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1.  Survival from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis 
Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia.
doi:10.5811/westjem.2014.12.21553
PMCID: PMC4307710
2.  Minimally invasive ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde locking nail after failed fusion 
Abstract
A retrograde nail with posterior-to-anterior (PA) locking into os calcis, talus and tibia was used to correct deformity and achieve fusion after failed fusion. A variety of methods have been published to achieve union of the ankle and subtalar joint in a failed fusion situation. We have studied a retrograde locking nail technique through a 2.5-cm incision in the non-weightbearing part of the sole of the foot. Remaining cartilage in the ankle joint, where necessary, was percutaneously removed through an anterior approach and the locking nail was inserted after reaming of os calcis, talus and tibia. Locking screw insertion was in the sagittal plane (p.a. direction), in talus os calcis and tibial diaphysis using a nail mounted jig. Ten patients were entered in the study (age 27-60 years). The initial aetiology for attempted fusion was post-traumatic in nine cases and rheumatic in one case. There were 25 previous operations in the cohort not leading to fusion. An additional temporary external fixator was used in four cases to reach and maintain the optimum position for the procedure. The intervention time was 30-75 min. Dynamisation of the nail was performed after four months under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years (3-5.5 years). Radiologically and clinically, fusion was achieved in 16 weeks (range, 12-20 weeks). There was no loosening of the implant or implant failure. A leg length discrepancy was avoided using this technique. There was one complication with varus malunion in a heavy smoker which united after corrective osteotomy, revision nailing and bone grafting. Patient satisfaction was measured on a scale (not visual analogue) of 0 (not satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied); overall satisfaction averaged 9.5 points (range, 6-10 points). The postoperative ankle-hindfoot score of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society averaged 73.5 points (range, 61-81 points). Retrograde locked nailing with locking in the sagittal plane is a reliable minimally invasive procedure to achieve fusion of the ankle and the subtalar joint after failed fusion.
doi:10.1007/s11751-007-0018-4
PMCID: PMC2321722  PMID: 18427914
Ankle arthrodesis; Failed fusion; Retrograde nail; Calcaneotalotibial arthrodesis
3.  Minimally invasive ankle arthrodesis with a retrograde locking nail after failed fusion 
Abstract
A retrograde nail with posterior-to-anterior (PA) locking into os calcis, talus and tibia was used to correct deformity and achieve fusion after failed fusion. A variety of methods have been published to achieve union of the ankle and subtalar joint in a failed fusion situation. We have studied a retrograde locking nail technique through a 2.5-cm incision in the non-weightbearing part of the sole of the foot. Remaining cartilage in the ankle joint, where necessary, was percutaneously removed through an anterior approach and the locking nail was inserted after reaming of os calcis, talus and tibia. Locking screw insertion was in the sagittal plane (p.a. direction), in talus os calcis and tibial diaphysis using a nail mounted jig. Ten patients were entered in the study (age 27-60 years). The initial aetiology for attempted fusion was post-traumatic in nine cases and rheumatic in one case. There were 25 previous operations in the cohort not leading to fusion. An additional temporary external fixator was used in four cases to reach and maintain the optimum position for the procedure. The intervention time was 30-75 min. Dynamisation of the nail was performed after four months under local anaesthesia. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years (3-5.5 years). Radiologically and clinically, fusion was achieved in 16 weeks (range, 12-20 weeks). There was no loosening of the implant or implant failure. A leg length discrepancy was avoided using this technique. There was one complication with varus malunion in a heavy smoker which united after corrective osteotomy, revision nailing and bone grafting. Patient satisfaction was measured on a scale (not visual analogue) of 0 (not satisfied) to 10 (completely satisfied); overall satisfaction averaged 9.5 points (range, 6-10 points). The postoperative ankle-hindfoot score of the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society averaged 73.5 points (range, 61-81 points). Retrograde locked nailing with locking in the sagittal plane is a reliable minimally invasive procedure to achieve fusion of the ankle and the subtalar joint after failed fusion.
doi:10.1007/s11751-007-0018-4
PMCID: PMC2321722  PMID: 18427914
Ankle arthrodesis; Failed fusion; Retrograde nail; Calcaneotalotibial arthrodesis
4.  The “floating forearm” injury in a child: a case report 
Abstract:
The case of a eleven-year-old girl who had a fracture dislocation of the left elbow with entrapment of the ulnar nerve into the dislocated ulnar epicondyle anlage and unstable forearm fracture of the ipslateral upper extremity is described. This severe injury to the elbow and the ipsilateral forearm is termed “floating forearm” injury. The forearm was stabilized percutaneously and the elbow fracture dislocation, remaining unstable after internal fixation was treated with a pediatric elbow fixator with motion capacity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article10.1007/s11751-007-0017-5contains supplementary material, which is available on SpringerLink
doi:10.1007/s11751-007-0017-5
PMCID: PMC2321724  PMID: 18427915
Forearm injury; Elbow fracture dislocation; Hinged external fixation; Floating elbow injury
5.  P141-T A New Array Format for Protein Kinase Substrate Determination 
Peptide arrays are useful tools to characterize antibodies, enzyme substrates or sequence specificities of interaction partners with given peptide sequences (e.g., SH2, SH3, MH2 and other domains). Here we present a new method1 that allows production of hundreds of identical peptide arrays from a single synthesis run on modified, individual cellulose-disks. The disks are dissolved in the acid cleavage-mixture after synthesis and the resulting solutions of peptide-cellulose-conjugates are then spotted onto multiple slides by conventional spotting techniques. As application example we show results obtained with arrays of kinase substrate libraries and various consensus sequences of known kinase targets. These arrays can be used with different detection methods to profile known and unknown kinases for their substrate specificity.
