C. difficile is the most commonly reported infectious diarrhea in HIV-infected patients in the United States. We set out to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical presentation of C. difficile infections (CDI) in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects.
We performed a nested, case-control analysis with four non-CDI controls randomly selected for each case.
We assessed the incidence of CDI in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. Incident cases were defined as first positive C. difficile cytotoxin assay or PCR for toxin B gene. We used conditional logistic regression models to assess risk factors for CDI. We abstracted data on the clinical presentation and outcomes from case chart review.
We identified 154 incident CDI cases for an incidence of 8.3 cases/1000 patient years. No unique clinical features of HIV-associated CDI were identified. In multivariate analysis, risk of CDI was independently increased for: CD4 count ≤50 cells/mm3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 20.7, 95% CI 2.8–151.4), hospital onset CDI (AOR 26.7 [3.1–231.2]), and use of clindamycin (AOR 27.6 [2.2–339.4]), fluoroquinolones (AOR 4.5 [1.2–17.5]), macrolides (AOR 6.3 [1.8–22.1]), gastric acid suppressants (AOR 3.1 [1.4–6.9]), or immunosuppressive agents (AOR 6.8 [1.2–39.6]).
The incidence of CDI in HIV-infected patients was twice that previously reported. Our data show compromised cellular immunity, as defined by CD4 ≤50 cells/ mm3is a risk factor for CDI. Clinicians should be aware of the increased CDI risk, particularly in those with severe CD4 count suppression.
case-control; Clostridium difficile; HIV; incidence; risk factors
Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United States (U.S.) and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000–2007 in the U.S. and Canada.
Participants were from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD), aged ≥20 years and on ART. Mortality rates were calculated using participants' person-time from January 1, 2000 or ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, or administrative censoring December 31, 2007. Life expectancy at age 20, defined as the average number of additional years that a person of a specific age will live, provided the current age-specific mortality rates remain constant, was estimated using abridged life tables.
The crude mortality rate was 19.8/1,000 person-years, among 22,937 individuals contributing 82,022 person-years and 1,622 deaths. Life expectancy increased from 36.1 [standard error (SE) 0.5] to 51.4 [SE 0.5] years from 2000–2002 to 2006–2007. Men and women had comparable life expectancies in all periods except the last (2006–2007). Life expectancy was lower for individuals with a history of injection drug use, non-whites, and in patients with baseline CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3.
A 20-year-old HIV-positive adult on ART in the U.S. or Canada is expected to live into their early 70 s, a life expectancy approaching that of the general population. Differences by sex, race, HIV transmission risk group, and CD4 count remain.
U.S. state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are federally funded to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) as the payer of last resort to eligible persons with HIV infection. States differ regarding their financial contributions to and ways of implementing these programs, and it remains unclear how this interstate variability affects HIV treatment outcomes.
We analyzed data from HIV-infected individuals who were clinically-eligible for ART between 2001 and 2009 (i.e., a first reported CD4+ <350 cells/uL or AIDS-defining illness) from 14 U.S. cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Using propensity score matching and Cox regression, we assessed ART initiation (within 6 months following eligibility) and virologic suppression (within 1 year) based on differences in two state ADAP features: the amount of state funding in annual ADAP budgets and the implementation of waiting lists. We performed an a priori subgroup analysis in persons with a history of injection drug use (IDU).
Among 8,874 persons, 56% initiated ART within six months following eligibility. Persons living in states with no additional state contribution to the ADAP budget initiated ART on a less timely basis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.88). Living in a state with an ADAP waiting list was not associated with less timely initiation (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.87–1.45). Neither additional state contributions nor waiting lists were significantly associated with virologic suppression. Persons with an IDU history initiated ART on a less timely basis (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.95).
We found that living in states that did not contribute additionally to the ADAP budget was associated with delayed ART initiation when treatment was clinically indicated. Given the changing healthcare environment, continued assessment of the role of ADAPs and their features that facilitate prompt treatment is needed.
