We estimated US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)–approved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) indicators. Among patients, 71% were retained in care, 82% were prescribed treatment, and 78% had HIV RNA ≤200 copies/mL; younger adults, women, blacks, and injection drug users had poorer outcomes. Interventions are needed to reduce retention- and treatment-related disparities.
HIV; quality of care; retention in care; antiretroviral therapy; HIV RNA suppression
Background. The role of active hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk has not been clarified.
Methods. We compared CKD incidence in a large cohort of HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, HCV viremic (detectable HCV RNA), or HCV aviremic (HCV seropositive, undetectable HCV RNA). Stages 3 and 5 CKD were defined according to standard criteria. Progressive CKD was defined as a sustained 25% glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decrease from baseline to a GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. We used Cox models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results. A total of 52 602 HCV seronegative, 9508 HCV viremic, and 913 HCV aviremic subjects were included. Compared with HCV seronegative subjects, HCV viremic subjects were at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (adjusted HR 1.36 [95% CI, 1.26, 1.46]), stage 5 CKD (1.95 [1.64, 2.31]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.19, 1.44]), while HCV aviremic subjects were also at increased risk for stage 3 CKD (1.19 [0.98, 1.45]), stage 5 CKD (1.69 [1.07, 2.65]), and progressive CKD (1.31 [1.02, 1.68]).
Conclusions. Compared with HIV-infected subjects who were HCV seronegative, both HCV viremic and HCV aviremic individuals were at increased risk for moderate and advanced CKD.
HIV; hepatitis C virus; chronic kidney disease; hepatitis C RNA; cohort study; glomerular filtration rate; injection drug use
In the last decade, timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy and resulting virologic suppression have greatly improved in North America concurrent with the development of better tolerated and more potent regimens, but significant barriers to treatment uptake remain.
Background. Since the mid-1990s, effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens have improved in potency, tolerability, ease of use, and class diversity. We sought to examine trends in treatment initiation and resulting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virologic suppression in North America between 2001 and 2009, and demographic and geographic disparities in these outcomes.
Methods. We analyzed data on HIV-infected individuals newly clinically eligible for ART (ie, first reported CD4+ count <350 cells/µL or AIDS-defining illness, based on treatment guidelines during the study period) from 17 North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design cohorts. Outcomes included timely ART initiation (within 6 months of eligibility) and virologic suppression (≤500 copies/mL, within 1 year). We examined time trends and considered differences by geographic location, age, sex, transmission risk, race/ethnicity, CD4+ count, and viral load, and documented psychosocial barriers to ART initiation, including non–injection drug abuse, alcohol abuse, and mental illness.
Results. Among 10 692 HIV-infected individuals, the cumulative incidence of 6-month ART initiation increased from 51% in 2001 to 72% in 2009 (Ptrend < .001). The cumulative incidence of 1-year virologic suppression increased from 55% to 81%, and among ART initiators, from 84% to 93% (both Ptrend < .001). A greater number of psychosocial barriers were associated with decreased ART initiation, but not virologic suppression once ART was initiated. We found significant heterogeneity by state or province of residence (P < .001).
Conclusions. In the last decade, timely ART initiation and virologic suppression have greatly improved in North America concurrent with the development of better-tolerated and more potent regimens, but significant barriers to treatment uptake remain, both at the individual level and systemwide.
antiretroviral therapy; healthcare disparities; HIV; time factors; viral load
Earlier HIV diagnosis and engagement in care improves outcomes and is cost-effective, as a result in 2006 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revised the HIV screening guidelines. We sought to determine whether the CD4 count (CD4) at presentation, a surrogate for time to presentation, increased during the study period. Our a priori hypothesis was that the CD4 at presentation increased during the study period, particularly after the CDC guideline revision.
We performed a retrospective cohort study analyzing data from the HIV Research Network (HIVRN), a consortium of 18 US clinics caring for HIV-infected patients. HIV-infected adults (≥18 years old) newly presenting for care between 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Multivariable linear regression examined associations with CD4 at enrollment. Calendar year was modeled as a linear spline with a change in slope at 2008, allowing determination of the mean change in CD4 per year over the years 2003–07 and 2008–11.
