; statistics & numerical data; Female; France; HIV Infections; drug therapy; epidemiology; virology; HIV-1; Health Status; Humans; Kaplan-Meier Estimate; Male; Middle Aged; Occupational Health; Proportional Hazards Models; Prospective Studies; Socioeconomic Factors; Truth Disclosure; Employment status; Socioeconomic factors; Comorbidity; HIV-related discrimination; France
10.  A Single HIV-1 Cluster and a Skewed Immune Homeostasis Drive the Early Spread of HIV among Resting CD4+ Cell Subsets within One Month Post-Infection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64219.
Optimizing therapeutic strategies for an HIV cure requires better understanding the characteristics of early HIV-1 spread among resting CD4+ cells within the first month of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). We studied the immune distribution, diversity, and inducibility of total HIV-DNA among the following cell subsets: monocytes, peripheral blood activated and resting CD4 T cells, long-lived (naive [TN] and central-memory [TCM]) and short-lived (transitional-memory [TTM] and effector-memory cells [TEM]) resting CD4+T cells from 12 acutely-infected individuals recruited at a median 36 days from infection. Cells were sorted for total HIV-DNA quantification, phylogenetic analysis and inducibility, all studied in relation to activation status and cell signaling. One month post-infection, a single CCR5-restricted viral cluster was massively distributed in all resting CD4+ subsets from 88% subjects, while one subject showed a slight diversity. High levels of total HIV-DNA were measured among TN (median 3.4 log copies/million cells), although 10-fold less (p = 0.0005) than in equally infected TCM (4.5), TTM (4.7) and TEM (4.6) cells. CD3−CD4+ monocytes harbored a low viral burden (median 2.3 log copies/million cells), unlike equally infected resting and activated CD4+ T cells (4.5 log copies/million cells). The skewed repartition of resting CD4 subsets influenced their contribution to the pool of resting infected CD4+T cells, two thirds of which consisted of short-lived TTM and TEM subsets, whereas long-lived TN and TCM subsets contributed the balance. Each resting CD4 subset produced HIV in vitro after stimulation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28+IL-2 with kinetics and magnitude varying according to subset differentiation, while IL-7 preferentially induced virus production from long-lived resting TN cells. In conclusion, within a month of infection, a clonal HIV-1 cluster is massively distributed among resting CD4 T-cell subsets with a flexible inducibility, suggesting that subset activation and skewed immune homeostasis determine the conditions of viral dissemination and early establishment of the HIV reservoir.
PMCID: PMC3653877  PMID: 23691172
11.  Post-Treatment HIV-1 Controllers with a Long-Term Virological Remission after the Interruption of Early Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy ANRS VISCONTI Study 
PLoS Pathogens  2013;9(3):e1003211.
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces HIV-associated morbidities and mortalities but cannot cure the infection. Given the difficulty of eradicating HIV-1, a functional cure for HIV-infected patients appears to be a more reachable short-term goal. We identified 14 HIV patients (post-treatment controllers [PTCs]) whose viremia remained controlled for several years after the interruption of prolonged cART initiated during the primary infection. Most PTCs lacked the protective HLA B alleles that are overrepresented in spontaneous HIV controllers (HICs); instead, they carried risk-associated HLA alleles that were largely absent among the HICs. Accordingly, the PTCs had poorer CD8+ T cell responses and more severe primary infections than the HICs did. Moreover, the incidence of viral control after the interruption of early antiretroviral therapy was higher among the PTCs than has been reported for spontaneous control. Off therapy, the PTCs were able to maintain and, in some cases, further reduce an extremely low viral reservoir. We found that long-lived HIV-infected CD4+ T cells contributed poorly to the total resting HIV reservoir in the PTCs because of a low rate of infection of naïve T cells and a skewed distribution of resting memory CD4+ T cell subsets. Our results show that early and prolonged cART may allow some individuals with a rather unfavorable background to achieve long-term infection control and may have important implications in the search for a functional HIV cure.
