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1.  Obstructive jaundice caused by intraductal metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma 
OncoTargets and therapy  2014;7:1847-1850.
Obstructive jaundice caused by metastases to the porta hepatis is often observed in patients with various advanced cancers; however, metastasis of lung cancer to the common bile duct with subsequent development of jaundice is rare. A 75-year-old female with lung adenocarcinoma harboring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (15-bp in-frame deletion in exon 19 and T790M in exon 20) developed obstructive jaundice during therapy. Obstruction of the common bile duct caused by an intraductal tumor was identified by computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography. Although primary cholangiocarcinoma was highly suspected according to the imaging findings, immunohistochemical evaluation of the intraductal tumor demonstrated thyroid transcription factor-1 positive adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, peptide nucleic acid-locked nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction clamp analysis showed that the tumor contained the same EGFR mutation as that in the primary lung cancer. Thus, we confirmed intraductal metastasis from a lung adenocarcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the second report of obstructive jaundice caused by intraductal metastasis of lung cancer.
PMCID: PMC4199794  PMID: 25336976
lung cancer; cholangiocarcinoma; EGFR
2.  Quantitative Levels of Hepatitis B Virus DNA and Surface Antigen and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Hepatitis B Receiving Long-Term Nucleos(t)ide Analogue Therapy 
Liver Cancer  2014;3(1):41-52.
Serum levels of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA are an important predictor of the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic HBV infection. However, little is known about whether high levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) increase the risk for HCC.
We investigated 167 patients who were treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) for at least 2 years (median: 5.8 years, range: 2-13.1 years). Relationships between reduced levels of HBsAg and various factors were evaluated. In addition, we evaluated the usefulness of quantitative serum levels of HBV DNA and HBsAg as predictors of HCC development in patients receiving long-term NA therapy.
HCC developed in 9 of the 167 NA-treated patients. In the 9 patients with HCC, HBV DNA was undetectable (<2.1 log copies/mL), but HBsAg levels were ≥2000 C.O.I. in 7 patients. No maternal transmission, long NA treatment period, HBV DNA levels <3.0 log copies/mL, and reduced hepatitis B e antigen levels during the first 24 weeks of treatment were a significant factor of HBsAg levels <2000 C.O.I..
Hepatocarcinogenesis was observed in patients with high HBsAg levels, despite the negative conversion of HBV DNA as a result of long-term NA therapy. Therefore, to suppress hepatocarcinogenesis, it is important to control not only HBV DNA levels but also HBsAg levels.
PMCID: PMC3995398  PMID: 24804176
HBV DNA; Hepatitis B surface antigen; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Nucleos(t)ide analogues
3.  Serum Adhesion Molecule Levels as Prognostic Markers in Patients with Early Systemic Sclerosis: A Multicentre, Prospective, Observational Study 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e88150.
To assess the utility of circulating adhesion molecule levels as a prognostic indicator of disease progression in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with early onset disease.
Ninety-two Japanese patients with early onset SSc presenting with diffuse skin sclerosis and/or interstitial lung disease were registered in a multicentre, observational study. Concentrations of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) −1, E-selectin, L-selectin, and P-selectin in serum samples from all patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent asssay (ELISA). In 39 patients, adhesion molecule levels were measured each year for four years. The ability of baseline adhesion molecule levels to predict subsequent progression and severity in clinical and laboratory features were evaluated statistically.
At their first visit, serum levels of ICAM-1, E-selection, P-selectin were significantly elevated and serum L-selectin levels were significantly reduced in patients with SSc compared with healthy controls. Overall, serum ICAM-1 levels at each time point were significantly inversely associated with the %vital capacity (VC) of the same time and subsequent years by univariate analysis. The initial serum ICAM-1 levels were significantly inversely associated with the %VC at the fourth year by multiple regression analysis. The initial serum P-selectin levels were significantly associated with the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) at the fourth year by multiple regression analysis. Initial adhesion molecule levels were not significantly associated with other clinical features including skin thickness score. Baseline adhesion molecule levels were not significantly associated with subsequent rate of change of clinical parameters.
