The impact of different antiretroviral agents on the risk of developing or surviving CNS disease remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether using antiretroviral regimens with higher CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) scores was associated with reduced incidence of CNS disease and improved survival in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) Study.
Adults without previous CNS disease, who commenced combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) between 1996 and 2008, were included (n = 22,356). Initial and most recent cART CPE scores were calculated. CNS diseases were HIV encephalopathy (HIVe), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cerebral toxoplasmosis (TOXO), and cryptococcal meningitis (CRYPTO). Incidence rates and overall survival were stratified by CPE score. A multivariable Poisson regression model was used to identify independent associations.
The median (interquartile range) CPE score for initial cART regimen increased from 7 (5–8) in 1996–1997 to 9 (8–10) in 2000–2001 and subsequently declined to 6 (7–8) in 2006–2008. Differences in gender, HIV acquisition risk group, and ethnicity existed between CPE score strata. A total of 251 subjects were diagnosed with a CNS disease (HIVe 80; TOXO 59; CRYPTO 56; PML 54). CNS diseases occurred more frequently in subjects prescribed regimens with CPE scores ≤4, and less frequently in those with scores ≥10; however, these differences were nonsignificant. Initial and most recent cART CPE scores ≤4 were independently associated with increased risk of death.
Clinical status at time of commencing cART influences antiretroviral selection and CPE score. This information should be considered when utilizing CPE scores for retrospective analyses.
Atazanavir, an azadipeptide protease inhibitor (PI) with once daily dosing, a lack of insulin resistance, lipid increase, and gastrointestinal toxicities, is approved in combination with other antiretrovirals for the treatment of patients infected with HIV. Unboosted atazanavir is also used in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) naive patients.
The study prospectively followed up an established cohort of patients who received atazanavir, and for whom one year of follow up data were available.
It was found that use of atazanavir in intent to treat and on treatment analyses, maintained and led to virological suppression and increases in CD4 count in both PI naive and experienced patients. Virological failure occurred in 7% of patients and the main toxicity was hyperbilirubinaemia, which led to treatment withdrawal in 2%. Its efficacy and safety profile was similar to that seen in previous randomised studies investigating its use.
These data should provide reassurance for clinicians wishing to introduce a new antiretroviral into an established cohort.
HIV; AIDS; compliance; atazanavir; lipid
Background: The CD4 count is a dominant prognostic and predictive factor in HIV infection. This study assessed the utility of the total lymphocyte count (TLC) in place of the CD4 count to predict the development of AIDS defining opportunistic infections (ADOI).
Methods: The Chelsea and Westminster cohort was used to identify those people with a first episode of an ADOI. Corresponding CD4 and TLCs were recorded before diagnosis or at the time of first prescribing prophylaxis; patients without an AIDS defining opportunistic infection were defined as being at "risk" and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to display the results of sensitivity and the false positive error rate of total lymphocyte and CD4 count groups.
Results: A significant linear correlation was seen between the log10 CD4 count and log10 TLC (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.70, p<0.001). The finer cut off value for TLC where false positive error rate is minimum and sensitivity maximum was 1500–2000 cells/mm3. Patients with TLC 1000–1500 cells/mm3 were estimated to be at 40% increased risk of developing an ADOI. The cut off value for CD4 counts measured 200 cells/mm3 above which the risk developing an ADOI decreased. Patients with a CD4 count of 150–200 cells/mm3 were at a 34% increased risk of developing an ADOI. The area under the ROC curve for TLC was 10% lower than that for CD4 count.
Conclusions: The TLC is minimally less reliable than the CD4 count as a predictor of ADOIs. In the absence of expensive equipment for CD4 measurement, the TLC is a useful test.
Background: Previous studies have reached differing conclusions about the utility of anal cytology as a screening tool for anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN). There is a need also to establish whether HPV typing offers a useful adjunct to screening.
Methods: We analysed data from 99 consecutive homosexual/bisexual male patients (89 HIV-1 positive) who underwent high resolution anoscopy. Follow up visits for these patients were also included, giving a total of 160 anoscopic procedures. Comparison was made between results of anal cytology using the sampling method of Palefsky, and histological findings of biopsies taken from abnormal areas seen on high resolution anoscopic examination of the anal canal. Swabs taken concurrently with the cytology were analysed for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and compared with the cytological and histological findings.