Author Summary
There is a renewed scientific interest in developing strategies allowing long-term remission in HIV-1-infected individuals. Very rare (<1%) patients are able to spontaneously control viremia to undetectable levels (HIV controllers, HICs). However, the possibility to translate their mechanisms of control to other patients is uncertain. Starting antiretroviral therapy during primary infection may provide significant benefits to HIV-infected patients (i.e. reduction of viral reservoirs, preservation of immune responses, protection from chronic immune activation). Indeed, we have observed that some HIV-infected patients interrupting a prolonged antiretroviral therapy initiated close to primary infection are able to control viremia afterwards. We present here 14 of such post-treatment controllers (PTCs). We show that PTCs have achieved control of infection through mechanisms that are, at least in part, different from those commonly observed in HICs and that their capacity to control is likely related to early therapeutic intervention. We found that PTCs were able, after therapy interruption, to keep, and in some cases further reduce, a weak viral reservoir. This might be related to the low contribution of long-lived cells to the HIV-reservoir in these patients. Finally, we estimated the probability of maintaining viral control at 24 months post-early treatment interruption to be ∼15%, which is much higher than the one expected for spontaneous control.
PMCID: PMC3597518  PMID: 23516360
12.  Primary HIV infection: the French experience 
Retrovirology  2012;9(Suppl 1):I14.
PMCID: PMC3360390
13.  X4 Tropic Multi-Drug Resistant Quasi-Species Detected at the Time of Primary HIV-1 Infection Remain Exclusive or at Least Dominant Far from PHI 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e23301.
Our objective was to analyze the evolution of resistance mutations (RM) and viral tropism of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains detected at primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). MDR HIV strain was defined as the presence of genotypic resistance to at least 1 antiretroviral of the 3 classes. Tropism determinations (CCR5 or CXCR4) were performed on baseline plasma HIV-RNA and/or PBMC-HIV-DNA samples, then during follow-up using population-based sequencing of V3 loop and phenotypic tests. Clonal analysis was performed at baseline for env, RT and protease genes, and for HIV-DNA env gene during follow-up. Five patients were eligible. At baseline, RT, protease and env clones from HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA were highly homogenous for each patient; genotypic tropism was R5 in 3 (A,B,C) and X4 in 2 patients (D,E). MDR strains persisted in HIV-DNA throughout follow-up in all patients. For patient A, tropism remained R5 with concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Clonal analysis on Month (M) 78 HIV-DNA evidenced exclusively R5 (21/21) variants. In patient B, clonal analysis at M36 showed exclusively R5 variants (19/19) using both genotypic and phenotypic tests. In patient C, baseline tropism was R5 by genotypic test and R5/X4 by phenotypic test. An expansion of these X4 clones was evidenced by clonal analysis on M72 HIV-DNA (12/14 X4 and 2/14 R5 variants). In patient D, baseline tropism was X4 with concordance between both techniques and HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA remained X4-tropic up to M72, confirmed by the clonal analysis. Patient E harboured highly homogenous X4-using population at baseline; tropism was unchanged at M1 and M18. In all patients, the initial MDR population was highly homogenous initially, supporting the early expansion of a monoclonal population and its long-term persistence. X4-tropic variants present at baseline were still exclusive (patients D and E) or dominant (at least one time point, patient C) far from PHI.
PMCID: PMC3160852  PMID: 21887243
14.  Low Frequency of CXCR4-Using Viruses in Patients at the Time of Primary Non-Subtype-B HIV-1 Infection ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(10):3487-3491.
We used genotypic and phenotypic assays to estimate the frequency of X4/DM viruses in 131 patients infected with non-subtype-B viruses at the time of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). All patients were enrolled in the French PRIMO Cohort from 1996 to 2007. Most strains belonged to CRF02_AG (51.1%) and subtype A (14.5%). Sixteen viruses (12.2%) were classified as CXCR4 tropic (“X4 strains”) by the combined criteria of amino acids 11 and 25 of the V3 loop (11/25) and net charge rules and/or the SVMgeno2pheno10% algorithm: 6 strains by the combined genotypic rule, 7 by the SVMgeno2pheno10% algorithm, and 3, clustering in subtype D, by both algorithms. However, only one strain (0.8%), belonging to subtype A, was defined as a dual-tropic (DM) virus by the phenotypic assay. The 67 CRF02_AG strains included 2 classified as X4 strains by the combined genotypic rule (3%) and 2 others classified as X4 strains by SVMgeno2pheno10% (3%), but none of these 4 strains was an X4 or DM strain according to the phenotypic assay. These results suggest that the cellular virus reservoir was established with X4 strains in very few non-subtype-B-infected patients at the time of PHI. Genotypic predictions can overestimate the proportion of non-subtype-B X4 viruses at PHI.