Over 13543 newly presenting subjects enrolled from 2003–11. Median CD4 at enrollment rose from 285 to 317 cells/mm3 between 2003–07 and 2008–11 (p<0.001). After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, gender, HIV risk factor, and clinic site, the mean increase in CD4 count at presentation per year was 13.3 cells/mm3/year (95% Confidence Interval 6.4–20.1 cells/mm3/year) greater over the years 2008–11 than 2003–07.
We demonstrate a small, but statistically significant increase in CD4 at presentation after the CDC guideline revision. More efforts are needed to decrease time to presentation to HIV care.
HIV; CD4 count; presentation to care; linkage to care; HIV screening
We examined trends in health insurance coverage among 36,999 HIV-infected adults in care at 11 U.S. HIV clinics between 2006 and 2012. Aggregate health insurance coverage was stable during this time. The proportions of patient-years with private, Medicaid, Medicare, and no insurance during this period were 15.9%, 35.7%, 20.1%, and 28.4%, respectively. Medicaid coverage was more prevalent among women than men, blacks and Hispanics than whites, and individuals with injection drug use risk compared to other transmission risk factors. Hispanics and younger age groups were more likely to be uninsured than other racial/ethnic and older age groups, respectively.
HIV; Insurance; Medicare; Medicaid; Ryan White; Affordable Care Act
The HIV care continuum (diagnosis, linkage to care, retention in care, receipt of antiretroviral therapy (ART), viral suppression) has been used to identify opportunities for improving the delivery of HIV care. Continuum steps are typically calculated in a conditional manner, with the number of persons completing the prior step serving as the base population for the next step. This approach may underestimate the prevalence of viral suppression by excluding patients who are suppressed but do not meet standard definitions of retention in care. Understanding how retention in care and viral suppression interact and change over time may improve our ability to intervene on these steps in the continuum.
We followed 17,140 patients at 11 U.S. HIV clinics between 2010-2012. For each calendar year, patients were classified into one of five categories: (1) retained/suppressed, (2) retained/not-suppressed, (3) not-retained/suppressed, (4) not-retained/not-suppressed, and (5) lost to follow-up (for calendar years 2011 and 2012 only). Retained individuals were those completing ≥2 HIV medical visits separated by ≥90 days in the year. Persons not retained completed ≥1 HIV medical visit during the year, but did not meet the retention definition. Persons lost to follow-up had no HIV medical visits in the year. HIV viral suppression was defined as HIV-1 RNA ≤200 copies/mL at the last measure in the year. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the probability of patients’ transitioning between retention/suppression categories from 2010 to 2011 and 2010 to 2012, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, HIV risk factor, insurance status, CD4 count, and use of ART.
Overall, 65.8% of patients were retained/suppressed, 17.4% retained/not-suppressed, 10.0% not-retained/suppressed, and 6.8% not-retained/not-suppressed in 2010. 59.5% of patients maintained the same status in 2011 (kappa=0.458) and 53.3% maintained the same status in 2012 (kappa=0.437).
Not counting patients not-retained/suppressed as virally suppressed, as is commonly done in the HIV care continuum, underestimated the proportion suppressed by 13%. Applying the care continuum in a longitudinal manner will enhance its utility.
Contemporary trends in hospitalization patterns among perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) patients are unknown. We describe rates and reasons for hospitalizations stratified by age group during 2003-2010 within a large cohort of PHIV patients.
579 PHIV patients engaged in care at 6 geographically-diverse pediatric HIV centers affiliated through the HIV Research Network were included. Modified Clinical Classification Software assigned primary ICD-9 codes into diagnostic categories. Analysis was performed using negative binomial regression with generalized estimating equations.
