Metaplastic lineages in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach are critical preneoplastic precursors of gastric cancer. Recent studies have demonstrated that Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in the mouse oxyntic mucosa arises from transdifferentiation of mature gastric chief cells. Other investigations of intestinal progenitor cells have shown that cells demonstrating transcriptional activity for Lgr5 in the intestine, colon and gastric antrum function as adult stem cells. We have now investigated whether cells demonstrating Lgr5 transcriptional activity in the oxyntic mucosa of mice might be responsible for development of metaplasia.
Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/+;Rosa26R mice were utilized to examine the distribution of Lgr5 transcriptionally active cells in the normal oxyntic mucosa as well as after treatment with DMP-777 or L635 to induce acute SPEM. Lineage mapping was performed to determine if LGR5-expressing cells gave rise to SPEM.
Cells expressing transcriptional activity for Lgr5 in the oxyntic mucosa were present as scattered rare cells only along the lesser curvature of the stomach. These cells also stained for markers of chief cells (intrinsic factor and pepsinogen) but never showed any staining for proliferative markers (Ki-67). In Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/+;Rosa26R mice induced with tamoxifen, treatment with either DMP-777 or L-635 to induce acute oxyntic atrophy caused induction of SPEM, but no lineage mapping into SPEM from Lgr5-expressing cells was observed.
The results indicate that, while chief cells with Lgr5-transcriptional activity are present along the lesser curvature of the gastric oxyntic mucosa, they are not responsible for production of metaplasia.
SPEM; chief cell; Lgr5; TFF2; oxyntic atrophy
Eradication of Helicobacter pylori correlates with regeneration of the gastric epithelium, ulcer healing and re-expression of the gastric morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh). We sought to identify the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric epithelial regeneration during wound healing. A mouse model expressing a parietal cell-specific, tamoxifen-inducible deletion of Shh (HKCreERT2;Shhflox/flox or PC-iShhKO) was developed. Stomachs were collected and compared 7 to 150 days after the final vehicle or tamoxifen injection. Ulcers were induced in both controls and PC-iShhKO mice using acetic acid and ulcer size compared 1 and 7 days post induction. 1) Re-expression of Shh correlates with decreased hyperproliferation: Compared to controls, PC-iShhKO mice developed foveolar hyperplasia. Restoration of normal gastric epithelial architecture and differentiation correlated with the re-expression of Shh in PC-iShhKO mice 150 days after the final tamoxifen injection. At the tamoxifen dose used to induce Cre recombination there was no genotoxicity reported in either HKCreERT2 or Shhflox/flox control mouse stomachs. 2) Delayed wound healing in PC-iShhKO mouse stomachs: To identify the role of Shh in gastric regeneration, an acetic acid ulcer was induced in control and PC-iShhKO mice. Ulcers began to heal in control mice by 7 days after induction. Ulcer healing was documented by decreased ulcer size, angiogenesis, macrophage infiltration and formation of granulation tissue that correlated with the re-expression of Shh within the ulcerated tissue. PC-iShhKO mice did not show evidence of ulcer healing. Re-expression of Shh contributes to gastric regeneration. Our current study may have clinical implications given that eradication of Helicobacter pylori correlates with re-expression of Shh, regeneration of the gastric epithelium and ulcer healing.
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori); gastric ulcer; re-epithelialization; tissue repair; macrophages
The digestive-enzyme secreting, gastric epithelial chief (zymogenic) cell is remarkable and underappreciated. Here, we discuss how all available evidence suggests that mature chief cells in the adult, mammalian stomach are postmitotic, slowly turning over cells that arise via a relatively long-lived progenitor, the mucous neck cell, The differentiation of chief cells from neck cells does not involve cell division, and the neck cell has its own distinct pattern of gene expression and putative physiological function. Thus, the ontogeny of the normal chief cell lineage exemplifies transdifferentiation. Furthermore, under pathophysiogical loss of acid-secreting parietal cell, the chief cell lineage can itself trasndifferentiate into a mucous cell metaplasia designated Spasmolytic Polypeptide Expressing Metaplasia (SPEM). Especially in the presence of inflammation, this metaplastic lineage can regain proliferative capacity and, in humans may also further differentiate into intestinal metaplasia. The results indicate that gastric fundic lineages display remarkable plasticity in both physiological ontogeny and pathophysiological pre-neoplastic metaplasia.