The new arrays are derived from the the well known SPOT method2 but offer several major improvements: A smaller volume of sample (only 100 μL) is needed for incubation, and a high number of identical copies of the arrays enables large scale, parallel screening experiments. The cost of an individual array is considerably lower than that of a SPOT membrane. Unlike DNA hybridization, protein-protein interactions frequently suffer from low binding affinities. The new cellulose substrate with peptides linked to it generates a three dimensional scaffold on the array support with a peptide loading exceeding that of a monolayer by a factor of 100. The high peptide density of the spots should be advantageous to identify protein-interaction sites, even if their binding constants are low.
Figure 1
PMCID: PMC2291893
6.  Hybridisation based DNA screening on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomer arrays. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1997;25(14):2792-2799.
Arrays of up to some 1000 PNA oligomers of individual sequence were synthesised on polymer membranes using a robotic device originally designed for peptide synthesis. At approximately 96%, the stepwise synthesis efficiency was comparable to standard PNA synthesis procedures. Optionally, the individual, fully deprotected PNA oligomers could be removed from the support for further use, because an enzymatically cleavable but otherwise stable linker was used. Since PNA arrays could form powerful tools for hybridisation based DNA screening assays due to some favourable features of the PNA molecules, the hybridisation behaviour of DNA probes to PNA arrays was investigated for a precise understanding of PNA-DNA interactions on solid support. Hybridisation followed the Watson-Crick base pairing rules with higher duplex stabilities than on corresponding DNA oligonucleotide sensors. Both the affinity and specificity of DNA hybridisation to the PNA oligomers depended on the hybridisation conditions more than expected. Successful discrimination between hybridisation to full complementary PNA sequences and truncated or mismatched versions was possible at salt concentrations down to 10 mM Na+and below, although an increasing tendency to unspecific DNA binding and few strong mismatch hybridisation events were observed.
PMCID: PMC146815  PMID: 9207026
7.  Human papillomavirus type 18 E6 and E7 antibodies in human sera: increased anti-E7 prevalence in cervical cancer patients. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1991;29(8):1579-1588.
Antibody-reactive regions on the human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) E6 and E7 proteins were identified with rabbit polyclonal anti-fusion protein sera by screening of an fd phage expression library containing subgenomic HPV-18 DNA fragments and by testing of overlapping decapeptides representing the E6 and E7 open reading frames. Peptides comprising the delineated regions (designated E6/1 to E6/4 and E7/1) were synthesized and used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect anti-HPV-18 antibodies in human sera. A total of 232 human serum samples (identical numbers of cervical cancer patients and age-matched controls) collected in Tanzania were tested. Similar prevalences (between 0.8 and 4.3%) of antibodies recognizing the different E6 peptides were found in the sera from tumor patients and controls. With a synthetic 28-mer peptide (designated pepE701) comprising the E7/1 region, a significant difference was found: 10 of 116 tumor serum samples but 0 of 116 control serum samples showed a specific reaction (P less than 0.001). This observation confirms earlier results with HPV-16 E7 fusion proteins (I. Jochmus-Kudielka, A. Schneider, R. Braun, R. Kimmig, U. Koldovsky, K. E. Schneweis, K. Seedorf, and L. Gissmann, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 81:1698-1704, 1989). A lower prevalence of anti-HPV-18 E7 antibodies was observed when 188 human serum samples collected in Germany from tumor patients and controls were tested (3 of 94 positive in the cancer group; 0 of 94 positive in the control group). The type specificity of anti-HPV-18 E7 antibodies was demonstrated when the HPV type found by Southern hybridization in the cervical cancer biopsies was compared with seroreactivity: 4 of 8 serum samples obtained from HPV-18 DNA-positive but 0 of 16 serum samples from HPV-18 DNA-negative tumor patients reacted in the HPV-18 E7 ELISA. In addition, HPV-18-positive sera failed to react in a peptide ELISA with the homologous HPV-16 E7 region (M. Müller, H. Gausepohl, G. de Martinoff, R. Frank, R. Brasseur, and L. Gissmann, J. Gen. Virol. 71:2709-2717, 1990) and vice versa.
PMCID: PMC270166  PMID: 1722219
8.  The “floating forearm” injury in a child: a case report 
Abstract:
The case of a eleven-year-old girl who had a fracture dislocation of the left elbow with entrapment of the ulnar nerve into the dislocated ulnar epicondyle anlage and unstable forearm fracture of the ipslateral upper extremity is described. This severe injury to the elbow and the ipsilateral forearm is termed “floating forearm” injury. The forearm was stabilized percutaneously and the elbow fracture dislocation, remaining unstable after internal fixation was treated with a pediatric elbow fixator with motion capacity.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article10.1007/s11751-007-0017-5contains supplementary material, which is available on SpringerLink
doi:10.1007/s11751-007-0017-5
PMCID: PMC2321724  PMID: 18427915
Forearm injury; Elbow fracture dislocation; Hinged external fixation; Floating elbow injury

Results 1-8 (8)