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1.  A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition 
Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments.
Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition.
Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls.
The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method.
Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p<0.001) were found in the patients as compared to those in controls, and significant depletions were found in the levels of serum vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition as compared to those in controls.
After supplementation of antioxidants for one month, the levels of malondialdehyde were found to be decreased significantly (p<0.001) and zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase capacity levels were increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, there was a non–significant (p>0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results.
Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants.
PMCID: PMC3842512  PMID: 24298460
Severe acute malnutrition; Oxidative stress; Zinc
2.  The Clinical Assessment of Ischaemia Modified Albumin and Troponin I in the Early Diagnosis of the Acute Coronary Syndrome 
Background: An early identification of the patients with the Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is of prime importance, due to the associated very high mortality. Only about 22% of the patients who present at the emergency cardiology care centres with chest pain, have coronary disease. Ischaemia modified albumin has already been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration for the diagnosis of suspected myocardial ischaemia.
Aim: The goal of the present study was to assess the diagnostic value of serum ischaemia modified albumin and to compare it with sensitive cardiac troponin I in patients with the acute coronary syndromes like unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.
Methods: A diagnostic case control study was conducted on 102 patients who presented to the Emergency Department within 6 hrs of having acute chest pain and on 110 healthy age and sex matched volunteers who formed the control group. The serum Ischaemia Modified Albumin level was estimated by the albumin cobalt binding test by using a digital spectrophotometer, while Troponin I was measured by doing an immunofluroscence assay. A receiver operating characteristic curve was established for ischaemia modified albumin, to determine the cut-off point. The sensitivity and the specificity of ischaemia modified albumin and troponin I for the detection of acute coronary syndromes, were analyzed. The results of ischaemia modified albumin and troponin I alone and in combination, were correlated.
Results: The ischaemia modified albumin (p<0.05) and the troponin I (p<0.001) concentrations were significantly higher in acute myocardial infarction and in unstable angina than in the healthy controls. The sensitivity and the specificity of ischaemia modified albumin for the detection of acute coronary syndromes was 88% and 93% as compared to 87% and 75% respectively for troponin I. The combined use of ischaemia modified albumin and troponin I significantly enhanced the sensitivity to 96%. The area which was under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of ischaemia modified albumin in acute coronary syndromes was 0.90.
Conclusion: Ischaemia modified albumin is a useful biochemical marker for the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The combined use of ischaemia modified albumin and cardiac troponin I enhances the sensitivity and specificity. Hence, a combination of ischaemia modified albumin and cardiac troponin I can be used as a more precise diagnostic marker for Acute Coronary Syndrome.
PMCID: PMC3681042  PMID: 23814715
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Ischaemia modified albumin; Troponin I; Myocardial Ischaemia
3.  Oxidative stress and disturbance in antioxidant balance in beta thalassemia major 
Repeated blood transfusion in beta thalassemia major patients may lead to peroxidative tissue injury by secondary iron overload. In the present study, 72 children with beta thalassemia major were included. Serum levels of total lipid peroxides, Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity, Copper, Zinc, Vitamin E, plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity, activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase, were measured. The findings were compared with 72 age matched healthy controls irrespective of sex. A significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxide and Iron (p<0.001), whereas, significant decrease in the levels of vitamin-E, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Iron Binding Capacity (p<0.001) was observed. Serum Zinc was significantly increased (p<0.001) with significant decrease in the levels of copper (p<0.001). Non Significant increase in the activity of Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase (p>0.05) was found in the patients when compared with controls. This suggest that oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense mechanism play an important role in pathogenesis of beta thalassemia major.
PMCID: PMC3453139  PMID: 23105782
Beta thalassemia major; Oxidative stress; Antioxidants

Results 1-3 (3)