In patients with SSc, serum levels of ICAM-1 and P-selectin may serve as prognostic indicators of respiratory dysfunction and physical disability, respectively. Further longitudinal studies of larger populations are needed to confirm these findings.
PMCID: PMC3916412  PMID: 24516598
4.  Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with vitamins E and C: a pilot study 
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis. Oxidative stress is one of the central mechanisms causing hepatocellular injury in the disease. In this study, antioxidant therapy using both vitamins C and E was conducted in patients with NASH.
Vitamin E 300 mg/day and vitamin C 300 mg/day were administered orally to 23 patients with NASH for 12 months. Body mass index was measured during therapy. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin (an oxidative stress marker), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured before treatment and after 12 months in all patients. Ten of the 23 patients underwent liver biopsy before and after treatment.
Body mass index remained unchanged during treatment with vitamins C and E. Serum alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were decreased significantly at 12 months compared with pretreatment. Liver biopsies showed improved necroinflammatory activity in eight cases and improved fibrosis staging in 4.
Serum alanine aminotransferase, thioredoxin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, and liver histology were clearly improved with vitamin C and E therapy. These findings suggest that combination therapy using these vitamins may be useful in patients with NASH to minimize damage from oxidative stress and slow the processes leading to cirrhosis.
PMCID: PMC3953734  PMID: 24695939
vitamin E; vitamin C; nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; oxidative stress
5.  Activation of Invariant NKT Cells with Glycolipid Ligand α-Galactosylceramide Ameliorates Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase Peptide-Induced Arthritis 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51215.
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells regulate collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) when activated by their potent glycolipid ligand, alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI)-induced arthritis is a closer model of human rheumatoid arthritis based on its association with CD4+ T cells and cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 than CIA. Dominant T cell epitope peptide of GPI (GPI325-339) can induce arthritis similar to GPI-induced arthritis. In this study, we investigated the roles of activation of iNKT cells by α-GalCer in GPI peptide-induced arthritis.
Arthritis was induced in susceptible DBA1 mice with GPI peptide and its severity was assessed clinically. The arthritic mice were treated with either the vehicle (DMSO) or α-GalCer. iNKT cells were detected in draining lymph nodes (dLNs) by flow cytometry, while serum anti-GPI antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To evaluate GPI peptide-specific cytokine production from CD4+ T cells, immunized mice were euthanized and dLN CD4+ cells were re-stimulated by GPI-peptide in the presence of antigen-presenting cells.
α-GalCer induced iNKT cell expansion in dLNs and significantly decreased the severity of GPI peptide-induced arthritis. In α-GalCer-treated mice, anti-GPI antibody production (total IgG, IgG1, IgG2b) and IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α produced by GPI peptide-specific T cells were significantly suppressed at day 10. Moreover, GPI-reactive T cells from mice immunized with GPI and α-GalCer did not generate any cytokines even when these cells were co-cultured with APC from mice immunized with GPI alone. In vitro depletion of iNKT cells did not alter the suppressive effect of α-GalCer on CD4+ T cells.
α-GalCer significantly suppressed GPI peptide-induced arthritis through the suppression of GPI-specific CD4+ T cells.
PMCID: PMC3520964  PMID: 23251456
6.  Association of TNFAIP3 interacting protein 1, TNIP1 with systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population: a case-control association study 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2010;12(5):R174.
TNFAIP3 interacting protein 1, TNIP1 (ABIN-1) is involved in inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by interacting with TNF alpha-induced protein 3, A20 (TNFAIP3), an established susceptibility gene to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent genome-wide association studies revealed association of TNIP1 with SLE in the Caucasian and Chinese populations. In this study, we investigated whether the association of TNIP1 with SLE was replicated in a Japanese population. In addition, association of TNIP1 with RA was also examined.
A case-control association study was conducted on the TNIP1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7708392 in 364 Japanese SLE patients, 553 RA patients and 513 healthy controls.