Results: The sensitivity of the cytology was 83%, and the specificity 38% when compared with histology. At screening of 34 asymptomatic men, 83% had anal cytological dysplasia and 78% had AIN. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of hrHPV genotypes between different cytological or histological grades of abnormalities.
Conclusion: Anal cytology by the Palefsky method is simple to undertake, has a sensitivity and specificity comparable with cervical cytology, and can therefore be used as the basis of a pilot screening project in centres with large cohorts of HIV positive homosexual men who have a high risk of developing anal carcinoma. HPV genotyping is not a useful adjunct to cytological screening.
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining condition in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. We investigated the phenotype and function of the NKG2C+ NK cell population in individuals with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma. The staging of AIDS KS patients according to the AIDS Clinical Trial Group criteria revealed that patients with the S1 disease stage have a significantly higher proportion of NKG2C+ cells than those with the S0 disease stage. NKG2C+ cells from S1-stage patients are highly enriched for the expression of KIR3DL1, are depleted of NKp46, and respond poorly to major histocompatibility complex class I-positive target cells. These data demonstrate a link between NK cell phenotype and function and disease prognosis in AIDS.
Antibiotic resistance profiles are useful in directing therapeutic strategies during bacterial infections. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa associated pneumonia were investigated in an HIV-1 infected cohort during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The median CD4 count at presentation was significantly lower for cases of P aeruginosa than for S pneumoniae. However, the number of antibiotic resistant cases of P aeruginosa decreased throughout the study period, while the incidence of S pneumoniae remained unchanged. In contrast to pneumococcal pneumonia, we show that antiretrovirals have protected from pneumonia due to antibiotic resistant P aeruginosa. These findings have implications for the treatment of individuals presenting with serious infections in which antibiotic therapy needs to be instituted before identification and sensitivities are known.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) remains a serious opportunistic infection in HIV infected individuals. Seasonal changes in climate are associated with changes within individual susceptibility to infection. The possibility of monthly variability in the incidence of PCP was therefore examined by means of a cohort study of a database of 8640 HIV infected individuals attending the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. There were 792 cases of PCP diagnosed since 1985. A marked decline was observed in the incidence of PCP in mid-1992 coincident with the introduction of PCP prophylaxis. There was a further decline in 1996 after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Despite no significant monthly variation in the mean attendance to clinic and CD4 count, both new and all cases of PCP were higher in January than in other months (15.9% and 14.5% of all cases, respectively). A correlation with low rainfall in January and new cases of PCP was observed. These data are consistent with an influence of climatic conditions on the presentation of PCP. The diagnosis of PCP is more common in winter months suggesting that this is a transmissible infection.
With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) have increasingly been reported. IRIS usually occurs in individuals with a rapidly rising CD4 T-cell count or percentage upon initiation of ART, who develop a deregulated immune response to infection with or without reactivation of opportunistic organisms. Here, we evaluated rises in absolute CD4 T-cells, and specific CD4 T-cell responses in 4 HIV-1+ individuals presenting with mycobacterial associated IRIS who received in conjunction with ART, IL-2 plus GM-CSF immunotherapy.
We assessed CD4 T-cell counts, HIV-1 RNA loads, phenotype for naïve and activation markers, and in vitro proliferative responses. Results were compared with those observed in 11 matched, successfully treated asymptomatic clinical progressors (CP) with no evidence of opportunistic infections, and uninfected controls.
Median CD4 T-cell counts in IRIS patients rose from 22 cells/μl before initiation of ART, to 70 cells/μl after 8 months of therapy (median 6.5 fold increase). This coincided with IRIS diagnosis, lower levels of naïve CD4 T-cells, increased expression of immune activation markers, and weak CD4 T-cell responses. In contrast, CP had a median CD4 T-cell counts of 76 cells/μl at baseline, which rose to 249 cells/μl 6 months post ART, when strong T-cell responses were seen in > 80% of patients. Higher levels of expression of immune activation markers were seen in IRIS patients compared to CP and UC (IRIS > CP > UC). Immunotherapy with IL-2 and GM-CSF paralleled clinical recovery.
These data suggest that mycobacterial IRIS is associated with inadequate immune reconstitution rather than vigorous specific T-cell responses, and concomitant administration of IL-2 and GM-CSF immunotherapy with effective ART may correct/augment T-cell immunity in such setting resulting in clinical benefit.