Gastric adenocarcinoma; metaplasia; SPEM; intestinal metaplasia; transdifferentiation; chief cell; zymogenic cell
Rab11a and Rab8 work in conjunction with myosin5B to promote discoidal/fusiform vesicle exocytosis at the apical surface of umbrella cells. It is predicted that similar Rab cascades will be common to other regulated secretory pathways.
Multiple Rabs are associated with secretory granules/vesicles, but how these GTPases are coordinated to promote regulated exocytosis is not well understood. In bladder umbrella cells a subapical pool of discoidal/fusiform-shaped vesicles (DFVs) undergoes Rab11a-dependent regulated exocytosis in response to bladder filling. We show that Rab11a-associated vesicles are enmeshed in an apical cytokeratin meshwork and that Rab11a likely acts upstream of Rab8a to promote exocytosis. Surprisingly, expression of Rabin8, a previously described Rab11a effector and guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rab8, stimulates stretch-induced exocytosis in a manner that is independent of its catalytic activity. Additional studies demonstrate that the unconventional motor protein myosin5B motor (Myo5B) works in association with the Rab8a–Rab11a module to promote exocytosis, possibly by ensuring transit of DFVs through a subapical, cortical actin cytoskeleton before fusion. Our results indicate that Rab11a, Rab8a, and Myo5B function as part of a network to promote stretch-induced exocytosis, and we predict that similarly organized Rab networks will be common to other regulated secretory pathways.
Rab25 is a tumor suppressor in the colon, but the mechanisms underlying the influence of Rab25 on polarity are unknown. Findings on changes in polarity in Caco2-BBE cells with knockdown and rescue of Rab25 expression indicate that Rab25 regulates integrin gene expression mediated by ETV4.
Rab25 is a tumor suppressor for colon cancer in humans and mice. To identify elements of intestinal polarity regulated by Rab25, we developed Caco2-BBE cell lines stably expressing short hairpin RNA for Rab25 and lines rescuing Rab25 knockdown with reexpression of rabbit Rab25. Rab25 knockdown decreased α2-, α5-, and β1-integrin expression. We observed colocalization and direct association of Rab25 with α5β1-integrins. Rab25 knockdown also up-regulated claudin-1 expression, increased transepithelial resistance, and increased invasive behavior. Rab25-knockdown cells showed disorganized brush border microvilli with decreases in villin expression. All of these changes were reversed by reintroduction of rabbit Rab25. Rab25 knockdown altered the expression of 29 gene transcripts, including the loss of α5-integrin transcripts. Rab25 loss decreased expression of one transcription factor, ETV4, and overexpression of ETV4 in Rab25-knockdown cells reversed losses of α5β1-integrin. The results suggest that Rab25 controls intestinal cell polarity through the regulation of gene expression.
The Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) facilitate Rab11-dependent vesicle recycling, yet it is unknown how these effectors cooperate with each other during recycling. It is found that Rab11-FIPs exhibit selective cooperation along dynamic tubular compartments to fill distinct spatiotemporal roles during recycling.
The Rab11-family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs) facilitate Rab11-dependent vesicle recycling. We hypothesized that Rab11-FIPs define discrete subdomains and carry out temporally distinct roles within the recycling system. We used live-cell deconvolution microscopy of HeLa cells expressing chimeric fluorescent Rab11-FIPs to examine Rab11-FIP localization, transferrin passage through Rab11-FIP–containing compartments, and overlap among Rab11-FIPs within the recycling system. FIP1A, FIP2, and FIP5 occupy widely distributed mobile tubules and vesicles, whereas FIP1B, FIP1C, and FIP3 localize to perinuclear tubules. Internalized transferrin entered Rab11-FIP–containing compartments within 5 min, reaching maximum colocalization with FIP1B and FIP2 early in the time course, whereas localization with FIP1A, FIP1C, FIP3, and FIP5 was delayed until 10 min or later. Whereas direct interactions with FIP1A were only observed for FIP1B and FIP1C, FIP1A also associated with membranes containing FIP3. Live-cell dual-expression studies of Rab11-FIPs revealed the tubular dynamics of Rab11-FIP–containing compartments and demonstrated a series of selective associations among Rab11-FIPs in real time. These findings suggest that Rab11-FIP1 proteins participate in spatially and temporally distinct steps of the recycling process along a complex and dynamic tubular network in which Rab11-FIPs occupy discrete domains.
