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1.  Traumatic Laryngeal Fracture in a Collegiate Basketball Player 
Sports Health  2013;5(3):273-275.
Laryngotracheal trauma is a rare condition that accounts for less than 1% of blunt trauma. Laryngotracheal fractures are uncommon in sports, even in settings where athletes are more vulnerable, including football, basketball, and hockey. If a laryngeal injury is suspected, immediate evaluation is required to avoid a delay in the diagnosis of a potentially life-threatening injury. A collegiate basketball player sustained an unusual fracture involving the cricoid and thyroid cartilage during practice. This case illustrates the importance of rapid identification and early management of patients with blunt laryngotracheal trauma in sports.
doi:10.1177/1941738112473417
PMCID: PMC3658405  PMID: 24427402
laryngeal fracture; cricoid cartilage fracture; thyroid cartilage fracture; laryngotracheal trauma
2.  Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D 
Sports Health  2012;4(6):496-501.
Context:
Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many skeletal and extraskeletal health benefits. Musculoskeletal injury prevention and recovery are potentially affected by sufficient circulating levels of the storage form of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency can exist among young, active, and healthy people, which may put them at increased risk for injury and prolonged recovery.
Evidence Aquisition:
PubMed was searched using vitamin D and skeletal muscle, vitamin D and athletic performance, and vitamin D review articles. Studies from the 1930s to 2012 were used for the review.
Results:
There is strong correlation between vitamin D sufficiency and optimal muscle function. Increasing levels of vitamin D reduce inflammation, pain, and myopathy while increasing muscle protein synthesis, ATP concentration, strength, jump height, jump velocity, jump power, exercise capacity, and physical performance. 25(OH)D levels above 40 ng/mL are required for fracture prevention, including stress fractures. Optimal musculoskeletal benefits occur at 25(OH)D levels above the current definition of sufficiency (> 30 ng/mL) with no reported sports health benefits above 50 ng/mL.
Conclusions:
Vitamin D deficiency is common in athletes. For athletes presenting with stress fractures, musculoskeletal pain, and frequent illness, one should have a heightened awareness of the additional likely diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Correction of this deficiency is completed by standardized and supervised oral supplementation protocols producing significant musculoskeletal sports health benefits.
doi:10.1177/1941738112461621
PMCID: PMC3497950  PMID: 24179588
vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; musculoskeletal; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D supplementation
3.  Osteochondral Avulsion Fracture of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Origin in a 10-Year-Old Child: A Case Report 
Journal of Athletic Training  2011;46(4):451-455.
Objective:
To describe the case of a 10-year-old football player who sustained a comminuted osteochondral avulsion fracture of the femoral origin of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) via a low-energy mechanism.
Background:
In children, both purely cartilaginous and osteochondral avulsion fractures have been described; most such ACL avulsions are from the tibial eminence. In the few previous case reports describing femoral osteochondral avulsion fractures, high-energy injury mechanisms were typically responsible and resulted in a single fracture fragment.
Differential Diagnosis:
Femoral osteochondral avulsion fracture at the ACL origin, femoral cartilaginous avulsion fracture at the ACL origin, midsubstance ACL tear, meniscal tear.
Treatment:
Sutures and a button were used to repair the comminuted fragments. Postoperatively, a modified ACL reconstruction rehabilitation program was instituted.
Uniqueness:
Most injuries of this nature in youngsters are caused by a high-energy mechanism of injury, result in an osteochondral avulsion fracture of the tibial eminence, and involve a single fracture fragment.
Conclusions:
Although they occur infrequently, ACL femoral avulsion fractures in children can result from a low-energy injury mechanism. Identifying the mechanism of injury, performing a thorough physical examination, and obtaining appropriate diagnostic studies will enable the correct treatment to be implemented, with the goal of safely returning the athlete to play.
PMCID: PMC3419159  PMID: 21944079
injury mechanisms; knee injuries; pediatric injuries
4.  Multiple Ligament Knee Injury: Complications 
Non-operative and operative complications are common following multiple ligament knee injuries. This article will describe common complications seen by the surgeon and physical therapist following this complex injury. Complications include fractures, infections, vascular and neurologic complications following injury and surgery, compartment syndrome, complex regional pain syndrome, deep venous thrombosis, loss of motion and persistent laxity issues. A brief description of these complications and methods for evaluation and treatment will be described.
PMCID: PMC2953344  PMID: 21509124
complications; knee dislocation; vascular; neurologic
5.  Thoracic Compression Fracture in a Basketball Player 
Journal of Athletic Training  1995;30(2):163-164.
Thoracolumbar pain is a frequent complaint of many athletes, but the cause is often difficult to diagnose. Compression fractures of the spine are rarely seen in athletics and are not always recognized as a potential cause of the symptoms. Reported here is a case of a T12 compression fracture in a male basketball player. Pain films revealed the percentage of loss of vertebral body height, thereby determining the stability of the fracture. If treated with a thoracolumbar spinal orthosis brace and activity restrictions, stable compression fractures heal without surgical intervention and athletes can return to activity within a number of months. Athletic trainers and physicians should maintain a level of suspicion for this injury when violent trunk flexion or lateral flexion is the mechanism of injury.
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PMCID: PMC1317851  PMID: 16558329

Results 1-5 (5)