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1.  Designing Endocrine Disruption Out of the Next Generation of Chemicals 
A central goal of green chemistry is to avoid hazard in the design of new chemicals. This objective is best achieved when information about a chemical’s potential hazardous effects is obtained as early in the design process as feasible. Endocrine disruption is a type of hazard that to date has been inadequately addressed by both industrial and regulatory science. To aid chemists in avoiding this hazard, we propose an endocrine disruption testing protocol for use by chemists in the design of new chemicals. The Tiered Protocol for Endocrine Disruption (TiPED) has been created under the oversight of a scientific advisory committee composed of leading representatives from both green chemistry and the environmental health sciences. TiPED is conceived as a tool for new chemical design, thus it starts with a chemist theoretically at “the drawing board.” It consists of five testing tiers ranging from broad in silico evaluation up through specific cell- and whole organism-based assays. To be effective at detecting endocrine disruption, a testing protocol must be able to measure potential hormone-like or hormone-inhibiting effects of chemicals, as well as the many possible interactions and signaling sequellae such chemicals may have with cell-based receptors. Accordingly, we have designed this protocol to broadly interrogate the endocrine system. The proposed protocol will not detect all possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption, because scientific understanding of these phenomena is advancing rapidly. To ensure that the protocol remains current, we have established a plan for incorporating new assays into the protocol as the science advances. In this paper we present the principles that should guide the science of testing new chemicals for endocrine disruption, as well as principles by which to evaluate individual assays for applicability, and laboratories for reliability. In a ‘proof-of-principle’ test, we ran 6 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that act via different endocrinological mechanisms through the protocol using published literature. Each was identified as endocrine active by one or more tiers. We believe that this voluntary testing protocol will be a dynamic tool to facilitate efficient and early identification of potentially problematic chemicals, while ultimately reducing the risks to public health.
PMCID: PMC4125359  PMID: 25110461
2.  Giant Retroperitoneal Lipoma Presenting as Inguinal Hernia 
The Indian Journal of Surgery  2011;73(3):187-189.
Retroperitoneal lipomas are known for their rarity and varied presentations. We are reporting a case of giant retroperitoneal lipoma which presented as inguinal hernia.
PMCID: PMC3087070  PMID: 22654328
Retoperitoneal lipoma; Orchidectomy; Diffuse lipomatosis; Panniculitis
4.  Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Contacts on Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Neurones Increase Following Puberty in Female Rats 
Journal of Neuroendocrinology  2002;14(9):685-690.
Successful reproduction requires precise temporal coordination among various endocrine and behavioural events. The circadian system regulates daily temporal organization in behaviour and physiology, including neuroendocrine rhythms. The main circadian pacemaker in mammals is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN sends direct efferents to the reproductive axis via monosynaptic projections to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. This communication generates circadian endocrine rhythms as well as the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge necessary for successful ovulation. One SCN peptide thought to be important for the regulation of oestrous cycles is vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). VIP neurones from the SCN contact GnRH cells, and these cells are preferentially activated during an LH surge in rats. Unlike adult rats, prepubertal females do not exhibit oestrous cycles, nor do they exhibit an LH surge in response to oestradiol positive-feedback. The present study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the development of a ‘mature’ reproductive axis in female rats is associated with modifications in VIP contacts on GnRH neurones. The brains of diestrus adult (approximately 60 days of age) and prepubertal (21 days of age) female rats were examined using double-label fluorescence immunohistochemistry for VIP and GnRH, with light and confocal microscopy. Although the total number of GnRH-immunoreactive neurones did not differ between adult and prepubertal females, adults had a significant increase in the percentage of GnRH cells receiving VIP contacts compared to juveniles. These data suggest that the development of reproductive hormone rhythms and oestrous cyclicity may be, in part, due to modifications of VIP input to the GnRH system.
PMCID: PMC3271841  PMID: 12213129
circadian; oestrous cycle; oestrus; rhythm; hormone; endocrine; reproduction
5.  Prenatal exposure to vinclozolin disrupts selective aspects of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal system of the rabbit 
Journal of neuroendocrinology  2010;22(6):518-526.