There were 699 all-cause hospitalizations. The overall rate for the full cohort was 19.9 / 100 person years, and overall rates for 0-4, 5-16, and 17-24 year-olds were 25.1, 14.7, and 34.2 / 100 person years, respectively. Declines were seen in unadjusted all-cause rates for the whole group (incidence rate ratio per year, 0.93 [0.87, 0.99]) and for 5-16 (0.87 [0.76, 0.99]) and 17-24 year-olds (0.87 [0.80, 0.95]). After adjustment for CD4, HIV-1 RNA, and demographics, rates were no longer declining. Non-AIDS-defining infections and AIDS-defining illnesses together caused 349 (50%) admissions. Declines in these categories drove the overall declines in unadjusted rates. No increases over time were seen for cardiovascular, renal, or any other diagnostic categories.
While the declines in hospitalizations are reassuring, continued efforts are needed to address the persistently high infectious and non-infectious morbidity among PHIV patients. Innovative strategies may be most critical for 17-24 year-olds. Lack of increases in cardiovascular and renal admissions provides modest, preliminary reassurance against severe non-infectious complications from longstanding HIV infection and antiretroviral exposure.
Perinatally HIV-Infected Patients; Hospitalizations; AIDS Defining Illnesses; Antiretroviral Therapy
Chronic viral hepatitis is a potentially important determinant of healthcare utilization among persons living with HIV (PLWH). We describe hospitalization rates and reasons for hospitalization among PLWH stratified by co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Laboratory, demographic, and hospitalization data were obtained for all patients receiving longitudinal HIV care during 2010 at 9 geographically diverse sites. Hepatitis serostatus was assessed by hepatitis B surface antigen and/or hepatitis C antibody. ICD-9 codes were used to assign hospitalizations into diagnostic categories. Negative binomial regression was used to assess factors associated with all-cause and diagnostic category-specific hospitalizations.
A total of 2,793 hospitalizations were observed among 12,819 patients. Of these patients, 49.3% had HIV mono-infection, 4.1% HIV/HBV, 15.4% HIV/HCV, 2.5% HIV/HBV/HCV and 28.7% unknown hepatitis serostatus. Compared to HIV mono-infection, risk of all-cause hospitalization was increased with HIV/HBV (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.55 [1.17–2.06]), HIV/HCV (1.45 [1.21–1.74]) and HIV/HBV/HCV (1.52 [1.04–2.22]). Risk of hospitalization for non-AIDS-defining infection was also higher among patients with HIV/HBV (2.07 [1.38–3.11]), HIV/HCV (1.81 [1.36–2.40]) and HIV/HBV/HCV (1.96 [1.11–3.46]). HIV/HBV was associated with hospitalization for gastrointestinal/liver disease (2.55 [1.30–5.01]). HIV/HCV was associated with hospitalization for psychiatric illness (1.89 [1.11–3.26]).
HBV and HCV co-infection are associated with increased risk of all-cause hospitalization and hospitalization for non-AIDS-defining infections, as compared to HIV mono-infection. Policy-makers and third-party payers should be aware of the heightened risk of hospitalization associated with co-infection when allocating healthcare resources and considering models of healthcare delivery.
HIV; hepatitis B; hepatitis C; hospitalizations; healthcare utilization
Retention in care is important for all HIV-infected patients, but may be more important for people with advanced HIV disease. We evaluated whether the association between retention in care and viral suppression differed by HIV disease severity.
A repeated cross-sectional analysis (2006–2011) involving 35,433 adults at 18 U.S. HIV clinics. Multivariable logistic regression models examined associations between retention measures (HRSA retention measure, 6-month gap, and 3-month visit constancy) and viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/mL) for HIV disease severity groups defined by CD4 count: ≤200, 201–350, 351–500, and >500 cells/mm3.
Overall, patients met the HRSA measure in 84% of person-years, did not have a 6-month gap in 76%, and had visits in all 4 quarters in 37%; patients achieved viral suppression in 72% of person-years. The association between retention in care and viral suppression differed by disease severity, and was strongest for patients with lower CD4 counts: ≤200 [adjusted odds ratio=2.33, 95% confidence interval 2.16–2.51], 201–350 [1.96, 1.81–2.12], 351–500 [1.65, 1.53–1.78], and >500 cells/mm3 [1.22, 1.14–1.30] using the HRSA retention measure as a representative example.