Prior research has documented sociodemographic disparities in the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent therapeutic developments and changing epidemiological profiles may have altered such disparities. We examine the extent to which socio-demographic differences in prescribed ART have changed between 2002 and 2008.
We analyzed data abstracted from medical records at 13 US sites participating in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Research Network. Prescription of ART was assessed for each year in care for each patient. A total of 14,092 patients were followed up for 39,251 person-years. We examined ART use as a function of sex, race/ethnicity, human immunodeficiency virus risk group, age, and CD4 history (no test <500 cells/mm3, one or more tests between 500 and 350 cells/mm3, 1 test ≤350 cells/mm3, and 2 or more tests ≤350 cells/mm3). Using multiple logistic regression, we ascertained interactions between each of these variables and calendar year.
The overall percentage prescribed ART increased from 60% to 80% between 2002 and 2008. Among those with 2 or more CD4 tests ≤350 cells/mm3, the percentage increased from 82% to 92%. ART rates were higher for those with lower CD4 counts but increased over time for all CD4 groups and for all demographic groups. Nevertheless, sex and racial/ethnic disparities persisted. Significant interactions were obtained for CD4 history by year, age by year, and age by CD4 history.
Although prescription of ART became more widespread from 2002 to 2008, patients who were female, black, or younger still had lower ART rates than male, white, or older patients.
ART; disparities; time trends; utilization; sociodemographic differences
Antiretroviral therapy medication errors are common among hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (29% of admissions on hospital day 1) but are quickly corrected (7% of admissions on hospital day 2). Compared with those admitted to the HIV/AIDS service, patients admitted to surgical services were at increased risk of errors.
Background. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication errors can lead to drug resistance, treatment failure, and death. Prior research suggests that ART medication errors are on the rise in US hospitals. This analysis provides a current estimate of inpatient antiretroviral prescribing errors.
Methods. Retrospective review of medication orders during the first 48 hours of hospitalization for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1 January and 31 December 2009. Errors were classified as (1) incomplete regimen, (2) incorrect dosage, (3) incorrect schedule, and (4) nonrecommended drug-drug combinations. Multivariable regression was used to identify factors associated with errors.
Results. A total of 702 admissions occurred in 2009. Of these, 380 had ART medications prescribed on the first day and 308 on the second day of hospitalization. A total of 145 ART medication errors in 110 admissions were identified on the first day (29%), and 22 errors were identified in 21 admissions on the second day (7%). The most common errors were incomplete regimen and incorrect dosage or schedule. Protease inhibitors accounted for the majority of dosing and scheduling errors (71%–73%). Compared with patients admitted to the HIV/AIDS service, those admitted to surgical services were at increased risk of errors (adjusted odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–8.18).
Conclusions. ART medication errors are common among hospitalized HIV-infected patients on the first day of admission, but most are corrected within 48 hours. Interventions are needed to safeguard patients and prevent serious complications of ART medication errors especially during the first 24 hours of hospitalization.
For optimal clinical benefit, HIV-infected patients should receive periodic outpatient care indefinitely. However, initially establishing HIV care and subsequent retention in care are problematic. This study examines establishment, retention, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) in a large, multi-site cohort over a 2-8 year period.
Medical record data were reviewed for 22,984 adult HIV patients receiving care at 12 clinics in the HIV Research Network between 2001-2009. Three dichotomous outcome measures were based on each patient's history of outpatient visits. Establishment reflects whether the patient made outpatient visits for longer than 6 months after initial enrollment. The retention measure reflects whether the patient had at least 2 outpatient visits separated by 90 days in each year in care. LTFU reflects whether the patient had no outpatient visits for more than 12 months without returning. Multiple logistic regression examined demographic and clinical correlates of each outcome, as well as the combined outcome of meeting all three measures.
Overall, 21.7% of patients never established HIV care after an initial visit. Among established patients, 57.4% did not meet the retention criterion in all years, and 34.9% were LTFU. Only 20.4% of all patients met all three criteria. The odds of successfully meeting all three criteria were higher for women, for older patients, for Hispanics compared with whites, and for those with CD4 levels ≤50 cells/mm3.