Developmental exposure to the agricultural fungicide vinclozolin can impair reproductive function in male rabbits and was previously found to decrease the number of immunoreactive-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (ir-GnRH) neurons in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) and rostral preoptic area (rPOA) by postnatal week (PNW) 6. To further examine the disruption of GnRH neurons by fetal vinclozolin exposure, in the current study, pregnant rabbits were dosed orally with vinclozolin, flutamide, or carrot paste vehicle for the last two weeks of gestation. Offspring were euthanized at birth (males and females), PNW6 (females), PNW26 (adult males), or PNW30 (adult females) of age. At birth and in adults, brains were sectioned and processed for immunoreactive GnRH. The numbers of immunoreactive GnRH neuronal perikarya were significantly decreased in vinclozolin-treated rabbits at birth and in adult littermates. By contrast, there was an increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the terminals in the region of the median eminence. Analysis of PNW6 female brains by radioimmunoassay (RIA) revealed a two-fold increase in GnRH peptide content in the mediobasal hypothalamus in vinclozolin-treated rabbits. This finding was complemented by immunofluorescence analyses that showed a 2.8-fold increase in GnRH immunoreactivity in the median eminence of vinclozolin compared to vehicle-treated females at PNW30. However, there was no difference between treatment groups in the measures of reproduction that were evaluated: ejaculation latency, conception rates or litter size. These results indicate that subacute, prenatal vinclozolin treatment is sufficient to create perdurable alterations in the GnRH neuronal network that forms an important input into the reproductive axis. Finally, the effect of vinclozolin on the GnRH neuronal network was not comparable to that of flutamide, suggesting that vinclozolin was not acting through anti-androgenic mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC2902197  PMID: 20236232
reproduction; gonadotropin-releasing hormone; hypothalamus; neuroendocrinology; toxicology
6.  Age- and Hormone-Regulation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Subunit NR2b in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus of the Female Rat 
Journal of neuroendocrinology  2009;21(5):506-517.
Glutamate, acting through its N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in the hypothalamus, regulates reproductive neuroendocrine functions via direct and indirect actions upon gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones. Previous studies indicate that the NMDA receptor subunit NR2b undergoes changes in protein and gene expression in the hypothalamus in general, and on GnRH neurones in particular, during reproductive ageing. In the present study, we examined whether the NR2b-expressing cell population, both alone and in association with the NR1 subunit (i.e. the latter subunit is necessary for a functional NMDA receptor), is altered as a function of age and/or steroid hormone treatment. Studies focused on the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus of the hypothalamus, a region critically involved in the control of reproduction. Young (3-5 months), middle-aged (9-12 months), and aged (approximately 22 months) female rats were ovariectomised and, 1 month later, they were treated sequentially with oestradiol plus progesterone, oestradiol plus vehicle, or vehicle plus vehicle, then perfused. Quantitative stereologic analysis of NR2b-immunoreactive cell numbers in the AVPV showed an age-associated decrease in the density of NR2b-immunoreactive cells, but no effect of hormone treatment. In a second study, immunofluorescent double labelling of NR2b and NR1 was analysed by confocal microscopy of fraction volume, a semi-quantitative measure of fluorescence intensity. No effect of ageing was detected for immunofluorescent NR1 or NR2b alone, whereas the NR2b fraction volume increased in the oestradiol plus vehicle group. With ageing, the fraction volume of the NR2b/NR1-colocalised subunits increased. Together with the stereology results, this suggests that, although fewer cells express the NR2b subunit in the ageing AVPV, a greater percentage of these subunits are co-expressed with NR1. Our results suggest that the subunit composition of NMDA receptors in the AVPV undergo both age- and hormonal-regulation, which may be related to previous observations of changes in functional responses of reproductive neuroendocrine systems to NMDA receptor modulators with ageing.
PMCID: PMC2930127  PMID: 19302193
N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor); NR2b; reproductive ageing; oestrogen; gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH); glutamate
7.  Acute weight loss followed by an aggressive nutritional recovery strategy has little impact on on‐water rowing performance 
To assess the influence of moderate, acute weight loss on on‐water rowing performance when aggressive nutritional recovery strategies were used in the two hours between weigh in and racing.
Competitive rowers (n  =  17) undertook three on‐water 1800 m time trials under cool conditions (mean (SD) temperature 8.4 (2.0)°C), each separated by 48 hours. No weight limit was imposed for the first time trial—that is, unrestricted body mass (UNR1). However, one of the remaining two trials followed a 4% loss in body mass in the previous 24 hours (WT−4%). No weight limit was imposed for the other trial (UNR2). Aggressive nutritional recovery strategies (WT−4%, 2.3 g/kg carbohydrate, 34 mg/kg Na+, and 28.4 ml/kg fluid; UNR, ad libitum) were used in the first 90 minutes of the two hours between weigh in and performance trials.
WT−4% had only a small and statistically non‐significant effect on the on‐water time trial performance (mean 1.0 second, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.9 to 2.8; p  =  0.29) compared with UNR. This was despite a significant decrease in plasma volume at the time of weigh in for WT−4% compared with UNR (−9.2%, 95% CI −12.8% to −5.6%; p<0.001).
Acute weight loss of up to 4% over 24 hours, when combined with aggressive nutritional recovery strategies, can be undertaken with minimal impact on on‐water rowing performance, at least in cool conditions.
PMCID: PMC2491923  PMID: 16371492
making weight; hypohydration; recovery; rowing
9.  Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1999;107(Suppl 3):431-437.