Sox2 is expressed in developing foregut endoderm, with highest levels in the future esophagus and anterior stomach. By contrast, Nkx2.1 (Titf1) is expressed ventrally, in the future trachea. In humans, heterozygosity for SOX2 is associated with anopthalmiaesophageal-genital syndrome (OMIM 600992), a condition including esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF), in which the trachea and esophagus fail to separate. Mouse embryos heterozygous for the null allele, Sox2EGFP, appear normal. However, further reductions in Sox2, using Sox2LP and Sox2COND hypomorphic alleles, result in multiple abnormalities. Approximately 60% of Sox2EGFP/COND embryos have EA with distal TEF in which Sox2 is undetectable by immunohistochemistry or western blot. The mutant esophagus morphologically resembles the trachea, with ectopic expression of Nkx2.1, a columnar, ciliated epithelium, and very few p63+ basal cells. By contrast, the abnormal foregut of Nkx2.1-null embryos expresses elevated Sox2 and p63, suggesting reciprocal regulation of Sox2 and Nkx2.1 during early dorsal/ventral foregut patterning. Organ culture experiments further suggest that FGF signaling from the ventral mesenchyme regulates Sox2 expression in the endoderm. In the 40% Sox2EGFP/COND embryos in which Sox2 levels are ~18% of wild type there is no TEF. However, the esophagus is still abnormal, with luminal mucus-producing cells, fewer p63+ cells, and ectopic expression of genes normally expressed in glandular stomach and intestine. In all hypomorphic embryos the forestomach has an abnormal phenotype, with reduced keratinization, ectopic mucus cells and columnar epithelium. These findings suggest that Sox2 plays a second role in establishing the boundary between the keratinized, squamous esophagus/forestomach and glandular hindstomach.
Sox2; Nkx2.1; p63; Mouse embryo; Mutant; Foregut development; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Metaplasia
SMAD proteins are downstream effectors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. Smad3 null mice develop colorectal cancer by 6 months of age. In this study, we have examined whether the loss of Smad3 promotes gastric neoplasia in mice.
The stomachs of Smad3−/− mice were compared with age-matched Smad3 heterozygous and wild type mice. E-cadherin, Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemisty. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells was also performed. In addition, we examined alterations in DCLK1-expressing cells.
Smad3−/− mouse stomachs at 6 months of age revealed the presence of exophytic growths along the lesser curvature in the proximal fundus. Six-month-old Smad3−− mouse stomachs showed metaplastic columnar glands initiating from the transition zone junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium along the lesser curvature. Ten month-old Smad3−/− mice all exhibited invasive gastric neoplastic changes with increased Ki-67, phosphoSTAT3 expression, and aberrant cytosolic E-cadherin staining in papillary glands within the invading submucosal gland. The shRNA-mediated knockdown of Smad3 in AGS and MKN28 cells promoted the expression of phosphoSTAT3. DCLK1-expressing cells, which also stained for the tuft cell marker acetylated-α-tubulin, were observed in 10-month-old Smad3−/− mice within tumors and in fundic invasive lesions.
Smad3 null mice develop gastric tumors in the fundus, which arise from the junction between the forestomach and the glandular epithelium and progress to prominent invasive tumors over time. Smad3 null mice represent a novel model of fundic gastric tumor initiated from forestomach/glandular transition zone along the lesser curvature.
Animal model; Forestomach; DCLK1; HE4; Gastric tumor development; Smad3; SPEM; Tuft cell
Recent studies have identified caveolin-1, a protein best known for its functions in caveolae, in apical endocytic recycling compartments in polarized epithelial cells. However, very little is known about the regulation of caveolin-1 in the endocytic recycling pathway. To address this question, in the current study we compared the relationship between compartments enriched in sub-apical caveolin-1 and Rab11a, a well-defined marker of apical recycling endosomes, using polarized MDCK cells as a model. We show that caveolin-1-containing vesicles define a compartment that partially overlaps with Rab11a, and that the distribution of subapical caveolin-1 and Rab11a show a similar dependence on microtubule disruption. Mutants of the Rab11a effector, Rab11-FIP2 also altered the localization of caveolin-1. These findings indicate that caveolin-1 is coordinately regulated with Rab11a within the apical recycling system of polarized epithelial cells, suggesting that the two proteins are components of the same pathway.