Immune reconstitution; T cells; HIV-1; Mycobacterial infection; MAC
HIV; testicular cancer; germ cell tumour; HAART; survival
HIV; non-small-cell lung cancer; HAART
BACKGROUND—Diarrhoea in AIDS is associated with anorexia and weight loss. The importance of gastrointestinal transit in such symptoms has not been addressed.
AIMS—To assess jejunal to caecal transit times in subjects with AIDS related diarrhoea and weight loss and correlate these with measures of absorptive capacity and intestinal permeability.
METHODS—Jejunal to caecal transit times were assessed in 20 seronegative controls and 60 HIV seropositive subjects from serum analysis of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and sulphapyridine after ingestion of the monosaccharide and sulphasalazine in aqueous solution. The method also allows an estimation of gastric emptying times for liquids. Intestinal absorptive capacity and permeability were assessed by a combined test using 3-O-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose.
RESULTS—Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in all groups of patients with AIDS. Mean jejunal to caecal transit times were not significantly different between controls (246 (62) minutes) and patients without diarrhoea (AIDS, well: 278 (103) minutes; AIDS, wasting: 236 (68) minutes), cytomegalovirus colitis (289 (83) minutes), pathogen negative diarrhoea (192 (100) minutes), or microsporidiosis (190 (113) minutes), although 30% of patients had values below the control range. Patients with cryptosporidiosis differed significantly from controls (135 (35) minutes, p<0.0001), seven of 10 having rapid transit times. Absorptive capacity was reduced and intestinal permeability significantly increased in AIDS, but did not correlate significantly with transit times.
CONCLUSION—Small bowel transit is accelerated in many patients with AIDS, particularily in protozoal diarrhoea, but is not the sole explanation for malabsorption of monosaccharides.
Keywords: intestinal infection; intestinal absorption; intestinal transit; intestinal function; AIDS; HIV
BACKGROUND/AIMS—There have been several recent reports suggesting that the natural history of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) has been significantly modified with the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This 2 year prospective cohort study assesses the effect of HAART on the incidence and progression of CMV retinitis in patients with CD4 cell counts below 50 cells ×106/l.
METHODS—63 patients, with CD4 cell counts below 50 cells ×106/l, who were recruited to a 2 year prospective cohort study at the commencement of combination antiretroviral therapy including the use of the proteinase inhibitor, indinavir, were reported. The response to HAART was assessed in terms of a rise in the CD4 cell count and fall in HIV viral load. An experienced ophthalmologist performed dilated funduscopy at the time of recruitment and thereafter at 2 weekly intervals and retinal photography was performed at monthly intervals in patients with CMVR. The activity and progression of CMV retinitis was assessed on the basis of the characteristic clinical and photographic findings.
RESULTS—34 patients achieved at least 50 CD4 cells ×106/l at 3 months after initiation of therapy. New diagnoses of CMVR were seen only in the non-responder group (p=0.085). Overall, the relative risk of a new retinitis event in this group was 3.52 (95% CI 1.16, 10.68) at 3 months compared with those patients who were responsive to HAART. 12 of the 63 patients had previous CMVR. Disease progression was associated with non-response to therapy (p=0.182 exact). In patients with CMVR the median time to first progression was 18 days (95% CI 8, 91) in non-responders and 121 days (95% CI 0.59, 3.65) in responders. By the end of the 2 year follow up period all surviving patients had >50 CD4 cells ×106/l. No CMV events were seen after 8 months of therapy in either group of patients.
CONCLUSIONS—These findings suggest that significant clinical immunorestoration to CMV occurs in response to HAART in patients with CMVR after a lag time of 3-8 months. Initially, a rise in CD4 count is predictive of CMVR response but after the lag period all survivors appear to have developed a clinical immunorestoration to CMV. If HAART is commenced in at risk patients before the development of CMVR the incidence of new disease falls significantly.
determine the incidence of HIV dementia and opportunistic brain disease
in AIDS relative to the use of licensed antiretoviral medication
(zidovudine, zalcitabine, didanosine, and stavudine).
were evaluated retrospectively in a longitudinal cohort of 1109 patients with AIDS during the period 1991-4. Treatment groups were
defined by start and duration of zidovudine treatment, the drugs used
most often during this period were: (a) no
zidovudine, (b) zidovudine before AIDS,
(c) zidovudine before and after AIDS, and
(d) zidovudine used in AIDS. Main outcome measures were cumulative incidence and survival from AIDS to onset of
HIV dementia, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cerebral toxoplasmosis, and primary CNS lymphoma.