Six million children live in poverty in America's inner cities. These children are at high risk of exposure to pesticides that are used extensively in urban schools, homes, and day-care centers for control of roaches, rats, and other vermin. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos and certain pyrethroids are the registered pesticides most heavily applied in cities. Illegal street pesticides are also in use, including tres pasitos (a carbamate), tiza china, and methyl parathion. In New York State in 1997, the heaviest use of pesticides in all counties statewide was in the urban boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. Children are highly vulnerable to pesticides. Because of their play close to the ground, their hand-to-mouth behavior, and their unique dietary patterns, children absorb more pesticides from their environment than adults. The long persistence of semivolatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos on rugs, furniture, stuffed toys, and other absorbent surfaces within closed apartments further enhances urban children's exposures. Compounding these risks of heavy exposures are children's decreased ability to detoxify and excrete pesticides and the rapid growth, development, and differentiation of their vital organ systems. These developmental immaturities create early windows of great vulnerability. Recent experimental data suggest, for example, that chlorpyrifos may be a developmental neurotoxicant and that exposure in utero may cause biochemical and functional aberrations in fetal neurons as well as deficits in the number of neurons. Certain pyrethroids exert hormonal activity that may alter early neurologic and reproductive development. Assays currently used for assessment of the toxicity of pesticides are insensitive and cannot accurately predict effects to children exposed in utero or in early postnatal life. Protection of American children, and particularly of inner-city children, against the developmental hazards of pesticides requires a comprehensive strategy that monitors patterns of pesticide use on a continuing basis, assesses children's actual exposures to pesticides, uses state-of-the-art developmental toxicity testing, and establishes societal targets for reduction of pesticide use.
PMCID: PMC1566233  PMID: 10346991
10.  Inexpensive probes for the determination of body temperature. 
Two-terminal integrated circuit temperature transducers (Analog Devices' AD 590) were used to fabricate skin and rectal probes for the monitoring of mean body temperature. They are inexpensive, robust, easily constructed and of low mass. The skin sensor system described is capable of being solidly attached regardless of the body contour such that it remains integral throughout profuse sweating and vigorous movement. Both types of probe are stable, accurate to within +/- 0.05 degree C over the physiological range of measurement and exhibit 100% response times of approximately 60 s to a square wave stimulus of 10 degrees C.
PMCID: PMC1478435  PMID: 3676639
11.  Lifetime carcinogenicity study of 1- and 2-naphthylamine in dogs. 
British Journal of Cancer  1981;44(6):892-901.
Groups of male and female beagle dogs were given daily doses of 400 mg of various mixtures of naphthylamines for up to 109 months. Survivors were killed at 128 months. A variety of pathological conditions was diagnosed, but the only effect related to treatment was the induction of bladder neoplasms. All dogs which received pure 2-naphthylamine developed transitional-cell carcinomas of the bladder within 34 months. Two of 8 dogs receiving 6% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed early carcinoma and 2/8 dogs receiving 0.5% 2-naphthylamine in 1-naphthylamine developed haemangioma of the bladder. Some of the dogs receiving 1-naphthylamine (total dose 950 g) and the controls had focal cystitis or hyperplasia, but no neoplasia of the bladder. These results confirm the carcinogenicity of 2-naphthylamine to dogs. No carcinogenic effect of 1-naphthylamine was observed, indicating that it is at least 200 times less potent as a carcinogen than 2-naphthylamine. The incidence of bladder cancer in dogs fed mixtures of both naphthylamines explains why previous experimental and epidemiological studies of impure 1-naphthylamine have revealed carcinogenicity.
PMCID: PMC2010866  PMID: 7326199
12.  Incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis in people with food allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Clinical and Experimental Allergy  2013;43(12):1333-1341.
Food allergy is a common cause of anaphylaxis, but the incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis is not known. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis for people with food allergy and relate this to other mortality risks in the general population.
We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis, using the generic inverse variance method. Two authors selected studies by consensus, independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa assessment scale. We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS or AMED, between January 1946 and September 2012, and recent conference abstracts. We included registries, databases or cohort studies which described the number of fatal food anaphylaxis cases in a defined population and time period and applied an assumed population prevalence rate of food allergy.
We included data from 13 studies describing 240 fatal food anaphylaxis episodes over an estimated 165 million food-allergic person-years. Study quality was mixed, and there was high heterogeneity between study results, possibly due to variation in food allergy prevalence and data collection methods. In food-allergic people, fatal food anaphylaxis has an incidence rate of 1.81 per million person-years (95%CI 0.94, 3.45; range 0.63, 6.68). In sensitivity analysis with different estimated food allergy prevalence, the incidence varied from 1.35 to 2.71 per million person-years. At age 0–19, the incidence rate is 3.25 (1.73, 6.10; range 0.94, 15.75; sensitivity analysis 1.18–6.13). The incidence of fatal food anaphylaxis in food-allergic people is lower than accidental death in the general European population.
Fatal food anaphylaxis for a food-allergic person is rarer than accidental death in the general population.
PMCID: PMC4165304  PMID: 24118190
anaphylaxis; food allergy; mortality; systematic review

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