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1.  Effect of Health Education Based on the Protection Motivation Theory on Malaria Preventive Behaviors in Rural Households of Kerman, Iran 
Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011.
The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Before the intervention, no significant difference was found between the two study groups regarding perceived vulnerability, perceived severity, response costs, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and malaria preventive behaviors. After the intervention, however, a significant increase was observed in the intervention group's mean scores of all the constructs of the protection motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P < 0.01).
According to the findings of the study, educational intervention based on the protection motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors.
PMCID: PMC4018595  PMID: 24829734
Health education; malaria; protection motivation theory
2.  The effects of a peer-led training program on female students’ self-esteem in public secondary schools in Shiraz 
Introduction: Low self-esteem in adolescence is one of the risk factors for negative outcomes in important domains of adulthood life. Due to the lack of trials based on modern methods of teaching in the field of self-esteem, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a peer-led training program on female second graders’ self-esteem in public secondary schools in Shiraz.
Methods: The present study is an educational controlled trial. 223 public school female students in the second grade were selected with the Multi-stage random cluster sampling method. The selected Schools were assigned randomly to experimental and control groups. The data were collected before, one and six weeks after an intervention in the control and experimental group, using Pope's 5-scale test of self-esteem with Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.85. The educational intervention in the experimental group was a peer-led approach, using discussion techniques in small groups (the group work, role play and group play) and a 5-volume training manual. The data were analyzed through SPSS, version 14, using Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Wilcoxon and repeated measure Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).
Results: The results showed that the mean of total self-esteem scores and the sub-scales (except for family self-esteem) in the experimental groups compared to that in the control groups, one and six weeks after the peer-led based approach intervention was significantly different (p<0.001). Before the intervention, the mean for self-esteem in the experimental groups was 51.80±13.91 but in the first post-test and second post-test the mean increased to 73.72±12.94, and 69.48±12.63, respectively. Before the educational intervention, the frequency distribution of females’ self-esteem in the experimental and control groups did not differ significantly from each other (p=0.337). But during one and six weeks after the intervention, a significant increase was observed between the two groups (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that peer education is an effective way to promote self-esteem in adolescents. Providing opportunities such as a peer-led approach can help adolescents to acquire practical ways to increase their self-esteem.
PMCID: PMC4235557  PMID: 25512922
Self esteem; Adolescents; Education
3.  Effect of a parenting education program on girls’ life satisfaction in governmental guidance schools of Shiraz 
Introduction: One of the main determinants of adolescents’ life satisfaction is parenting skills. Due to the lack of educational trials in this field, this research was done to evaluate the effect of a parenting education program on girls’ life satisfaction in governmental guidance schools of Shiraz. 
Methods: This study is an educational randomized controlled trial. At first, 152 female students in 2nd grade of governmental guidance schools and 304 parents (152 mother and 152 father) were selected by multistage random cluster sampling method. Then, they were categorized into experimental and control groups. Before and after the intervention, data were collected from two groups using multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale with stability (Cronbach's alpha=0.89), test–retest and correlation coefficient (r=0.70). Educational intervention for parents was performed in the experimental group through presentations with question and answer, discussion in small groups and distribution of educational booklets in 5 volumes. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS 14 and through Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Fisher’s Exact test, Wilcoxon test.
Results: Before the intervention, the experimental and control groups did not show a statistically significant difference based on the demographic variables. Thetotal of life satisfaction scores and also its subscales in the experimental and controlgroup, before and six weeks afterthe educational interventiondid showstatisticallysignificant difference (p<0.001). The scores of differences (pre-test/post-test) in total life satisfaction between the experimental and control groups were statistically significant difference (p<0.001).
Conclusion: According to low scores of the students in the pre-test, especially in the control group which didn’t undergo any educational program, holding scheduled educational intervention is necessary. This study not only supports the effectiveness of educational intervention but also recommends further educational research to develop knowledge regarding patterns of parenting education.
PMCID: PMC4235541  PMID: 25512913
Adolescent; Life; Satisfaction; Education
4.  The Prediction of Physical Activity Intention and Behavior in Elderly Male Residents of a Nursing Home: A Comparison of Two Behavioral Theories 
Background: Regular physical activity is ranked as a leading health indicator. Despite the extensive benefits of physical activity, elder people are much less active than desired. Using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the self-efficacy construct, this study examined the prediction of physical activity intention and behavior in a sample of elderly male resident of a nursing home.
Methods: In a cross-sectional study of the residents of Kahrizak Nursing Home in Tehran, Iran, elderly men who were 60 years or older, capable of independent living, mobility, and verbal communication were asked to complete measures of the TPB, self-efficacy and physical activity behavior.
Results: A hierarchical step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) explained 32.8% of the variance in physical activity intention, and self-efficacy provided an additional 2.7%. In a reverse step regression, the TPB variables explained an additional 12.2% of physical activity intention. In a multiple regression analysis on physical activity behavior, affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and intention explained 15.7% of the variance in physical activity behavior while self-efficacy contributed an additional 5.6%. In the reverse step regression, TPB predictors contributed an additional 3.0% in explaining the variance in physical activity behavior.
Conclusion: The results indicate that in addition to the TPB, self-efficacy may also play an important role in the prediction of behavior, and should be included in the design of physical activity programs for elderly men of nursing home residents.
PMCID: PMC3470291  PMID: 23115427
Attitude; intention; elderly; self-efficacy

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