This is one of the first studies to report the impact of HIV disease severity on retention in care and viral suppression, demonstrating that retention in care is more strongly associated with viral suppression in patients with lower CD4 counts. These results have important implications for improving the health of patients with advanced HIV disease and for test and treat approaches to HIV prevention.
retention in care; engagement in care; retention measures; viral suppression; HIV disease severity; CD4 count
We sought to quantify agreement between Institute of Medicine (IOM) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) retention indicators, which have not been compared in the same population, and assess clinical retention within the largest HIV cohort collaboration in the U.S.
Observational study from 2008–2010, using clinical cohort data in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD).
Retention definitions used HIV primary care visits. The IOM retention indicator was: ≥2 visits, ≥90 days apart, each calendar year. This was extended to a 2-year period; retention required meeting the definition in both years. The DHHS retention indicator was: ≥1 visit each semester over 2 years, each ≥60 days apart. Kappa statistics detected agreement between indicators and C statistics (areas under Receiver-Operating Characteristic curves) from logistic regression analyses summarized discrimination of the IOM indicator by the DHHS indicator.
Among 36,769 patients in 2008–2009 and 34,017 in 2009–2010, there were higher percentages of participants retained in care under the IOM indicator than the DHHS indicator (80% vs. 75% in 2008–2009; 78% vs. 72% in 2009–2010, respectively) (p<0.01), persisting across all demographic and clinical characteristics (p<0.01). There was high agreement between indicators overall (κ = 0.83 in 2008–2009; κ = 0.79 in 2009–2010, p<0.001), and C statistics revealed a very strong ability to predict retention according to the IOM indicator based on DHHS indicator status, even within characteristic strata.
Although the IOM indicator consistently reported higher retention in care compared with the DHHS indicator, there was strong agreement between IOM and DHHS retention indicators in a cohort demographically similar to persons living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S. Persons with poorer retention represent subgroups of interest for retention improvement programs nationally, particularly in light of the White House Executive Order on the HIV Care Continuum.
Previously, herpes zoster (HZ) was found to occur at a higher rate in the HIV population than the general population. There are, however, limited data about the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of HZ in the current antiretroviral therapy (ART) era.
We identified HZ episodes in an urban HIV clinic cohort between 2002-2009. Three controls were matched to each case and conditional logistic regression was used to assess for risk factors associated with incident HZ cases. Logistic regression to assess for factors associated with complicated HZ.
183 new HZ cases were identified in 4,353 patients with 19,752 person-years (PY) of follow-up—an incidence rate 9.3/1000 PY. Cases were majority male (62%), and African-American (75%), with a mean age of 39 (IQR 32-44). 50 patients (28%) had complicated HZ with 12% developing post-herpetic neuralgia. In multivariate regression, having started ART within 90 days of the episode (Adjusted OR 4.02, 95% CI:[1.31,12.41]), having a viral load of > 400 copies/mL (1.49, [1.00,2.24]), and having a CD4 <350 cells/mm3 (2.46, [1.42,4.23]) or 350-500 (2.02, [1.14,3.57]) as compared to CD4 > 500 were associated with increased risk of HZ.
The incidence of HZ is lower than previously reported in HIV cohorts, but remains higher than the general population. Over one-fourth of patients developed complicated HZ, which is remarkable given the young age of our population. Risk factors for HZ include markers of poor immune function, suggesting that appropriate ART may reduce the burden of HZ in this population.
Thirty-day hospital readmission rate is receiving increasing attention as a quality of care indicator. The objective of this study was to determine readmission rates and to identify factors associated with readmission among persons living with HIV.
Prospective multicenter observational cohort.
Nine U.S. HIV clinics affiliated through the HIV Research Network.