RESULTS—Risk of brain
disease including HIV dementia and opportunistic brain disease was
reduced in patients who started zidovudine before AIDS and continued in
AIDS (relative risk (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)
0.36-0.84) as well as zidovudine initiated in AIDS (RR 0.27, 95% CI
0.17-0.45) compared with untreated subjects. Treatment effects were
not constant over time, decreasing by 14%-32% for each six months of
follow up. This was supported by unadjusted incidences across groups
stratified by duration of zidovudine use, indicating reduced risk with
treatment for up to 18 months but not with longer duration of use of
zidovudine. Other antiretroviral drugs had no significant effect,
although these were used by only 14% of patients in this cohort.
limited but effective neuroprotection offered by zidovudine monotherapy
for <18 months suggests that non-specific mechanisms of cerebral
immunological defence may benefit from antiretroviral treatment. Due to
the limitations of a retrospective study these findings require
confirmation and further investigation in the context of current
combination drug treatments.
AIM: To determine the usefulness of measuring amylase activity as an indicator of pancreatic disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients. METHODS: A prospective study of 129 ambulant HIV positive males. Total amylase, pancreatic amylase, and lipase activities were assayed using commercial test kits on an automated analyser. Samples with raised amylase were examined for the presence of macroamylasaemia using cellulose acetate electrophoresis. RESULTS: Thirty six (28%) of the subjects had raised total amylase activities compared with healthy, age matched blood donors. However, almost half of these were because of an increase of the salivary fraction. Four subjects were found to have macroamylasaemia. Pancreatic amylase and lipase assays, more specific indicators of pancreatic disease, produced significantly fewer abnormal results. There was no association between abdominal symptoms and elevated enzyme levels. CONCLUSIONS: Total amylase is a poor indicator of pancreatic disease in HIV infected outpatients. Specific assays for pancreatic amylase offer advantages over the traditional total amylase assay. The lipase assay produced the least number of abnormal results and its use could improve the biochemical identification of patients with possible pancreatic disease and allow a more selective investigation of these cases.
AIMS: To compare the serum concentrations of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole after treatment with itraconazole cyclodextrin solution and itraconazole capsules in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with oral candidosis. METHODS: The pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and its active metabolite hydroxy-itraconazole were assessed on days 1 and 7 of therapy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with oral candidosis taking either itraconazole solution or capsules and the serum concentrations (measured by high performance liquid chromatography) correlated with the clinical response to therapy. In addition, the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp isolates taken from patients at the start of the therapy was assessed. RESULTS: Nine of 16 patients treated with itraconazole capsules and eight of 15 treated with the solution responded to treatment. Three of the non-responders in each treatment group were infected with isolates resistant to itraconazole in vitro. Although with both preparations there was considerable inter-patient variability in the maximum recorded serum concentrations of itraconazole, they were significantly lower on day 1 and day 7 in those receiving capsules compared with those taking the solution. Patients unresponsive to therapy, but infected with susceptible isolates, had significantly lower concentrations of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole levels on days 1 and 7 than patients responding to treatment. However, patients infected with itraconazole resistant isolates (tested in vitro) failed to respond to treatment despite achieving similar serum concentrations of itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole to the responsive patients. For patients with in vitro susceptible isolates a serum itraconazole concentration of < 1000 ng/ml on day 7 was predictive of therapeutic failure (specificity 71%, sensitivity 100%). CONCLUSIONS: Itraconazole cyclodextrin solution achieves higher serum itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole concentrations than the capsule formulation in AIDS patients, and this is associated with improved efficacy.