PMCID: PMC2953081  PMID: 20686090
15.  The French national prospective cohort of patients co-infected with HIV and HCV (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH): Early findings, 2006-2010 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2010;10:303.
In France, it is estimated that 24% of HIV-infected patients are also infected with HCV. Longitudinal studies addressing clinical and public health questions related to HIV-HCV co-infection (HIV-HCV clinical progression and its determinants including genetic dimension, patients' experience with these two diseases and their treatments) are limited. The ANRS CO 13 HEPAVIH cohort was set up to explore these critical questions.
To describe the cohort aims and organization, monitoring and data collection procedures, baseline characteristics, as well as follow-up findings to date.
Inclusion criteria in the cohort were: age > 18 years, HIV-1 infection, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or sustained response to HCV treatment. A standardized medical questionnaire collecting socio-demographic, clinical, biological, therapeutic, histological, ultrasound and endoscopic data is administered at enrolment, then every six months for cirrhotic patients or yearly for non-cirrhotic patients. Also, a self-administered questionnaire documenting socio-behavioral data and adherence to HIV and/or HCV treatments is administered at enrolment and yearly thereafter.
A total of 1,175 patients were included from January 2006 to December 2008. Their median age at enrolment was 45 years and 70.2% were male. The median CD4 cell count was 442 (IQR: 304-633) cells/μl and HIV RNA plasma viral load was undetectable in 68.8%. Most participants (71.6%) were on HAART. Among the 1,048 HIV-HCV chronically co-infected patients, HCV genotype 1 was predominant (56%) and cirrhosis was present in 25%. As of January, 2010, after a median follow-up of 16.7 months (IQR: 11.3-25.3), 13 new cases of decompensated cirrhosis, nine hepatocellular carcinomas and 20 HCV-related deaths were reported, resulting in a cumulative HCV-related severe event rate of 1.9/100 person-years (95% CI: 1.3-2.5). The rate of HCV-related severe events was higher in cirrhotic patients and those with a low CD4 cells count, but did not differ according to sex, age, alcohol consumption, CDC clinical stage or HCV status.
The ANRS CO 13 HEPAVIH is a nation-wide cohort using a large network of HIV treatment, infectious diseases and internal medicine clinics in France, and thus is highly representative of the French population living with these two viruses and in care.
PMCID: PMC2988047  PMID: 20969743
16.  Simplified Assessment of Antiretroviral Adherence and Prediction of Virological Efficacy in HIV-Infected Patients in Cambodia 
AIDS Research and Treatment  2009;2010:142076.
Background. Adherence to antiviral therapy is important for HIV-infected people living in low- and middle-income countries, because of poor access to alternative regimens. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adherence in Cambodian patients enrolled in the ESTHER program and treated with WHO first-line regimen for at least 6 months. The survey was based on a self-report questionnaire, drug assay, MCV measurement, visual analog scale, and viral load HIV RNA. Results. Two hundred fifty-nine patients treated for a median of 16 months participated in the survey. At inclusion in the program, 158 patients (61%) were ARV-naïve. The virological success rate was 71% overall and 81% in previously ARV-naive patients. Considered individually, the measures suggested perfect adherence in 71% to 93% of patients. In multivariate analysis adjusted for sex and therapeutic status before HAART initiation, only the biological markers were associated with virological efficacy. Self-funded treatment before entry to the program was highly predictive of virological failure. Conclusion. Adherence was excellent in these Cambodian patients. Biological markers were predictive of virological efficacy. MCV might thus serve as a simple alternative for assessing adherence and predicting virological efficacy among patients receiving AZT- or d4T-based regimens.
PMCID: PMC3065847  PMID: 21490902
17.  Population pharmacokinetic analysis of lamivudine, stavudine and zidovudine in controlled HIV-infected patients on HAART 
This work aimed at building a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for lamivudine (LMV), stavudine (STV) and zidovudine (ZDV), estimating their inter and intraindividual PK variability and investigating the influence of different covariates.