Patients engaged in HIV care during 2005–2010.
Main outcome measure(s)
Readmission rate was defined as the proportion of hospitalizations followed by a readmission within 30 days. Factors in multivariate analyses included diagnostic categories, patient demographic and clinical characteristics, and having an outpatient follow-up visit.
Among 11,651 total index hospitalizations, the 30-day readmission rate was 19.3%. AIDS defining illnesses (ADI, 9.6% of index hospitalizations) and non-AIDS defining infections (26.4% of index hospitalizations) had readmission rates of 26.2% and 16.6%, respectively. Factors independently associated with readmission included lower CD4 count (AOR 1.80 [1.53, 2.11] for CD4 <50 vs. ≥351 cells/μl), longer length of stay (1.77 [1.53, 2.04] for ≥9 days vs. 1–3 days), and several diagnostic categories including ADI. Having an outpatient follow-up clinic visit was not associated with lower readmission risk (AHR 0.98 [0.88, 1.08]).
The 19.3% readmission rate exceeds the 13.2% rate reported for the general population of 18–64 year-olds. HIV providers may use the 19.3% rate as a basis of comparison. Policymakers may consider the impact of HIV when estimating expected readmissions for a hospital or region. Preventing or recovering from severe immune dysfunction may be the most important factor to reducing readmissions.
Readmission; HIV; AIDS defining illness; Outpatient hospital follow-up; Healthcare utilization
Guidelines recommend hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening for all people living with HIV (PLWH). Understanding HCV testing practices may improve compliance with guidelines and can help identify areas for future intervention.
We evaluated HCV screening and unnecessary repeat HCV testing in 8,590 PLWH initiating care at 12 U.S. HIV clinics between 2006 and 2010, with follow-up through 2011. Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between patient factors and the outcomes: HCV screening (≥1 HCV antibody tests during the study period) and unnecessary repeat HCV testing (≥1 HCV antibody tests in patients with a prior positive test result).
Overall, 82% of patients were screened for HCV, 18% of those screened were HCV antibody-positive, and 40% of HCV antibody-positive patients had unnecessary repeat HCV testing. The likelihood of being screened for HCV increased as the number of outpatient visits rose (adjusted odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.03). Compared to men who have sex with men (MSM), patients with injection drug use (IDU) were less likely to be screened for HCV (0.63, 0.52–0.78); while individuals with Medicaid were more likely to be screened than those with private insurance (1.30, 1.04–1.62). Patients with heterosexual (1.78, 1.20–2.65) and IDU (1.58, 1.06–2.34) risk compared to MSM, and those with higher numbers of outpatient (1.03, 1.01–1.04) and inpatient (1.09, 1.01–1.19) visits were at greatest risk of unnecessary HCV testing.
Additional efforts to improve compliance with HCV testing guidelines are needed. Leveraging health information technology may increase HCV screening and reduce unnecessary testing.
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has been introduced as a model for providing high-quality, comprehensive, patient-centered care that is both accessible and coordinated, and may provide a framework for optimizing the care of youth living with HIV (YLH). We surveyed six pediatric/adolescent HIV clinics caring for 578 patients (median age 19 years, 51% male, and 82% black) in July 2011 to assess conformity to the PCMH. Clinics completed a 50-item survey covering the six domains of the PCMH: (1) comprehensive care, (2) patient-centered care, (3) coordinated care, (4) accessible services, (5) quality and safety, and (6) health information technology. To determine conformity to the PCMH, a novel point-based scoring system was devised. Points were tabulated across clinics by domain to obtain an aggregate assessment of PCMH conformity. All six clinics responded. Overall, clinics attained a mean 75.8% [95% CI, 63.3–88.3%] on PCMH measures—scoring highest on patient-centered care (94.7%), coordinated care (83.3%), and quality and safety measures (76.7%), and lowest on health information technology (70.0%), accessible services (69.1%), and comprehensive care (61.1%). Clinics moderately conformed to the PCMH model. Areas for improvement include access to care, comprehensive care, and health information technology. Future studies are warranted to determine whether greater clinic PCMH conformity improves clinical outcomes and cost savings for YLH.