These data highlight the need to improve establishment and retention in HIV care.
HIV; Loss to follow-up; retention in care; outpatient use
We evaluated highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) utilization in youth infected with HIV through risk behaviors (BIY) who met treatment criteria for HAART. We assessed the impact of receiving care at an adult or pediatric HIV clinical site on initiation and discontinuation of the first HAART regimen in BIY.
This was a retrospective analysis of treatment-naive BIY, aged 12–24, who enrolled in the HIV Research Network (HIVRN) between 2002 and 2008 and who met criteria for HAART. The outcomes were time from meeting criteria to initiation of HAART and time to discontinuation of the first HAART regimen. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Of 287 treatment-eligible youth, 198 (69%) received HAART and 58/198 (29.3%) subsequently discontinued HAART. In multivariable analyses, there was no significant difference in the time between meeting treatment criteria and initiating HAART for BIY followed at adult or pediatric HIV clinical sites. However, BIY followed at adult sites discontinued HAART sooner than BIY followed at pediatric HIV clinical sites (AHR 3.19 [1.26–8.06]).
Two thirds of treatment-eligible BIY in the HIVRN cohort initiated HAART; however, one third who initiated HAART discontinued HAART during the study period. Identifying factors associated with earlier HAART initiation and HAART sustainability can inform interventions to enhance HAART utilization among treatment-eligible youth. The finding of earlier HAART discontinuation for youth at adult care sites deserves further study.
adolescents; youth; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); disparities; utilization; HIV Research Network; clinical site
In a large North American cohort study, anal cancer incidence rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected men who have sex with men, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Rates increased from 1996–1999 to 2000–2003 but plateaued by 2004–2007.
Background. Anal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although few have evaluated rates separately for men who have sex with men (MSM), other men, and women. There are also conflicting data regarding calendar trends.
Methods. In a study involving 13 cohorts from North America with follow-up between 1996 and 2007, we compared anal cancer incidence rates among 34 189 HIV-infected (55% MSM, 19% other men, 26% women) and 114 260 HIV-uninfected individuals (90% men).
Results. Among men, the unadjusted anal cancer incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 131 for HIV-infected MSM, 46 for other HIV-infected men, and 2 for HIV-uninfected men, corresponding to demographically adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 80.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.7–151.1) for HIV-infected MSM and 26.7 (95% CI, 11.5–61.7) for other HIV-infected men compared with HIV-uninfected men. HIV-infected women had an anal cancer rate of 30/100 000 person-years, and no cases were observed for HIV-uninfected women. In a multivariable Poisson regression model, among HIV-infected individuals, the risk was higher for MSM compared with other men (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8–6.0), but no difference was observed comparing women with other men (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5–2.2). In comparison with the period 2000–2003, HIV-infected individuals had an adjusted RR of 0.5 (95% CI, .3–.9) in 1996–1999 and 0.9 (95% CI, .6–1.2) in 2004–2007.
Conclusions. Anal cancer rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected MSM, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, suggesting a need for universal prevention efforts. Rates increased after the early antiretroviral therapy era and then plateaued.
Hospitalization rates for comorbid conditions among persons living with HIV in the current HAART era are unknown.
Hospitalization data from 2001 – 2008 were obtained on 11,645 adults receiving longitudinal HIV care at 4 geographically diverse U.S. HIV clinics within the HIV Research Network. Modified clinical classification software from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality assigned primary ICD-9 codes into diagnostic categories. Analysis was performed with repeated measures negative binomial regression.