Population PK of LMV, STV and ZDV was separately evaluated from plasma concentrations obtained in 54, 39 and 27 HIV1-infected patients, respectively, enrolled in the COPHAR1-ANRS102 trial. The primary objective of this trial was to study the pharmacokinetics of indinavir (IDV) and nelfinavir (NFV) in treated patients with a sustained virological response. Concentrations of nucleoside analogs (NA) were measured in plasma as a secondary objective. A one compartment model with first order elimination was used, with zero order absorption for LMV and first order absorption for STV and ZDV.
Mean parameters (inter-patient variability in CV%) of LMV, STV and ZDV were: oral volume of distribution (V/F) 145L (52%), 24 L (81%) and 248 L (80%), oral clearance (Cl/F) 32 L/h, 16 L/h (74%) and 124 L/h (51%), respectively. For LMV, absorption duration (Ta) was 1.46 h (64%). For STV and ZDV, ka was 0.46 h−1 and 2.9 h−1, respectively. We found a systematic effect of combination with NFV vs IDV. We found that intra-patient variability was greater than inter-patient variability (except for STV) and greater than 55% for the three drugs.
This trial enabled the estimation of the population PK parameters of three NA in patients with a sustained virological response, and the median curves could be used as references for concentration-controlled strategies. We observed, as for the protease inhibitors, a great variability of PK parameters.
PMCID: PMC2703659  PMID: 17694300
Adult; Aged; Anti-HIV Agents; pharmacokinetics; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Drug Interactions; Female; HIV Infections; drug therapy; Humans; Indinavir; pharmacology; Lamivudine; pharmacokinetics; Male; Middle Aged; Models, Biological; Nelfinavir; pharmacology; Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; pharmacokinetics; Stavudine; pharmacokinetics; Tissue Distribution; Zidovudine; pharmacokinetics; Nucleoside analogs; Drug-drug interactions; Population pharmacokinetics.
19.  Distinct Genetic Loci Control Plasma HIV-RNA and Cellular HIV-DNA Levels in HIV-1 Infection: The ANRS Genome Wide Association 01 Study 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(12):e3907.
Previous studies of the HIV-1 disease have shown that HLA and Chemokine receptor genetic variants influence disease progression and early viral load. We performed a Genome Wide Association study in a cohort of 605 HIV-1-infected seroconverters for detection of novel genetic factors that influence plasma HIV-RNA and cellular HIV-DNA levels. Most of the SNPs strongly associated with HIV-RNA levels were localised in the 6p21 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region and were in the vicinity of class I and III genes. Moreover, protective alleles for four disease-associated SNPs in the MHC locus (rs2395029, rs13199524, rs12198173 and rs3093662) were strikingly over-represented among forty-five Long Term HIV controllers. Furthermore, we show that the HIV-DNA levels (reflecting the HIV reservoir) are associated with the same four SNPs, but also with two additional SNPs on chromosome 17 (rs6503919; intergenic region flanked by the DDX40 and YPEL2 genes) and chromosome 8 (rs2575735; within the Syndecan 2 gene). Our data provide evidence that the MHC controls both HIV replication and HIV reservoir. They also indicate that two additional genomic loci may influence the HIV reservoir.
PMCID: PMC2603319  PMID: 19107206
20.  Resting Regulatory CD4 T Cells: A Site of HIV Persistence in Patients on Long-Term Effective Antiretroviral Therapy 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(10):e3305.
In HIV-infected patients on long-term HAART, virus persistence in resting long-lived CD4 T cells is a major barrier to curing the infection. Cell quiescence, by favouring HIV latency, reduces the risk of recognition and cell destruction by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Several cell-activation-based approaches have been proposed to disrupt cell quiescence and then virus latency, but these approaches have not eradicated the virus. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a CD4+ T-cell subset with particular activation properties. We investigated the role of these cells in virus persistence in patients on long-term HAART.
Methodology/Principal Findings
We found evidence of infection of resting Tregs (HLADR−CD69−CD25hiFoxP3+CD4+ T cells) purified from patients on prolonged HAART. HIV DNA harbouring cells appear more abundant in the Treg subset than in non-Tregs. The half-life of the Treg reservoir was estimated at 20 months. Since Tregs from patients on prolonged HAART showed hyporesponsiveness to cell activation and inhibition of HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte-related functions upon activation, therapeutics targeting cell quiescence to induce virus expression may not be appropriate for purging the Treg reservoir.
Our results identify Tregs as a particular compartment within the latent reservoir that may require a specific approach for its purging.