Caveolin-1; Rab11a; Rab11-FIP2; apical recycling; MDCK; polarized epithelial cells
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated nosocomial infection in the United States. C. difficile secretes two homologous toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which are responsible for the symptoms of C. difficile associated disease. The mechanism of toxin action includes an autoprocessing event where a cysteine protease domain (CPD) releases a glucosyltransferase domain (GTD) into the cytosol. The GTD acts to modify and inactivate Rho-family GTPases. The presumed importance of autoprocessing in toxicity, and the apparent specificity of the CPD active site make it, potentially, an attractive target for small molecule drug discovery. In the course of exploring this potential, we have discovered that both wild-type TcdB and TcdB mutants with impaired autoprocessing or glucosyltransferase activities are able to induce rapid, necrotic cell death in HeLa and Caco-2 epithelial cell lines. The concentrations required to induce this phenotype correlate with pathology in a porcine colonic explant model of epithelial damage. We conclude that autoprocessing and GTD release is not required for epithelial cell necrosis and that targeting the autoprocessing activity of TcdB for the development of novel therapeutics will not prevent the colonic tissue damage that occurs in C. difficile – associated disease.
Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium that infects the human colon and causes diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and toxic megacolon. Most people that develop disease symptoms have undergone antibiotic treatment, which alters the normal gut flora and allows C. difficile to flourish. C. difficile secretes two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, that are responsible for the fluid secretion, inflammation, and colonic tissue damage associated with disease. The emergence of hypervirulent strains of C. difficile that are linked to increased morbidity and mortality highlights the need for new therapeutic strategies. One strategy is to inhibit the function of the toxins, thereby decreasing damage to the colon while the patient clears the infection with antibiotics. Toxin function is thought to depend on an autoprocessing event that releases a catalytic ‘effector’ portion of the toxin into the host cell. In the course of trying to identify small molecules that would inhibit such a function, we found that TcdB induces a rapid necrosis in epithelial cells that is not dependent on autoprocessing. The physiological relevance of this observation is confirmed in colonic explants and suggests that inhibiting TcdB autoprocessing will not prevent the colonic tissue damage observed in C. difficile associated diseases.
Background & Aims
Improving methods for early detection of gastric cancer could reduce mortality. Measurements of serum pepsinogen have been used for screening in Japan, without satisfactory levels of sensitivity or specificity. Trefoil factor family (TFF) proteins (TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3) are small, stable molecules secreted by the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Foveolar hyperplasia, spasmolytic polypeptide (TFF2)-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), and intestinal metaplasia are histological changes observed in patients with atrophic gastritis; they express TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3, respectively. We investigated whether serum levels of TFF can be used as markers for gastric cancer screening.
Serum was collected from 183 patients with gastric cancer and 280 healthy individuals without cancer. Serum levels of anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G, pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were measured by ELISA and associated with gastric cancer.
Using a cut-off of 3.6 ng/ml, the level of TFF3 was significantly increased in serum samples from cancer patients (odds ratio of 18.1; 95% confidence interval, 11.2–29.2); using this test cancer patients were identified with 80.9% sensitivity and 81.0% specificity. The test for TFF3 had a significantly higher odds ratio than that for pepsinogen. A test for the combination of TFF3 and pepsinogen had better results than the test for only pepsinogen.
Serum levels of TFF3 are a better marker of gastric cancer than pepsinogen; a test for the combined levels of serum pepsinogen and TFF3 could improve gastric cancer screening.
stomach cancer; prevention; H. pylori; diagnostic; blood test
Ser-227 phosphorylation of Rab11-FIP2 by Par1b/MARK2 regulates the establishment of polarized epithelial monolayers in three-dimensional MDCK cell cultures and has an ongoing influence on the composition of both adherens and tight junctions in polarized epithelial cells.