Association of TNIP1 rs7708392C was replicated in Japanese SLE (allele frequency in SLE: 76.5%, control: 69.9%, P = 0.0022, odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.74). Notably, the risk allele frequency in the healthy controls was considerably greater in Japanese (69.9%) than in Caucasians (24.3%). A tendency of stronger association was observed in the SLE patients with renal disorder (P = 0.00065, OR 1.60 [95%CI 1.22-2.10]) than in all SLE patients (P = 0.0022, OR 1.40 [95%CI 1.13-1.74]). Significant association with RA was not observed, regardless of the carriage of human leukocyte antigen DR β1 (HLA-DRB1) shared epitope. Significant gene-gene interaction between TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 was detected neither in SLE nor RA.
Association of TNIP1 with SLE was confirmed in a Japanese population. TNIP1 is a shared SLE susceptibility gene in the Caucasian and Asian populations, but the genetic contribution appeared to be greater in the Japanese and Chinese populations because of the higher risk allele frequency. Taken together with the association of TNFAIP3, these observations underscore the crucial role of NF-κB regulation in the pathogenesis of SLE.
PMCID: PMC2991001  PMID: 20849588
8.  Association of TNFAIP3 Polymorphism with Susceptibility to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Japanese Population 
Recent genome-wide association studies demonstrated association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNFAIP3 region at 6q23 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in European-American populations. In this study, we investigated whether SNPs in the TNFAIP3 region are associated with SLE also in a Japanese population. A case-control association study was performed on the SNPs rs13192841, rs2230926, and rs6922466 in 318 Japanese SLE patients and 444 healthy controls. Association of rs2230926 G allele with SLE was replicated in Japanese (allelic association P = .033, odds ratio [OR] 1.47, recessive model P = .023, OR 8.52). The association was preferentially observed in the SLE patients with nephritis. When the TNFAIP3 mRNA levels of the HapMap samples were examined using GENEVAR database, the presence of TNFAIP3 rs2230926 G allele was associated with lower mRNA expression of TNFAIP3 (P = .013). These results indicated that TNFAIP3 is a susceptibility gene to SLE both in the Caucasian and Asian populations.
PMCID: PMC2896654  PMID: 20617138
9.  Significance of antiprothrombin antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical evaluation of the antiprothrombin assay and the antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin assay, and comparison with other antiphospholipid antibody assays 
Modern Rheumatology  2006;16(3):158-164.
Antibodies against prothrombin are detected by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) in sera of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, there are two methods for antiprothrombin EIA; one that uses high binding plates (aPT-A), and another that utilizes phosphatidylserine bound plates (aPS/PT). We aimed to evaluate and compare aPT-A and aPS/PT in a clinical setting. We performed EIA for anti-PT, anti-PS/PT, IgG, and IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and IgG β2-glycoprotein I-dependent aCL (aβ2GPI/CL) with serum samples from 139 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients (16 with history of at least one thrombotic episode) and 148 controls. We observed that: (1) although titers of anti-PT and anti-PS/PT were significantly related with each other (P < 0.0001, ρ = 0.548), titer of anti-PT and anti-PS/PT differed greatly in some samples; (2) odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for each assay was 3.556 (1.221–10.355) for aPT-A, 4.591 (1.555–15.560) for aPS/PT, 4.204 (1.250–14.148) for IgG aCL, 1.809 (0.354–9.232) for IgM aCL, and 7.246 (2.391–21.966) for aβ2GPI/CL. We conclude that, while all EIA performed in this study except IgM aCL are of potential value in assessing the risk of thrombosis, aPS/PT and aβ2GPI/CL seemed to be highly valuable in clinical practice, and that autoantibodies detected by anti-PT and anti-PS/PT are not completely identical.
PMCID: PMC2778700  PMID: 16767554
Antiphospholipid syndrome; Antiprothrombin antibody; Enzyme immunoassay; Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
10.  Altered peptide ligands inhibit arthritis induced by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase peptide 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(6):R167.
