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1.  Lifetime History of Major Depression Predicts the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged Women 
Psychosomatic medicine  2009;71(3):266-272.
Objective
To prospectively examine the association of major depression with incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women.
Methods
Data were drawn from one of seven sites of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a prospective cohort study of the menopausal transition. Participants were 429 (34.5% African-American) women. Major depression and comorbid diagnoses were assessed via the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Axis I Disorders at baseline and seven annual follow-up evaluations. The metabolic syndrome was measured at baseline and each follow-up evaluation (except the second) based on National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria.
Results
Longitudinal generalized estimating equations (GEE) models indicated that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline was significantly associated with the onset and presence of the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (odds ratio = 1.82; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.06–3.14). Survival analyses showed that, in women who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline, a lifetime major depression history or current major depressive episode at baseline predicted increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome during the follow-up (hazard ratio = 1.66; 95% CI = 0.99–3.75). Lifetime history of alcohol abuse or dependence predicted incident metabolic syndrome and attenuated the association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in both models.
Conclusions
This study documents that major depression is a significant predictor of the onset of the metabolic syndrome. Intervention studies targeting depression may prevent the development of the metabolic syndrome in women.
doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e318197a4d5
PMCID: PMC2882687  PMID: 19188528
metabolic syndrome; depression; women; menopause; alcohol

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