The Rab11 effector Rab11-family interacting protein 2 (Rab11-FIP2) regulates transcytosis through its interactions with Rab11a and myosin Vb. Previous studies implicated Rab11-FIP2 in the establishment of polarity in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells through phosphorylation of Ser-227 by MARK2. Here we examine the dynamic role of Rab11-FIP2 phosphorylation on MDCK cell polarity. Endogenous Rab11-FIP2 phosphorylated on Ser-227 coalesces on vesicular plaques during the reestablishment of polarity after either monolayer wounding or calcium switch. Whereas expression of the nonphosphorylatable Rab11-FIP2(S227A) elicits a loss in lumen formation in MDCK cell cysts grown in Matrigel, the putative pseudophosphorylated Rab11-FIP2(S227E) mutant induces the formation of cysts with multiple lumens. On permeable filters, Rab11-FIP2(S227E)–expressing cells exhibit alterations in the composition of both the adherens and tight junctions. At the adherens junction, p120 catenin and K-cadherin are retained, whereas the majority of the E-cadherin is lost. Although ZO-1 is retained at the tight junction, occludin is lost and the claudin composition is altered. Of interest, the effects of Rab11-FIP2 on cellular polarity did not involve myosin Vb or Rab11a. These results indicate that Ser-227 phosphorylation of Rab11-FIP2 regulates the composition of both adherens and tight junctions and is intimately involved in the regulation of polarity in epithelial cells.
Background and Aims
Gastric stem cells are located in the isthmus of the gastric glands, and give rise to epithelial progenitors that undergo bipolar migration and differentiation into pit and oxyntic lineages. While gastric mucus neck cells, located below the isthmus, express trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) protein, TFF2 mRNA transcripts are concentrated in cells above the neck region in normal corpus mucosa, suggesting that TFF2 transcription is a marker of gastric progenitor cells.
Using a BAC strategy, we generated a transgenic mouse with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre under the control of the TFF2 promoter (TFF2-BAC-CreERT2) and analyzed the lineage derivation from TFF2 mRNA transcript-expressing (TTE) cells.
TTE cells were localized to the isthmus, above and distinct from TFF2 protein-expressing mucus neck cells. Lineage tracing revealed that these cells migrated towards the bottom of the gland within 20 days, giving rise to parietal, mucous neck and chief cells, but not to ECL cells. Surface mucus cells were not derived from TTE cells, and the progeny of the TTE lineage did not survive beyond 200 days. TTE cells were localized in the isthmus adjacent to Dclk1+ putative progenitor cells. Induction of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) with DMP-777-induced acute parietal cell loss revealed that this metaplastic phenotype might arise in part through transdiferentiation of chief cells as opposed to expansion of mucus neck or progenitor cells.
TFF2-transcript-expressing cells are progenitors for mucus neck, parietal and zymogenic, but not for pit or ECL cell lineages in the oxyntic gastric mucosa.
TFF2; Trefoil Factor Family; progenitor cell; stem cell; oxyntic lineage; parietal cell; chief cell; mucus neck cell
BACKGROUND & AIMS
We investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in the regulation of gastric epithelial cell growth and differentiation by generating transgenic mice that express the BMP inhibitor noggin in the stomach.
The promoter of the mouse H+/K+-ATPase β-subunit gene, which is specifically expressed in parietal cells, was used to regulate expression of noggin in the gastric epithelium of mice. The transgenic mice were analyzed for noggin expression, tissue morphology, cellular composition of the gastric mucosa, gastric acid content, and plasma levels of gastrin. Tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot, microtitration, and radioimmunoassay analyses.
In the stomachs of the transgenic mice, phosphorylation of Smad1, 5, and 8 decreased, indicating inhibition of BMP signaling. Mucosa were of increased height, with dilated glands, cystic structures, reduced numbers of parietal cells, and increased numbers of cells that coexpressed intrinsic factor, trefoil factor 2, and griffonia simplicifolialectin II, compared with wild-type mice. In the transgenic mice, levels of the H+/K+-ATPase α-subunit protein and messenger RNA were reduced, whereas those of intrinsic factor increased. The transgenic mice were hypochloridric and had an increased number of Ki67- and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells; increased levels of plasma gastrin; increased expression of transforming growth factor-α, amphiregulin, and gastrin; and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2.
Inhibiting BMP signaling in the stomachs of mice by expression of noggin causes loss of parietal cells, development of transitional cells that express markers of mucus neck and zymogenic lineages, and activation of proliferation. BMPs are therefore important regulators of gastric epithelial cell homeostasis.
Trefoil Factor 2; TFF2; Transforming Growth Factor; TGF; Griffonia Simplicifolialectin II; GSII; Smads; Chief Cells; Mucus Neck Cells
Background & Aims
Intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) are precursors to gastric carcinogenesis. We sought to identify molecular biomarkers of gastric metaplasias and gastric cancer by gene expression profiling of metaplastic lesions from patients.
cDNA microarray analysis was performed on IM and SPEM cells isolated from patient samples using laser capture microdissection. Up-regulated transcripts in metaplstic lesions were confirmed by immunostaining analysis in IM, SPEM, and gastric cancer tissues. Proteins that were highly expressed specifically in gastric cancer tissues were analyzed for their association with survival in a test set (n=450) and a validation set (n=502) of samples from gastric cancer patients.