During 2001 – 2008, the rate of AIDS defining illness (ADI) hospitalizations declined from 6.7 to 2.7 per 100 person years (PY), incidence rate ratio per year, 0.89 [0.87, 0.91]. Among the other diagnostic categories with average rates > 2 per 100 PY, cardiovascular hospitalizations increased over time (1.07 [1.03, 1.11]), while non-AIDS defining infection (0.98 [0.96, 1.00]), psychiatric (0.96 [0.93, 1.00]), and gastrointestinal/liver (0.96 [0.92, 1.00]) were slightly decreasing or stable. While less frequent overall, renal and pulmonary admissions also increased over time in univariate and multivariate analyses. Of all diagnostic categories, ADI admissions had the longest mean length of stay, 10.5 days.
ADI hospitalizations have continued to decline in recent years but are still relatively frequent and potentially costly given long lengths of stay. Increases or stability in the rates of chronic end-organ disease admissions imply a need for broader medical knowledge among individual clinicians and/or teams who care for persons living with HIV and a need for long-term access to medications for these conditions.
The incidence of and risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are described from 2000–2005 in a multicenter US cohort of HIV-infected children. In 736 patients, 87 episodes of CAP (33.2 events/1,000 PY) had a mean CD4% of 23% (controls: 30%) and mean CD4 count of 668 cells/mm3 (controls: 870 cells/mm3). CAP incidence decreased 44% from 2000–2001 to 2002–2005. On multivariate analysis, viral load ≥100,000 copies/mL (OR 3.98; CI: 1.05–15.13) was associated with CAP. Herd immunity through pneumococcal immunization may have diluted the effect of individual immunization in this cohort.
HIV; Pneumonia; Pediatric
Geographic location may be related to the receipt of quality HIV healthcare services. Clinical outcomes and healthcare utilization were evaluated in rural, urban and peri-urban patients seen at high-volume U.S. urban-based HIV care sites.
Zip codes for 8,773 HIV patients followed in 2005 at 7 HIV Research Network sites were categorized as rural (population<10K), peri-urban (10K – 100K) and urban (>100K). Clinical and demographic characteristics, inpatient and outpatient (OP) utilization, AIDS defining illness rates, receipt of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), opportunistic infection (OI) prophylaxis usage and virologic suppression were compared among patients, using Χ2 tests for categorical variables, t-tests for means, and logistic regression for HAART utilization.
HIV-infected rural (n=170) and peri-urban (n=215) patients were less likely to be Black or Hispanic than urban HIV patients. Peri-urban subjects were more likely to report MSM as their HIV risk factor than rural or urban subjects. Age, gender, CD4 or HIV-RNA distribution, virologic suppression, HAART usage or OI prophylaxis did not differ by geographic location. In multivariate analysis, rural and peri-urban patients were less likely to have ≥4 annual outpatient visits than urban patients. Rural patients were less likely to receive HAART if they were Black. Overall, geographic location (as defined by home zip code) did not affect receipt of HAART or OI prophylaxis.
Although demographic and healthcare utilization differences were seen among rural, peri-urban, and urban HIV patients, most HIV outcomes and medication use were comparable across geographic areas. As with HIV care for urban-dwelling patients, areas for improvement for non-urban HIV patients include access to HAART among minorities and IDUs.
rural; HIV/AIDS Care; HAART; Outcomes; Quality of care; highly active antiretroviral therapy; HIV Research Network
This observational analysis examined the clinical outcomes of patients receiving etravirine-(ETR-) based therapy, particularly with protease inhibitors (PIs) other than darunavir (DRV) and with raltegravir (RAL). Data included treatment-experienced adults in the HIV Research Network who began ETR-containing antiretroviral regimens in 2008–2010. The primary objective was to assess 6-month outcomes (durability, i.e., still on an ETR-containing regimen; change in CD4+ cell count and HIV-1 RNA <400 copies/mL). The cohort included 587 patients receiving ETR; 42% of ETR use was in patients not on DRV/ritonavir (r). Patients receiving ETR plus DRV/r had longer durability versus those on ETR plus a PI other than DRV/r at months 6 (91.2% versus 85.5%) and 12 (77.4% versus 65.2%), respectively. Patients on regimens with a PI other than DRV/r were the least likely to be receiving ETR at month 6 (85.5%) versus patients on other ETR-based regimens. Patients on regimens without a PI and without RAL had lower virologic suppression (month 6, 54.2%; month 12, 63.2%) versus patients on other ETR-based regimens. In a clinical care, nontrial setting, ETR was used in regimens without DRV/r. In this population, the 6-month response rates were similar and durable across all regimens, except when ETR was used without RAL and without a PI.
cost; HIV; utilization; CD4 count; HAART; HIV Research Network
The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy targets for 2015 include increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for persons living with HIV in the United States (PLWH-US).