Immunosuppressants, including anti-TNFα antibodies, have remarkable effects in rheumatoid arthritis; however, they increase infectious events. The present study was designed to examine the effects and immunological change of action of altered peptide ligands (APLs) on glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) peptide-induced arthritis.
DBA/1 mice were immunized with hGPI325-339, and cells of draining lymph node (DLN) were stimulated with hGPI325-339 to investigate the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells by flow cytometry. Twenty types of APLs with one amino acid substitution at a TCR contact site of hGPI325-339 were synthesized. CD4+ T cells primed with human GPI and antigen-presenting cells were co-cultured with each APL and cytokine production was measured by ELISA to identify antagonistic APLs. Antagonistic APLs were co-immunized with hGPI325-339 to investigate whether arthritis could be antigen-specifically inhibited by APL. After co-immunization, DLN cells were stimulated with hGPI325-339 or APL to investigate Th17 and regulatory T-cell population by flow cytometry, and anti-mouse GPI antibodies were measured by ELISA.
Human GPI325-339-specific Th17 cells showed predominant usage of TCRVβ8.1 8.2. Among the 20 synthesized APLs, four (APL 6; N329S, APL 7; N329T, APL 12; G332A, APL 13; G332V) significantly reduced IL-17 production by CD4+ T cells in the presence of hGPI325-339. Co-immunization with each antagonistic APL markedly prevented the development of arthritis, especially APL 13 (G332V). Although co-immunization with APL did not affect the population of Th17 and regulatory T cells, the titers of anti-mouse GPI antibodies in mice co-immunized with APL were significantly lower than in those without APL.
We prepared antagonistic APLs that antigen-specifically inhibited the development of experimental arthritis. Understanding the inhibitory mechanisms of APLs may pave the way for the development of novel therapies for arthritis induced by autoimmune responses to ubiquitous antigens.
PMCID: PMC3003534  PMID: 19900268
11.  Tumor necrosis factor α-induced adipose-related protein expression in experimental arthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2009;11(4):R118.
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) plays a pivotal role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the mechanism of action of TNFα antagonists in RA is poorly defined. Immunization of DBA/1 mice with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) induces severe acute arthritis. This arthritis can be controlled by TNFα antagonists, suggesting similar etiology to RA. In this study, we explored TNFα-related mechanisms of arthritis.
First, we performed GeneChip analysis using splenocytes of mice with GPI-induced arthritis. Expression of TNFα-induced adipose-related protein (TIARP) mRNA and protein in spleens, joints and lymph nodes was evaluated, and fluctuation of TIARP mRNA was analyzed after administration of anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody (mAb). Localization of TIARP in spleen and joints was also explored. Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate (STEAP) families of proteins, the human ortholog of TIARP gene, were also evaluated in human peripheral blood mononucleocytes and synovium.
Among the arrayed TNFα-related genes, the expression of TIARP mRNA was the highest (more than 20 times the control). TIARP mRNA was detected specifically in joints and spleens of arthritic mice, and their levels in the synovia correlated with severity of joint swelling. Treatment with anti-TNF mAb significantly reduced TIARP mRNA expression in splenocytes. Among the splenocytes, CD11b+ cells were the main source of TIARP mRNA. Immunohistochemistry showed that TIARP protein was mainly localized in hyperplastic synovium. Among the STEAP family of proteins, STEAP4 was highly upregulated in joints of patients with RA and especially co-localized with CD68+ macrophages.
The results shed light on the new mechanism of action of TNFα antagonists in autoimmune arthritis, suggesting that TIARP plays an important role in inflammatory arthritis, through the regulation of inflammatory cytokines.