Compared to normal chief cells, 858 genes were differentially expressed in IM or SPEM samples. Immunostaining was detected for 12 proteins, including 3 new markers of IM (ACE2, LGALS4, AKR1B10) and 3 of SPEM (OLFM4, LYZ, DPCR1). Of 13 proteins expressed in IM or SPEM, 8 were expressed by 17%–50% of human gastric cancer tissues (MUC13, OLFM4, CDH17, KRT20, MUC5AC, LGALS4, AKR1B10, REG4). Expression of CDH17 or MUC13 correlated with patient survival in the test and a validation sets. Multivariate analysis showed that CDH17 was an independent prognostic factor in patients with stage I or node-negative disease.
We identified several novel biomarkers for IM, SPEM, and gastric cancer using gene expression profiling of human metaplastic lesions. Expression of CDH17 and MUC13 was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues. CDH17 is a promising prognostic marker for early-stage gastric cancer.
metaplasia; cadherin-17; MUC13; gastric cancer; olfactomedin 4; SPEM; intestinal metaplasia
The Rab11 Family Interacting Proteins (Rab11-FIPs) are hypothesized to regulate sequential steps in the apical recycling and transcytotic pathways of polarized epithelial cells. Previous studies have suggested that Rab11-FIP proteins assemble into multi-protein complexes regulating plasma membrane recycling. Rab11-FIP2 interacts with both myosin Vb and Rab11. Recent investigations have noted that that Rab11-FIP2 mutants [Rab11-FIP2(129–512), also designated Rab11-FIP2(ΔC2) and Rab11-FIP2(S229A, R413G), also designated Rab11-FIP2(SARG)], are potent inhibitors of transcytosis in polarized MDCK cells. Interestingly, Rab11-FIP2(ΔC2), but not Rab11-FIP2(SARG), also altered the morphology of the EEA-1 positive early endosomal compartment. These findings suggested that Rab11-FIP2 mutants could differentiate different points along the recycling pathway. We therefore sought to investigate whether Rab11-FIP2 is a general regulator of the early endosomal system. Both Rab11-FIP2 mutants altered the localization and co-localized with dynein heavy chain. In contrast, both clathrin heavy chain and AP-1 accumulated with membranes containing Rab11-FIP2(SARG), but not with Rab11-FIP2(ΔC2). Expression of Rab11-FIP2(ΔC2), but not Rab11-FIP2(SARG), caused clustering of early endosomal markers Rab5b, Epsin 4 and IQGAP1, around a collapsed Rab11-FIP2 containing membranous cisternum. Interestingly, neither Rab11-FIP2 mutant had any effect on the distribution of Rab5a, a classical early endosome marker. The results support the view that Rab11-FIP2 may influence microtubule-dependent centripetal movement of subsets of early endosomes as well as processing through the common and recycling endosomal systems.
Rab11-FIP2; Rab11; trafficking; apical recycling; endosome; MDCK cells; clathrin; dynein; Rab5; epsin
The norepinephrine transporter (NET) is a presynaptic plasma membrane protein that mediates reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine (NE). NET is also a major target for medications used for the treatment of depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and obesity. NET is regulated by numerous mechanisms, including catalytic activation and membrane trafficking. Amphetamine (AMPH), a psychostimulant and NET substrate, has also been shown to induce NET trafficking. However, neither the molecular basis nor the nature of the relevant membrane compartments of AMPH-modulated NET trafficking has been defined. Indeed, direct visualization of drug-modulated NET trafficking in neurons has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we utilized a recently developed NET antibody and the presence of large presynaptic boutons in sympathetic neurons to examine basal and AMPH-modulated NET trafficking. Specifically, we establish a role for Rab11 in AMPH-induced NET trafficking. First, we found that in cortical slices, AMPH induces a reduction in surface NET. Next, we observed AMPH-induced accumulation and colocalization of NET with Rab11a and Rab4 in presynaptic boutons of cultured neurons. Using tagged proteins, we demonstrated that NET and a truncated Rab11 effector (FIP2ΔC2) do not redistribute in synchrony whereas NET and wild type Rab11a do. Analysis of various Rab11a/b mutants further demonstrates that Rab11 regulates NET trafficking. Expression of the truncated Rab11a effector (FIP2ΔC2) attenuates endogenous Rab11 function and prevented AMPH-induced NET internalization as does GDP-locked Rab4 S22N. Our data demonstrate that AMPH leads to an increase of NET in endosomes of single boutons and varicosities in a Rab11-dependent manner.