To demonstrate the utility of the NA-ACCORD (North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design) for monitoring trends in the HIV epidemic in the United States and to present trends in HIV treatment and related health outcomes.
Trends from annual cross-sectional analyses comparing patients from pooled, multicenter, prospective, clinical HIV cohort studies with PLWH-US, as reported to national surveillance systems in 40 states.
U.S. HIV outpatient clinics.
HIV-infected adults with 1 or more HIV RNA plasma viral load (HIV VL) or CD4 T-lymphocyte (CD4) cell count measured in any calendar year from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2008.
Annual rates of antiretroviral therapy use, HIV VL, and CD4 cell count at death.
45 529 HIV-infected persons received care in an NA-ACCORD–participating U.S. clinical cohort from 2000 to 2008. In 2008, the 26 030 NA-ACCORD participants in care and the 655 966 PLWH-US had qualitatively similar demographic characteristics. From 2000 to 2008, the proportion of participants prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy increased by 9 percentage points to 83% (P < 0.001), whereas the proportion with suppressed HIV VL (≤2.7 log10 copies/mL) increased by 26 percentage points to 72% (P < 0.001). Median CD4 cell count at death more than tripled to 0.209 × 109 cells/L (P < 0.001).
The usual limitations of observational data apply.
The NA-ACCORD is the largest cohort of HIV-infected adults in clinical care in the United States that is demographically similar to PLWH-US in 2008. From 2000 to 2008, increases were observed in the percentage of prescribed HAART, the percentage who achieved a suppressed HIV VL, and the median CD4 cell count at death.
Primary Funding Source
National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Canadian HIV Trials Network, and the government of British Columbia, Canada.
Since 2003, U.S. organizations have recommended universal screening, rather than targeted screening, of HIV-infected persons for gonorrhea (NG) and Chlamydia (CT). Our objective was to determine whether wider testing resulting from these guidelines would produce an increase in NG/CT diagnoses.
We studied 3,283 patients receiving HIV care 1999–2007 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital HIV clinic. The two primary outcomes were: 1) the occurrence of any NG/CT testing in each year of care and 2) the occurrence of any positive result(s) in years of testing. The proportion of all patients in care who were diagnosed with NG/CT was defined as the number of patients with positive results divided by the number of patients in care. Trends were analyzed with repeated measures logistic regression.
The proportion of patients tested for NG/CT increased steadily from 0.12 in 1999 to 0.33 in 2007 (OR per year for being tested, 1.17 [1.15, 1.19]). The proportion positive among those tested decreased significantly after 2003 (OR per year 0.67 [0.55, 0.81]). The proportion of all patients in care diagnosed with NG/CT therefore remained generally stable 1999–2007 (OR per year 0.97 [0.91, 1.04]).
Universal annual screening, as implemented, did not increase the proportion of all patients in care who were diagnosed with NG/CT. Similarly low implementation rates have been reported in cross-sectional studies. If future efforts to enhance implementation do not yield increases in diagnoses, then guidelines focusing on targeted screening of high risk groups rather than universal screening may be warranted.
HIV prevention; health service research; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Chlamydia trachomatis; screening; guidelines
Background. Screening for tuberculosis prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation is not routinely performed in low-incidence settings. Identifying factors associated with developing tuberculosis after HAART initiation could focus screening efforts.
Methods. Sixteen cohorts in the United States and Canada contributed data on persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who initiated HAART December 1995–August 2009. Parametric survival models identified factors associated with tuberculosis occurrence.