HIV infection and low CD4+ T-cell count are associated with an increased risk of persistent oncogenic HPV infection – the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Few reported prospective cohort studies have characterized the incidence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in HIV-infected women.
Data were obtained from HIV-infected and -uninfected female participants in the NA-ACCORD with no history of ICC at enrollment. Participants were followed from study entry or January, 1996 through ICC, loss-to follow-up or December, 2010. The relationship of HIV infection and CD4+ T-cell count with risk of ICC was assessed using age-adjusted Poisson regression models and standardized incidence ratios (SIR). All cases were confirmed by cancer registry records and/or pathology reports. Cervical cytology screening history was assessed through medical record abstraction.
A total of 13,690 HIV-infected and 12,021 HIV-uninfected women contributed 66,249 and 70,815 person-years (pys) of observation, respectively. Incident ICC was diagnosed in 17 HIV-infected and 4 HIV-uninfected women (incidence rate of 26 and 6 per 100,000 pys, respectively). HIV-infected women with baseline CD4+ T-cells of ≥ 350, 200–349 and <200 cells/uL had a 2.3-times, 3.0-times and 7.7-times increase in ICC incidence, respectively, compared with HIV-uninfected women (Ptrend =0.001). Of the 17 HIV-infected cases, medical records for the 5 years prior to diagnosis showed that 6 had no documented screening, 5 had screening with low grade or normal results, and 6 had high-grade results.
This study found elevated incidence of ICC in HIV-infected compared to -uninfected women, and these rates increased with immunosuppression.
Human papilloma virus; HIV-infection; Invasive Cervical Cancer; Immunosuppression
Retention in care is key to improving HIV outcomes. Our goal was to describe “churn” in patterns of entry, exit, and retention in HIV care in the US and Canada.
Adults contributing ≥1 CD4 count or HIV-1 RNA (HIV-lab) from 2000–2008 in North American Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) clinical cohorts were included. Incomplete retention was defined as lack of 2 HIV-labs (≥90 days apart) within 12 months, summarized by calendar year. We used beta-binomial regression models to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of factors associated with incomplete retention.
Among 61,438 participants, 15,360 (25%) with incomplete retention significantly differed in univariate analyses (p<0.001) from 46,078 (75%) consistently retained by age, race/ethnicity, HIV risk, CD4, ART use, and country of care (US vs. Canada). From 2000–2004, females (OR=0.82, CI:0.70–0.95), older individuals (OR=0.78, CI:0.74–0.83 per 10 years), and ART users (OR= 0.61, CI:0.54–0.68 vs all others) were less likely to have incomplete retention, while black individuals (OR=1.31, CI:1.16–1.49, vs. white), those with injection drug use (IDU) HIV risk (OR=1.68, CI:1.49–1.89, vs. non-IDU) and those in care longer (OR=1.09, CI:1.07–1.11 per year) were more likely to have incomplete retention. Results from 2005–2008 were similar.
From 2000 to 2008, 75% of the NA-ACCORD population was consistently retained in care with 25% experiencing some change in status, or churn. In addition to the programmatic and policy implications, our findings identify patient groups who may benefit from focused retention efforts.
retention; churn; HIV clinical care; North America; HRSA HAB; National HIV/AIDS Strategy
C. difficile is the most commonly reported infectious diarrhea in HIV-infected patients in the United States. We set out to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical presentation of C. difficile infections (CDI) in a cohort of HIV-infected subjects.
We performed a nested, case-control analysis with four non-CDI controls randomly selected for each case.
We assessed the incidence of CDI in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2010. Incident cases were defined as first positive C. difficile cytotoxin assay or PCR for toxin B gene. We used conditional logistic regression models to assess risk factors for CDI. We abstracted data on the clinical presentation and outcomes from case chart review.