PMCID: PMC2745801  PMID: 19660107
12.  A new low-field extremity magnetic resonance imaging and proposed compact MRI score: evaluation of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics on rheumatoid arthritis 
Modern Rheumatology  2009;19(4):358-365.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool for evaluating disease activity and therapeutic efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, conventional whole-body MRI is inconvenient on several levels. We have therefore developed a new low-field extremity MRI (compact MRI, cMRI) and examined its clinical utility. Thirteen RA patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biologics were included in the study. The MRI was performed twice using a 0.21-T extremity MRI system. The MRI images were scored using our proposed cMRI scoring system, which we devised with reference to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials RA MRI score (OMERACT RAMRIS). In our cMRI scoring system, synovitis, bone edema, and bone erosion are separately graded on a scale from 0 to 3 by imaging over the whole hand, including the proximal interphalangeal joint. The total cMRI score (cMRIS) is then obtained by calculating the total bone erosion score × 1.5 + total bone edema score × 1.25 + total synovitis score. In this study, one patient showed a progression of bone destruction even under low clinical activity, as assessed by the disease activity score on 28 joints (DAS28); however, another patient’s cMRIS decreased concurrently with the decrease in DAS28, with the positive correlation observed between ΔDAS28 and ΔcMRIS (R = 0.055, P < 0.05). We conclude that cMRI and cMRIS are useful for assessing total disease activity and as a method linking MRI image evaluation to clinical evaluation.
PMCID: PMC2720580  PMID: 19370385
Anti-TNF biologics; Bone edema; Bone erosion; Low-field extremity MRI; MRI scoring system; Rheumatoid arthritis
13.  Efficacy of mizoribine pulse therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who show a reduced or insufficient response to infliximab 
Modern Rheumatology  2009;19(3):229-234.
The efficacy of infliximab, a chimeric antibody against tumor necrosis factor-α used to treat patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), tends to decrease as patients develop human antichimeric antibody against infliximab (HACA). The clinical study reported here was designed to evaluate the efficacy of mizoribine (MZR) pulse therapy in patients who show a reduced or insufficient response to infliximab. Ten RA patients who had active arthritis despite infliximab therapy were treated with MZR pulse therapy at a dose of 100 mg MZR and methotrexate (MTX) and the disease activity assessed at baseline and at weeks 4–8, 12–16, and 20–24. The dose was increased to 150 mg in those patients who showed an insufficient response to MZR. The mean 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) at weeks 12–16 and 20–24 of therapy was significantly lower than that at baseline. A moderate or good European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) response was achieved in seven patients (70%) at weeks 12–16 and in five patients (50%) at weeks 20–24. The dose of 150 mg MZR was effective in one of the three patients who showed an insufficient response to pulse therapy with 100 mg MZR. Based on these results, we propose that MZR pulse therapy should be attempted before the patient is switched to other biologics.
PMCID: PMC2689357  PMID: 19326186
Infliximab; Mizoribine; Rheumatoid arthritis
14.  Arthritogenic T cell epitope in glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-induced arthritis 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2008;10(6):R130.
Arthritis induced by immunisation with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) in DBA/1 mice was proven to be T helper (Th) 17 dependent. We undertook this study to identify GPI-specific T cell epitopes in DBA/1 mice (H-2q) and investigate the mechanisms of arthritis generation.
For epitope mapping, the binding motif of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (I-Aq) from DBA/1 mice was identified from the amino acid sequence of T cell epitopes and candidate peptides of T cell epitopes in GPI-induced arthritis were synthesised. Human GPI-primed CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) were co-cultured with each synthetic peptide and the cytokine production was measured by ELISA to identify the major epitopes. Synthetic peptides were immunised in DBA/1 mice to investigate whether arthritis could be induced by peptides. After immunisation with the major epitope, anti-interleukin (IL) 17 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was injected to monitor arthritis score. To investigate the mechanisms of arthritis induced by a major epitope, cross-reactivity to mouse GPI peptide was analysed by flow cytometry and anti-GPI antibodies were measured by ELISA. Deposition of anti-GPI antibodies on the cartilage surface was detected by immunohistology.
We selected 32 types of peptides as core sequences from the human GPI 558 amino acid sequence, which binds the binding motif, and synthesised 25 kinds of 20-mer peptides for screening, each containing the core sequence at its centre. By epitope mapping, human GPI325–339 was found to induce interferon (IFN) γ and IL-17 production most prominently. Immunisation with human GPI325–339 could induce polyarthritis similar to arthritis induced by human GPI protein, and administration of anti-IL-17 mAb significantly ameliorated arthritis (p < 0.01). Th17 cells primed with human GPI325–339 cross-reacted with mouse GPI325–339, and led B cells to produce anti-mouse GPI antibodies, which were deposited on cartilage surface.