Norepinephrine; transporter; amphetamine; Rab11; endocytosis; clathrin
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Gastric cancer evolves in the setting of a pathologic mucosal milieu characterized by both loss of acid-secreting parietal cells and mucous cell metaplasias. Indeed, mucous cell metaplasia is considered the critical preneoplastic lesion for gastric cancer. Previous investigations have shown that infection of mice with Helicobacter felis or induction of acute parietal cell loss with the drug DMP-777 leads to the emergence of a type of metaplasia designated spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM). We have hypothesized that SPEM arises from proliferating cells in gland bases, either from a cryptic progenitor cell or by transdifferentiation of mature chief cells.
Taking advantage of the chief cell-restricted expression of Mist1-Cre-ERT2, we used lineage mapping to examine whether SPEM lineages were derived from chief cells in 3 independent models of induction by DMP-777 treatment, L-635 treatment, or H felis infection.
Treatment of mice with L-635 for 3 days led to rapid parietal cell loss, induction of a prominent inflammatory infiltrate, and emergence of SPEM. In all 3 models, SPEM developed, at least in part, from transdifferentiation of chief cells. We further found that acute parietal cell loss in the setting of inflammation (L-635 treatment) led to more rapid induction and expansion of SPEM derived from transdifferentiation of chief cells.
These studies provide direct evidence by lineage tracing that SPEM evolves from differentiated chief cells. Thus, mature gastric chief cells have the ability to act as cryptic progenitors and reacquire proliferative capacity within the context of mucosal injury and inflammation.
SPEM; Chief Cell; Transdifferentiation; Metaplasia
Background & Aims
Loss of gastric parietal cells is a critical precursor to gastric metaplasia and neoplasia. However, the origin of metaplasia remains obscure. Acute parietal cell loss in gastrin-deficient mice treated with DMP-777 leads to the rapid emergence of Spasmolytic polypeptide/TFF2-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) from the bases of fundic glands. We have now sought to characterize more definitively the pathway for emergence of SPEM.
Emerging SPEM lineages in gastrin deficient mice treated with DMP-777 were examined for immunolocalization of TFF2, intrinsic factor and Mist1 and with electron microscopy. Emerging SPEM was isolated with laser capture microdissection and RNA was analyzed using gene microarrays. Immunohistochemistry in mouse and human samples was used to confirm up-regulated transcripts.
DMP-777-induced SPEM was immunoreactive for TFF2 and the differentiated chief cell markers, Mist1 and intrinsic factor, suggesting that SPEM derived from transdifferentiation of chief cells. Microarray analysis of microdissected SPEM lineages induced by DMP-777 showed up-regulation of transcripts associated with G1/S cell cycle transition including MCM proteins, as well as a number of secreted factors, including HE4. HE4, which was absent in the normal stomach, was expressed in SPEM of human and mouse and in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer in humans.
While traditionally metaplasia was thought to originate from normal mucosal progenitor cells, these studies indicate that SPEM evolves through either transdifferentiation of chief cells or activation of a basal cryptic progenitor. Additionally, induction of metaplasia elicits the expression of secreted factors, such as HE-4, relevant to gastric pre-neoplasia.
Background & Aims
The loss of parietal cells from the fundic mucosa leads to the emergence of metaplastic lineages associated with an increased susceptibility to neoplastic transformation. Both intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide (TFF2/SP) expressing metaplasia (SPEM) have been identified in human stomach, but only SPEM is present in most mouse models of gastric metaplasia. We previously determined that loss of amphiregulin (AR) promotes SPEM induced by acute oxyntic atrophy. We have now examined whether SPEM in the AR−/− mouse predisposes the stomach to gastric neoplasia.