We identified 154 incident CDI cases for an incidence of 8.3 cases/1000 patient years. No unique clinical features of HIV-associated CDI were identified. In multivariate analysis, risk of CDI was independently increased for: CD4 count ≤50 cells/mm3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 20.7, 95% CI 2.8–151.4), hospital onset CDI (AOR 26.7 [3.1–231.2]), and use of clindamycin (AOR 27.6 [2.2–339.4]), fluoroquinolones (AOR 4.5 [1.2–17.5]), macrolides (AOR 6.3 [1.8–22.1]), gastric acid suppressants (AOR 3.1 [1.4–6.9]), or immunosuppressive agents (AOR 6.8 [1.2–39.6]).
The incidence of CDI in HIV-infected patients was twice that previously reported. Our data show compromised cellular immunity, as defined by CD4 ≤50 cells/ mm3is a risk factor for CDI. Clinicians should be aware of the increased CDI risk, particularly in those with severe CD4 count suppression.
case-control; Clostridium difficile; HIV; incidence; risk factors
Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has significantly increased survival among HIV-positive adults in the United States (U.S.) and Canada, but gains in life expectancy for this region have not been well characterized. We aim to estimate temporal changes in life expectancy among HIV-positive adults on ART from 2000–2007 in the U.S. and Canada.
Participants were from the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD), aged ≥20 years and on ART. Mortality rates were calculated using participants' person-time from January 1, 2000 or ART initiation until death, loss to follow-up, or administrative censoring December 31, 2007. Life expectancy at age 20, defined as the average number of additional years that a person of a specific age will live, provided the current age-specific mortality rates remain constant, was estimated using abridged life tables.
The crude mortality rate was 19.8/1,000 person-years, among 22,937 individuals contributing 82,022 person-years and 1,622 deaths. Life expectancy increased from 36.1 [standard error (SE) 0.5] to 51.4 [SE 0.5] years from 2000–2002 to 2006–2007. Men and women had comparable life expectancies in all periods except the last (2006–2007). Life expectancy was lower for individuals with a history of injection drug use, non-whites, and in patients with baseline CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3.
A 20-year-old HIV-positive adult on ART in the U.S. or Canada is expected to live into their early 70 s, a life expectancy approaching that of the general population. Differences by sex, race, HIV transmission risk group, and CD4 count remain.
U.S. state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAPs) are federally funded to provide antiretroviral therapy (ART) as the payer of last resort to eligible persons with HIV infection. States differ regarding their financial contributions to and ways of implementing these programs, and it remains unclear how this interstate variability affects HIV treatment outcomes.
We analyzed data from HIV-infected individuals who were clinically-eligible for ART between 2001 and 2009 (i.e., a first reported CD4+ <350 cells/uL or AIDS-defining illness) from 14 U.S. cohorts of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD). Using propensity score matching and Cox regression, we assessed ART initiation (within 6 months following eligibility) and virologic suppression (within 1 year) based on differences in two state ADAP features: the amount of state funding in annual ADAP budgets and the implementation of waiting lists. We performed an a priori subgroup analysis in persons with a history of injection drug use (IDU).
Among 8,874 persons, 56% initiated ART within six months following eligibility. Persons living in states with no additional state contribution to the ADAP budget initiated ART on a less timely basis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.60–0.88). Living in a state with an ADAP waiting list was not associated with less timely initiation (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.87–1.45). Neither additional state contributions nor waiting lists were significantly associated with virologic suppression. Persons with an IDU history initiated ART on a less timely basis (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.95).
We found that living in states that did not contribute additionally to the ADAP budget was associated with delayed ART initiation when treatment was clinically indicated. Given the changing healthcare environment, continued assessment of the role of ADAPs and their features that facilitate prompt treatment is needed.
Prior research has documented sociodemographic disparities in the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent therapeutic developments and changing epidemiological profiles may have altered such disparities. We examine the extent to which socio-demographic differences in prescribed ART have changed between 2002 and 2008.