Human GPI325–339 was identified as a major epitope in GPI-induced arthritis, and proved to have the potential to induce polyarthritis. Understanding the pathological mechanism of arthritis induced by an immune reaction to a single short peptide could help elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune arthritis.
PMCID: PMC2656230  PMID: 18992137
15.  Role of STAT4 polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus in a Japanese population: a case-control association study of the STAT1-STAT4 region 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2008;10(5):R113.
Recent studies identified STAT4 (signal transducers and activators of transcription-4) as a susceptibility gene for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). STAT1 is encoded adjacently to STAT4 on 2q32.2-q32.3, upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from SLE patients, and functionally relevant to SLE. This study was conducted to test whether STAT4 is associated with SLE in a Japanese population also, to identify the risk haplotype, and to examine the potential genetic contribution of STAT1. To accomplish these aims, we carried out a comprehensive association analysis of 52 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing the STAT1-STAT4 region.
In the first screening, 52 tag SNPs were selected based on HapMap Phase II JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) data, and case-control association analysis was carried out on 105 Japanese female patients with SLE and 102 female controls. For associated SNPs, additional cases and controls were genotyped and association was analyzed using 308 SLE patients and 306 controls. Estimation of haplotype frequencies and an association study using the permutation test were performed with Haploview version 4.0 software. Population attributable risk percentage was estimated to compare the epidemiological significance of the risk genotype among populations.
In the first screening, rs7574865, rs11889341, and rs10168266 in STAT4 were most significantly associated (P < 0.01). Significant association was not observed for STAT1. Subsequent association studies of the three SNPs using 308 SLE patients and 306 controls confirmed a strong association of the rs7574865T allele (SLE patients: 46.3%, controls: 33.5%, P = 4.9 × 10-6, odds ratio 1.71) as well as TTT haplotype (rs10168266/rs11889341/rs7574865) (P = 1.5 × 10-6). The association was stronger in subgroups of SLE with nephritis and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies. Population attributable risk percentage was estimated to be higher in the Japanese population (40.2%) than in Americans of European descent (19.5%).
The same STAT4 risk allele is associated with SLE in Caucasian and Japanese populations. Evidence for a role of STAT1 in genetic susceptibility to SLE was not detected. The contribution of STAT4 for the genetic background of SLE may be greater in the Japanese population than in Americans of European descent.
PMCID: PMC2592800  PMID: 18803832
16.  Therapeutic effects of antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin in mice with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase induced arthritis 
Immunization with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) induces severe arthritis in DBA/1 mice. The present study was designed to identify the cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules involved in the development of GPI-induced arthritis.
Arthritis was induced in DBA/1 mice with 300 μg human recombinant GPI. CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells from splenocytes of arthritic mice were cultured in the presence of GPI. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 levels were assessed using cytometric bead array. Monoclonal antibodies to TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12, CD40L, inducible co-stimulator (ICOS), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 immunoglobulin (CTLA-4Ig) were used to block TNF-α and IFN-γ production, examine clinical index in mice with GPI-induced arthritis, and determine anti-GPI antibody production.
Large amounts of TNF-α and IFN-γ and small amounts of IL-2 and IL-6 were produced by splenocytes from mice with GPI-induced arthritis. Anti-TNF-α mAbs and CTLA-4Ig suppressed TNF-α production, whereas anti-IFN-γ mAbs, anti-IL-12 mAbs, and CTLA-4 Ig inhibited IFN-γ production. A single injection of anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6 mAbs and two injections of CTLA-4Ig reduced the severity of arthritis in mice, whereas injections of anti-IFN-γ and anti-IL-12 mAbs tended to exacerbate arthritis. Therapeutic efficacy tended to correlate with reduction in anti-GPI antibodies.