Gross pathology of 18-month-old wild-type, AR−/−, and TGF-α −/− mice were examined. Ki-67, β-catenin, Pdx-1, TFF3, and TFF2/SP expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Metaplastic gastric mucosa was analyzed by dual immunostaining for TFF2/SP with MUC2 or TFF3.
By 18 months of age, more than 70% of AR−/− mice developed SPEM while 42% showed goblet cell IM labeled with MUC2, TFF3, and Pdx-1. A total of 28% had invasive gastric lesions in the fundus. No antral abnormalities were observed in AR−/− mice. Metaplastic cell lineages in AR−/− mice showed increases in cell proliferation and cytosolic β-catenin expression. Dual staining for TFF2/SP with MUC2 or TFF3 showed glands containing both SPEM and IM with intervening cells expressing both TFF2/SP and MUC2 or TFF2/SP and TFF3.
AR−/− mice develop SPEM, which gives rise to goblet cell IM and invasive fundic dysplastic lesions. The AR−/− mouse represents the first mouse model for spontaneous development of fundic SPEM with progression to IM.
Recent investigations have highlighted the importance of subcellular localization of mRNAs to cell function. While AKAP350A, a multifunctional scaffolding protein, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and centrosomes, we have now identified a cytosolic pool of AKAP350A. Analysis of AKAP350A scaffolded complexes revealed two novel interacting proteins, CCAR1 and caprin-1. CCAR1, caprin-1 and AKAP350A along with G3BP, a stress granule marker, relocate to RNA stress granules after arsenite treatment. Stress also caused loss of AKAP350 from the Golgi and fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Disruption of microtubules with nocodazole altered stress granule formation and changed their morphology by preventing fusion of stress granules. In the presence of nocodazole, arsenite induced smaller granules with the vast majority of AKAP350A and CCAR1 separated from G3BP-containing granules. Similar to nocodazole treatment, reduction of AKAP350A or CCAR1 expression also altered the size and number of G3BP-containing stress granules induced by arsenite treatment. A limited set of 69 mRNA transcripts was immunisolated with AKAP350A even in the absence of stress, suggesting the association of AKAP350A with mRNA transcripts. These results provide the first evidence for the microtubule dependent association of AKAP350A and CCAR1 with RNA stress granules.
The Fc receptor FcRn traffics immunoglobulin G (IgG) in both directions across polarized epithelial cells that line mucosal surfaces, contributing to host defense. We show that FcRn traffics IgG from either apical or basolateral membranes into the recycling endosome (RE), after which the actin motor myosin Vb and the GTPase Rab25 regulate a sorting step that specifies transcytosis without affecting recycling. Another regulatory component of the RE, Rab11a, is dispensable for transcytosis, but regulates recycling to the basolateral membrane only. None of these proteins affect FcRn trafficking away from lysosomes. Thus, FcRn transcytotic and recycling sorting steps are distinct. These results are consistent with a single structurally and functionally heterogeneous RE compartment that traffics FcRn to both cell surfaces while discriminating between recycling and transcytosis pathways polarized in their direction of transport.
The CXCR2 chemokine receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor that undergoes clathrin-mediated endocytosis upon ligand binding. The trafficking of CXCR2 is crucial for cells to maintain a proper chemotactic response. The mechanisms that regulate the recycling/degradation sorting decision are unknown. In this study, we used dominant-negative (T19N) and GTPase-deficient activated (Q63L) RhoB mutants, as well as RhoB small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the role of RhoB in CXCR2 trafficking. Expression of either of the RhoB mutants or transfection of RhoB siRNA impaired CXCR2-mediated chemotaxis. Expression of RhoB T19N and transfection of RhoB siRNA impaired sorting of CXCR2 to the lysosome after 3 hours of CXCL8 stimulation and impaired CXCL8-induced CXCR2 degradation. In cells expressing the RhoB Q63L mutant, CXCR2 recycling through the Rab11a recycling compartment was impaired after 30 minutes of CXCL8 stimulation as was CXCL8-induced CXCR2 degradation. For cells expressing activated RhoB, CXCR2 colocalized with Rab4, a marker for the rapid recycling pathway, and with the mannose-6-phosphate receptor, which traffics between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. These data suggest that CXCR2 recycles through alternative pathways. We conclude that oscillation of RhoB GTPase activity is essential for appropriate sorting decisions, and for directing CXCR2 degradation and recycling – events that are required for optimal chemotaxis.
RhoB; CXCR2; Trafficking; Recycling; Chemotaxis