PMCID: PMC2551739  PMID: 18827929
21.  New and old complex recombinant HIV-1 strains among patients with primary infection in 1996–2006 in France: The French ANRS CO06 primo cohort study 
Retrovirology  2008;5:69.
Prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has increased overtime in patients diagnosed at the time of primary infection (PHI) in France. Our objective was to characterize in detail non-B strains which could not be genetically classified into the known subtypes/Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs).
Among 744 patients enrolled in the ANRS PRIMO Cohort since 1996, 176 (23.7%) were infected with HIV-1 non-B strains. The subtype/CRF could not be identified in RT for 15 (2%). The V3-V5 env region was sequenced and 3 strains (04FR-KZS, 06FR-CRN, 04FR-AUK) were full-length sequenced. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses were used to characterize the mosaic structures.
Among V3-V5 sequences, 6 were divergent A, 2 distantly related to E or D, 2 C, 1 B and 2 remained unclassified. 04FR-KZS, isolated in a Congolese woman infected in France, clustered with 2 previously described viruses from the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent CRF27_cpx involving A/E/G/H/J/K/U subtypes. 06FR-CRN, isolated in a homosexual Caucasian patient, was a B/C/U recombinant involving a Brazilian C strain. 04FR-AUK, isolated in a Congolese patient infected in France, was a A/K/CRF09/U recombinant clustering from gag to vif with HIV-1 MAL. Others PHI were further observed in 2006–2007 with 1 KZS and 5 CRN-like viruses, suggesting their spread in France.
This study illustrates the increasing HIV-1 diversity in France associating new (06FR-CRN) and old (CRF27_cpx and "MAL-like" 04FR-AUK) strains, which are rare in their region of origin but may have a possible founder effect in France. Our results strengthen the French guidelines recommending viro-epidemiological surveillance of HIV-1 diversity.
PMCID: PMC2553414  PMID: 18673538
22.  Critical care management and outcome of severe Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with and without HIV infection 
Critical Care  2008;12(1):R28.
Little is known about the most severe forms of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in HIV-negative as compared with HIV-positive patients. Improved knowledge about the differential characteristics and management modalities could guide treatment based on HIV status.
We retrospectively compared 72 patients (73 cases, 46 HIV-positive) admitted for PCP from 1993 to 2006 in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital.
The yearly incidence of ICU admissions for PCP in HIV-negative patients increased from 1993 (0%) to 2006 (6.5%). At admission, all but one non-HIV patient were receiving corticosteroids. Twenty-three (85%) HIV-negative patients were receiving an additional immunosuppressive treatment. At admission, HIV-negative patients were significantly older than HIV-positive patients (64 [18 to 82] versus 37 [28 to 56] years old) and had a significantly higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (38 [13 to 90] versus 27 [11 to 112]) but had a similar PaO2/FiO2 (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) ratio (160 [61 to 322] versus 183 [38 to 380] mm Hg). Ventilatory support was required in a similar proportion of HIV-negative and HIV-positive cases (78% versus 61%), with a similar proportion of first-line non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (67% versus 54%). NIV failed in 71% of HIV-negative and in 13% of HIV-positive patients (p < 0.01). Mortality was significantly higher in HIV-negative than HIV-positive cases (48% versus 17%). The HIV-negative status (odds ratio 3.73, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 12.60) and SAPS II (odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.12) were independently associated with mortality at multivariate analysis.
The yearly incidence of ICU admissions for PCP in HIV-negative patients in our unit increased from 1993 to 2006. The course of the disease and the outcome were worse in HIV-negative patients. NIV often failed in HIV-negative cases, suggesting that NIV must be watched closely in this population.