TNF-α and IL-6 play an important role in GPI-induced arthritis, whereas IFN-γ appears to function as a regulator of arthritis. Because the therapeutic effects of the tested molecules used in this study are similar to those in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, GPI-induced arthritis appears to be a suitable tool with which to examine the effect of various therapies on rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC2483457  PMID: 18534002
17.  A functional variant of Fcγ receptor IIIA is associated with rheumatoid arthritis in individuals who are positive for anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase antibodies 
Arthritis Research & Therapy  2005;7(6):R1183-R1188.
Anti-glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) antibodies are known to be arthritogenic autoantibodies in K/B×N mice, although some groups have reported that few healthy humans retain these antibodies. The expression of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) is genetically regulated and has strong implications for the development of experimental arthritis. The interaction between immune complexes and FcγRs might therefore be involved in the pathogenesis of some arthritic conditions. To explore the relationship between functional polymorphisms in FcγRs (FCGR3A-158V/F and FCGR2A-131H/R) and arthritis in individuals positive for anti-GPI antibodies, we evaluated these individuals with respect to FCGR genotype. Genotyping for FCGR3A-158V/F and FCGR2A-131H/R was performed by PCR amplification of the polymorphic site, followed by site specific restriction digestion using the genome of 187 Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (including 23 who were anti-GPI antibody positive) and 158 Japanese healthy individuals (including nine who were anti-GPI antibody positive). We report here on the association of FCGR3A-158V/F functional polymorphism with anti-GPI antibody positive status. Eight out of nine healthy individuals who were positive for anti-GPI antibodies possessed the homozygous, low affinity genotype FCGR3A-158F (odds ratio = 0.09, 95% confidence interval 0.01–0.89; P = 0.0199), and probably were 'protected' from arthritogenic antibodies. Moreover, among those who were homozygous for the high affinity genotype FCGR3A-158V/V, there were clear differences in anti-human and anti-rabbit GPI titres between patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy subjects (P = 0.0027 and P = 0.0015, respectively). Our findings provide a molecular model of the genetic regulation of autoantibody-induced arthritis by allele-specific affinity of the FcγRs.
PMCID: PMC1297563  PMID: 16277670
18.  Induction of Tissue Factor Expression in Endothelial Cells by Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and its Modulation by Fenofibric acid 
Thrombosis Journal  2003;1:6.
Tissue factor (TF), expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and enriched in human atherosclerotic lesions, acts as a critical initiator of blood coagulation in acute coronary syndrome. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces the proliferation and migration of ECs and plays a role in angiogenesis and restoration of endothelial integrity. As TF is implicated in angiogenesis, we studied the effect of bFGF on TF gene and protein expression. Methods: Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were exposed to bFGF. TF mRNA was assessed by Northern blot and TF protein was assessed by Western blot. TF promoter activity was assessed by transient transfection assay and transcription factor was identified by electro mobility shift assay.
bFGF increased TF mRNA and protein expression in HUVECs. Increased TF mRNA was attenuated by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase in human ECV304 cells. Transient transfection assays of the human TF promoter-luciferase construct (-786/+121 bp) demonstrated that bFGF induced transcription was dependent on the elements within the -197 to -176 bp relative to the transcription start site of the human TF gene. This region contains NF-κB like binding site. Electro mobility shift assay showed that bFGF increased nuclear translocation or DNA binding of NF-κB transcription factor to TF promoter. Nucleotide substitution to disrupt NF-κB like site reduced bFGF stimulated promoter activity. Fenofibric acid, an agonist ligand for the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α, reduced basal and bFGF stimulated TF expression.
These results indicate that bFGF may increase TF production in ECs through activation of transcription at NF-κB binding site, and control coagulation in vessel walls. Fibrate can inhibit TF expression and therefore reduce the thrombogenecity of human atherosclerotic lesions.
PMCID: PMC270084  PMID: 14613528
Endothelium; tissue factor; bFGF; promoter; fibrate

Results 1-18 (18)