Results. Of 37845 persons in the study, 145 were diagnosed with tuberculosis after HAART initiation. Tuberculosis risk was highest in the first 3 months of HAART (20 cases; 215 cases per 100000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 131–333 per 100000 person-years). In a multivariate Weibull proportional hazards model, baseline CD4+ lymphocyte count <200, black race, other nonwhite race, Hispanic ethnicity, and history of injection drug use were independently associated with tuberculosis risk. In addition, in a piece-wise Weibull model, increased baseline HIV-1 RNA was associated with increased tuberculosis risk in the first 3 months; male sex tended to be associated with increased risk.
Conclusions. Screening for active tuberculosis prior to HAART initiation should be targeted to persons with baseline CD4 <200 lymphocytes/mm3 or increased HIV-1 RNA, persons of nonwhite race or Hispanic ethnicity, history of injection drug use, and possibly male sex.
Determination of the prevalence of accumulated antiretroviral drug resistance among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is complicated by the lack of routine measurement in clinical care. By using data from 8 clinic-based cohorts from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design, drug-resistance mutations from those with genotype tests were determined and scored using the Genotypic Resistance Interpretation Algorithm developed at Stanford University. For each year from 2000 through 2005, the prevalence was calculated using data from the tested subset, assumptions that incorporated clinical knowledge, and multiple imputation methods to yield a complete data set. A total of 9,289 patients contributed data to the analysis; 3,959 had at least 1 viral load above 1,000 copies/mL, of whom 2,962 (75%) had undergone at least 1 genotype test. Using these methods, the authors estimated that the prevalence of accumulated resistance to 2 or more antiretroviral drug classes had increased from 14% in 2000 to 17% in 2005 (P < 0.001). In contrast, the prevalence of resistance in the tested subset declined from 57% to 36% for 2 or more classes. The authors’ use of clinical knowledge and multiple imputation methods revealed trends in HIV drug resistance among patients in care that were markedly different from those observed using only data from patients who had undergone genotype tests.
antiretroviral therapy, highly active; drug resistance; genotype; HIV
HIV is no longer a contraindication to transplantation. For HIV-infected patients, HIV-infected deceased donors (HIVDD) could attenuate the organ shortage and waitlist mortality. However, this practice would violate United States federal law. The goal of this study was to estimate the potential impact of legalizing transplantation of HIV-infected organs by quantifying the potential pool of HIVDD. Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, HIV-infected deaths compatible with donation were enumerated. Using HIV Research Network (HIVRN) data, CD4 count, plasma HIV-1 RNA level, AIDS-defining illnesses, and causes of death were examined in potential HIVDD. Using UNOS data, evaluated donors who later demonstrated unanticipated HIV infections were studied. From NIS, a yearly average of 534 (range: 481–652) potential HIVDD were identified, with 63 (range: 39–90) kidney-only, 221 (range: 182–255) liver-only, and 250 (range: 182–342) multi-organ donors. From HIVRN, a yearly average of 494 (range: 441–533) potential HIVDD were identified. Additionally, a yearly average of 20 (range: 11–34) donors with unanticipated HIV-infection were identified from UNOS. Deceased HIV-infected patients represent a potential of approximately 500–600 donors per year for HIV-infected transplant candidates. In the current era of HIV management, a legal ban on the use of these organs seems unwarranted and likely harmful.
HIV; access to transplantation; donor infection; donor/recipient matching; deceased donor organs; kidney transplantation; liver transplantation
HIV; pregnancy; adolescent; females; adolescent pregnancy; clinical outcomes; HAART
We examined whether having a psychiatric disorder among HIV-infected individuals is associated with differential rates of discontinuation of HAART and whether the number of mental health visits impact these rates.
This longitudinal study (fiscal year: 2000–2005) used discrete time survival analysis to evaluate time to discontinuation of HAART. The predictor variable was presence of a psychiatric diagnosis (serious mental illness versus depressive disorders versus none).