PMCID: PMC2374632  PMID: 18304356
23.  Efficacy of Zidovudine Compared to Stavudine, Both in Combination with Lamivudine and Indinavir, in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Nucleoside-Experienced Patients with No Prior Exposure to Lamivudine, Stavudine, or Protease Inhibitors (Novavir Trial) 
We compared the efficacy and the toxicity of zidovudine (AZT) versus stavudine (d4T), in combination with lamivudine (3TC) and indinavir, in AZT-, dideoxyinosine (ddI)-, and/or dideoxycytosine (ddC)-experienced patients in a randomized comparative multicenter trial. One hundred seventy human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients, who had received AZT, ddI, and/or ddC for at least 6 months but were naive for d4T, 3TC, and protease inhibitors, were randomized to AZT at 250 to 300 mg twice daily, 3TC at 150 mg twice daily, and indinavir at 800 mg every 8 h or to d4T at 40 mg twice daily, 3TC at 150 mg twice daily, and indinavir at 800 mg every 8 h. The primary endpoint was time to virological failure, defined as plasma HIV-1 RNA levels of >5,000 copies/ml after at least 8 weeks of antiretroviral therapy. Additional endpoints were change from baseline in CD4 cell counts, AIDS-defining events and adverse events, and proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA levels of <500 copies/ml and HIV-1 RNA levels of <50 copies/ml. At week 80, 15 patients in the AZT arm and 14 patients in the d4T arm had reached the primary endpoint, and time to virological failure did not differ between the two arms (P = 0.98). In the d4T and in the AZT arms, 67 and 73% of patients, respectively, had HIV-1 RNA levels of <500 copies/ml (P = 0.50). The median change from baseline in CD4 cell count was 195 × 106 and 175 × 106/liter for the d4T- and AZT-containing arms, respectively. The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA levels of <50 copies/ml at weeks 8, 16, and 24 were similar in the two arms. The occurrence of serious adverse events was not significantly different between arms. In conclusion, in these patients heavily pretreated with AZT, switching from AZT to d4T when initiating indinavir and 3TC did not bring any additional benefit compared to maintaining AZT.
PMCID: PMC127263  PMID: 12019107
24.  Weak anti-HIV CD8+ T-cell effector activity in HIV primary infection 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1999;104(10):1431-1439.
HIV-specific CD8+ T cells play a major role in the control of virus during HIV primary infection (PI) but do not completely prevent viral replication. We used IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intracellular staining to characterize the ex vivo CD8+ T-cell responses to a large variety of HIV epitopic peptides in 24 subjects with early HIV PI. We observed HIV-specific responses in 71% of subjects. Gag and Nef peptides were more frequently recognized than Env and Pol peptides. The number of peptides recognized was low (median 2, range 0–6). In contrast, a much broader response was observed in 30 asymptomatic subjects with chronic infection: all were responders with a median of 5 peptides recognized (range 1–13). The frequency of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells among PBMC for a given peptide was of the same order of magnitude in both groups. The proportion of HIV-specific CD8+CD28– terminally differentiated T cells was much lower in PI than at the chronic stage of infection. The weakness of the immune response during HIV PI could partially account for the failure to control HIV. These findings have potential importance for defining immunotherapeutic strategies and establishing the goals for effective vaccination.
J. Clin. Invest. 104:1431–1439 (1999).
PMCID: PMC409838  PMID: 10562305
25.  Early and long-lasting alteration of effector CD45RA(-)Foxp3(high) regulatory T-cell homeostasis during HIV infection 
The Journal of Infectious Diseases  2012;205(10):1510-1519.
Regulatory T cells (Treg) quantification in HIV infection remains ill defined due to the lack of reliable specific markers to identify human Treg and the diversity of clinical stages of HIV infection. Employing a recently described Treg identification strategy based on CD45RA and FOXP3 expression, we performed here an extensive quantification of total, naïve (CD45RA+ Foxp3low) and effector (CD45RA− Foxp3hi) Treg in different contexts of HIV infection: primary HIV infection, long term viremic patients, HAART treated aviremic patients and HIV controllers. We showed that, whereas total Treg percentages were mildly affected by HIV infection, Treg absolute numbers were significantly reduced in all groups studied. We demonstrated that whereas naïve Treg numbers were essentially preserved, effector Treg were consistently affected during HIV infection. Finally we demonstrated that effector but not total or naïve Treg numbers negatively correlated with the magnitude of HIV specific CD8 T cell responses.
PMCID: PMC3989210  PMID: 22457280
Adult; Aged; Antigens, CD45; metabolism; Antigens, CD8; metabolism; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active; Case-Control Studies; Cell Proliferation; Flow Cytometry; Forkhead Transcription Factors; metabolism; France; HIV Infections; drug therapy; immunology; virology; HIV-1; drug effects; immunology; Homeostasis; Humans; Middle Aged; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory; immunology; metabolism; Viral Load; HIV; AIDS; Treg; FOXP3

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