We analyzed data abstracted from medical records at 13 US sites participating in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Research Network. Prescription of ART was assessed for each year in care for each patient. A total of 14,092 patients were followed up for 39,251 person-years. We examined ART use as a function of sex, race/ethnicity, human immunodeficiency virus risk group, age, and CD4 history (no test <500 cells/mm3, one or more tests between 500 and 350 cells/mm3, 1 test ≤350 cells/mm3, and 2 or more tests ≤350 cells/mm3). Using multiple logistic regression, we ascertained interactions between each of these variables and calendar year.
The overall percentage prescribed ART increased from 60% to 80% between 2002 and 2008. Among those with 2 or more CD4 tests ≤350 cells/mm3, the percentage increased from 82% to 92%. ART rates were higher for those with lower CD4 counts but increased over time for all CD4 groups and for all demographic groups. Nevertheless, sex and racial/ethnic disparities persisted. Significant interactions were obtained for CD4 history by year, age by year, and age by CD4 history.
Although prescription of ART became more widespread from 2002 to 2008, patients who were female, black, or younger still had lower ART rates than male, white, or older patients.
ART; disparities; time trends; utilization; sociodemographic differences
Antiretroviral therapy medication errors are common among hospitalized patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (29% of admissions on hospital day 1) but are quickly corrected (7% of admissions on hospital day 2). Compared with those admitted to the HIV/AIDS service, patients admitted to surgical services were at increased risk of errors.
Background. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) medication errors can lead to drug resistance, treatment failure, and death. Prior research suggests that ART medication errors are on the rise in US hospitals. This analysis provides a current estimate of inpatient antiretroviral prescribing errors.
Methods. Retrospective review of medication orders during the first 48 hours of hospitalization for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1 January and 31 December 2009. Errors were classified as (1) incomplete regimen, (2) incorrect dosage, (3) incorrect schedule, and (4) nonrecommended drug-drug combinations. Multivariable regression was used to identify factors associated with errors.
Results. A total of 702 admissions occurred in 2009. Of these, 380 had ART medications prescribed on the first day and 308 on the second day of hospitalization. A total of 145 ART medication errors in 110 admissions were identified on the first day (29%), and 22 errors were identified in 21 admissions on the second day (7%). The most common errors were incomplete regimen and incorrect dosage or schedule. Protease inhibitors accounted for the majority of dosing and scheduling errors (71%–73%). Compared with patients admitted to the HIV/AIDS service, those admitted to surgical services were at increased risk of errors (adjusted odds ratio, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–8.18).
Conclusions. ART medication errors are common among hospitalized HIV-infected patients on the first day of admission, but most are corrected within 48 hours. Interventions are needed to safeguard patients and prevent serious complications of ART medication errors especially during the first 24 hours of hospitalization.
For optimal clinical benefit, HIV-infected patients should receive periodic outpatient care indefinitely. However, initially establishing HIV care and subsequent retention in care are problematic. This study examines establishment, retention, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) in a large, multi-site cohort over a 2-8 year period.
Medical record data were reviewed for 22,984 adult HIV patients receiving care at 12 clinics in the HIV Research Network between 2001-2009. Three dichotomous outcome measures were based on each patient's history of outpatient visits. Establishment reflects whether the patient made outpatient visits for longer than 6 months after initial enrollment. The retention measure reflects whether the patient had at least 2 outpatient visits separated by 90 days in each year in care. LTFU reflects whether the patient had no outpatient visits for more than 12 months without returning. Multiple logistic regression examined demographic and clinical correlates of each outcome, as well as the combined outcome of meeting all three measures.
Overall, 21.7% of patients never established HIV care after an initial visit. Among established patients, 57.4% did not meet the retention criterion in all years, and 34.9% were LTFU. Only 20.4% of all patients met all three criteria. The odds of successfully meeting all three criteria were higher for women, for older patients, for Hispanics compared with whites, and for those with CD4 levels ≤50 cells/mm3.
These data highlight the need to improve establishment and retention in HIV care.
HIV; Loss to follow-up; retention in care; outpatient use