Five United States outpatient HIV sites affiliated with the HIV Research Network. Patients: The sample consisted of 4989 patients. The majority was nonwhite (74.0%) and men (71.3%); 24.8% were diagnosed with a depressive disorder, and 9% were diagnosed with serious mental illness.
Main outcome measures
Time to discontinuation of HAART adjusting for demographic factors, injection drug use history, and nadir CD4 cell count.
Relative to those with no psychiatric disorders, the hazard probability for discontinuation of HAART was significantly lower in the first and second years among those with SMI [adjusted odds ratio: first year, 0.57 (0.47–0.69); second year, 0.68 (0.52–0.89)] and in the first year among those with depressive disorders [adjusted odds ratio: first year, 0.61 (0.54–0.69)]. The hazard probabilities did not significantly differ among diagnostic groups in subsequent years. Among those with psychiatric diagnoses, those with six or more mental health visits in a year were significantly less likely to discontinue HAART compared with patients with no mental health visits.
Individuals with psychiatric disorders were significantly less likely to discontinue HAART in the first and second years of treatment. Mental health visits are associated with decreased risk of discontinuing HAART.
HIV; psychiatric disorders; treatment outcomes
Screening HIV-infected men for gonorrhea (GC) and Chlamydia (CT) may decrease HIV transmission and reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in female partners. This study determined GC/CT testing rates in a clinical HIV cohort before and after 2003 when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued guidelines for GC/CT screening.
First GC/CT testing episodes were identified for all men enrolling in a Baltimore HIV clinic 1999–2007. Multivariate Cox and logistic regression were used to assess clinical and demographic factors associated with being tested and with having a positive result.
Among 1110 men, the rate of GC/CT testing upon clinic enrollment increased from 4.0% prior to 2003 to 16.5% afterward, and the rate of ever being tested increased from 34.2% to 49.1% (P <0.001 for both comparisons). Among men with same sex contact, 10% of first testing episodes included extragenital sites. Among the 342 men ever-tested, 5.2% had positive results on first testing. Predictors of testing included enrolling after 2003, younger age, frequent visits, and black race. Predictors of a positive test result included CD4 count ≥200 cells/mm3 and younger age.
GC/CT testing rates among men increased substantially after the 2003 guidelines but remain low. Disseminating existing evidence for GC/CT screening and promoting operational interventions to facilitate it are warranted.
health service research; gonorrhea; Chlamydia; screening; HIV secondary prevention
Although co-occurring psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent among those with HIV, little is known about use of outpatient mental health services (MHS) and psychotropic medication in the HAART era.
During 2003, 951 patients were interviewed at 14 sites in the HIV Research Network. Patients were questioned about use of MHS and psychotropic medications. Logistic regression was used to identify socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with MHS and psychotropic medication utilization
The sample characteristics were: 68% male, 52% Black, 14% Hispanic, median age 46 years (range 20-85), 69% were on HAART. Approximately 34% reported at least one MHS within 6 months and 37% reported use of psychotropic medication for a mental health condition. In multivariate logistic regression, MHS was greater among disabled patients (AOR: 2.39[1.53 – 3.72]), current (2.26[1.53 - 3.35]) and former drug users (1.84[1.24 - 2.73]) and those with more than seven primary care visits in the past 6 months. Blacks (0.61[0.41 – 0.92]) were significantly less likely to use MHS compared to Whites. Similarly, usage of psychotropic medications was greater among disabled patients (AOR:1.79[1.14- 2.82]), women (AOR 1.66[1.13-2.43]), ]) and those with more than seven primary care visits. Blacks (0.37[0.24-0.58)]), and Hispanics (0.39[0.22-0.72]) were less likely to use a psychotropic medication. HAART utilization was not associated with MHS or psychiatric medication use
In the HAART era, self reported rates of mental health service and psychotropic medication utilization are high. Blacks continue report lower use of MHS and psychotropic medication compared to Whites.