AIM: To report the clinical significance and treatment of Mycobacterium kansasii infection in the context of HIV disease. DESIGN/METHODS: Retrospective case review of all isolates of M kansasii until June 1994. RESULTS: Ten cases of M kansasii were isolated. All but one patient with this infection had clinical symptoms compatible with generalised infection. The majority had chest infections with the organism isolated on induced sputum but not routine sputum. All isolates were sensitive to ethambutol and nine of 10 to rifampicin. All isolates were resistant to isoniazid and pyrazinamide. CONCLUSION: M kansasii is a pathogen in HIV infected patients and should be treated when isolated. Treatment should be with rifampicin and ethambutol but not isoniazid, as has been recommended previously.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if prior fluconazole exposure was an independent risk factor for fluconazole resistant candidosis in HIV positive patients. METHODS: Twenty five HIV positive cases with fluconazole resistant oral candidosis were matched by CD4 lymphocyte count and time since first episode of candidosis to 25 HIV positive controls with susceptible candidosis. For each individual a history of prior azole prophylaxis was compiled from computerised pharmacy records and review of case notes. RESULTS: The total days of prior azole therapy prescribed was significantly greater for cases than controls. These differences were attributable to prescriptions for secondary prophylaxis against recurrent candidosis, the cases having received significantly longer continuous azole prophylaxis than controls, with no difference in days of prior azole therapy remaining between the two groups if prophylactic prescriptions were excluded. The total cumulative dose of fluconazole received was significantly higher for cases than controls, though mean daily fluconazole doses did not differ significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Even after controlling for degree of immunosuppression and duration of recurrent candidosis, the association between prior azole exposure and fluconazole resistant candidosis remains significant and largely reflects differences in the prescription of secondary antifungal prophylaxis.
AIMS--To review the clinical, radiographic, and therapeutic features of 11 cases of respiratory Aspergillus infection in patients with AIDS. METHODS--All induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples obtained from HIV seropositive patients between January 1985 and March 1993 were analysed for Aspergillus species. Additionally, where appropriate, bronchial or renal biopsy specimens, or both, were taken before treatment had started. RESULTS--In 11 patients Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in alveolar samples obtained by sputum induction. This was confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage in eight. Three patients had Aspergillus plaques in the trachea and bronchus, while a fourth patient had an aspergilloma. Risk factors for Aspergillus infection were present in all patients, including corticosteroid treatment in three cases and neutropenia in four, three of whom had received chemotherapy for Kaposi's sarcoma. Four patients had concomitant cytomegalovirus infection. Ten patients had a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/mm3 while one patient had a disseminated T cell lymphoma with a CD4 count of 242 cells/mm3. Of the three patients with samples obtained by sputum induction who did not undergo bronchoscopy, two had a normal chest x ray picture and the third had a right lobar pneumonia complicating an aggressive lymphoma. All three were treated with itraconazole 200 mg twice a day without further investigation. Survival from the time of diagnosis of Aspergillus infection was short: seven patients died within six weeks, although only one death was directly attributed to pulmonary aspergillosis. At six monthly follow up, one patient, who initially had a positive Aspergillus culture from bronchial washings and a normal chest radiograph, developed a renal aspergilloma despite the disappearance of Aspergillus sp from the sputum. CONCLUSION--Pulmonary aspergillosis is an important clinical problem in patients with AIDS with a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/mm. Furthermore, patients with Aspergillus sp in sputum induction or bronchial washings may develop disseminated disease despite adequate treatment of the primary infection.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate median survival and changes in survival in patients diagnosed as having AIDS. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Clinics in two large London hospitals. SUBJECTS: 2625 patients with AIDS seen between 1982 and July 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival, estimated using lifetable analyses, and factors associated with survival, identified from Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: Median survival (20 months) was longer than previous estimates. The CD4 lymphocyte count at or before initial AIDS defining illness decreased significantly over time from 90 x 10(6)/1 during 1987 or earlier to 40 x 10(6)/1 during 1994 and 1995 (P < 0.0001). In the first three months after diagnosis, patients in whom AIDS was diagnosed after 1987 had a much lower risk of death (relative risk 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.86; P = 0.017) than patients diagnosed before 1987. When the diagnosis was based on oesophageal candidiasis or Kaposi's sarcoma, patients had a lower risk of death than when the diagnosis was based on Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (0.21 (0.07 to 0.59). P = 0.0030 and 0.37 (0.16 to 0.83), P = 0.016). Three months after AIDS diagnosis, the risk of death was similar in patients whose diagnosis was made after and before 1987 (1.02 (0.79 to 1.31), P = 0.91). There were no differences in survival between patients diagnosed during 1988-90, 1991-3, or 1994-5. CONCLUSIONS: In later years, patients were much more likely to survive their initial illness, but long term survival has remained poor. The decrease in CD4 lymphocyte count at AIDS diagnosis indicates that patients are being diagnosed as having AIDS at ever more advanced stages of immunodeficiency.