Common variants at many loci have been robustly associated with asthma but explain little of the overall genetic risk. Here we investigate the role of rare (<1%) and low-frequency (1–5%) variants using the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip array in 4,794 asthma cases, 4,707 non-asthmatic controls and 590 case–parent trios representing European Americans, African Americans/African Caribbeans and Latinos. Our study reveals one low-frequency missense mutation in the GRASP gene that is associated with asthma in the Latino sample (P=4.31 × 10−6; OR=1.25; MAF=1.21%) and two genes harbouring functional variants that are associated with asthma in a gene-based analysis: GSDMB at the 17q12–21 asthma locus in the Latino and combined samples (P=7.81 × 10−8 and 4.09 × 10−8, respectively) and MTHFR in the African ancestry sample (P=1.72 × 10−6). Our results suggest that associations with rare and low-frequency variants are ethnic specific and not likely to explain a significant proportion of the ‘missing heritability’ of asthma.
Common variants account for only a small amount of the heritable risk for developing asthma. Using a meta-analysis approach, Igartua et al. identify one low-frequency missense mutation and two genes with functional variants that are associated with asthma, but only in specific ethnic groups.
Rationale: Gene promoter methylation detected in sputum predicts lung cancer risk in smokers. Compared with non-Hispanic whites (NHW), Hispanics have a lower age-standardized incidence for lung cancer.
Objectives: This study compared the methylation prevalence in sputum of NHWs with Hispanics using the Lovelace Smokers cohort (n = 1998) and evaluated the effect of Native American ancestry (NAA) and diet on biomarkers for lung cancer risk.
Methods: Genetic ancestry was estimated using 48 ancestry markers. Diet was assessed by the Harvard University Dietary Assessment questionnaire. Methylation of 12 genes was measured in sputum using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The association between NAA and risk for methylation was assessed using generalized estimating equations. The ethnic difference in the association between pack-years and risk for lung cancer was assessed in the New Mexico lung cancer study.
Measurements and Main Results: Overall Hispanics had a significantly increased risk for methylation across the 12 genes analyzed (odds ratio, 1.18; P = 0.007). However, the risk was reduced by 32% (P = 0.032) in Hispanics with high versus low NAA. In the New Mexico lung cancer study, Hispanic non–small cell lung cancer cases have significantly lower pack-years than NHW counterparts (P = 0.007). Furthermore, compared with NHW smokers, Hispanic smokers had a more rapidly increasing risk for lung cancer as a function of pack-years (P = 0.058).
Conclusions: NAA may be an important risk modifier for methylation in Hispanic smokers. Smoking intensity may have a greater impact on risk for lung cancer in Hispanics compared with NHWs.
ethnicity; sputum; diet; risk; lung cancer
Adult height is determined by genetics and childhood nutrition, but childhood infections may also play a role. Monozygotic twins are genetically matched and offer an advantage when identifying environmental determinants. In 2005–2007, we examined the association of childhood infections with adult height in 140 height-discordant monozygotic twin pairs from the California Twin Program. To obtain information on childhood infections and growth, we interviewed the mothers of monozygotic twins who differed in self-reported adult height by at least 1-inch (2.5 cm). Within-pair differences in the relative frequency of childhood infections were highly correlated, especially within age groups. A conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that more reported episodes of febrile illness occurred in the twin with shorter stature (odds ratio = 2.00, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 3.40). The association was strongest for differences in the relative frequency of infection during the toddler years (ages 1–5: odds ratio = 3.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.47, 7.59) and was similar when restricted to twin pairs of equal birth length. The association was not explained by differential nutritional status. Measures of childhood infection were associated with height difference in monozygotic twin pairs, independent of genome, birth length, and available measures of diet.
body height; case-control studies; growth; infection; pediatrics; twins
Allergic rhinitis is a common disease whose genetic basis is incompletely explained. We report an integrated genomic analysis of allergic rhinitis.
We performed genome wide association studies (GWAS) of allergic rhinitis in 5633 ethnically diverse North American subjects. Next, we profiled gene expression in disease-relevant tissue (peripheral blood CD4+ lymphocytes) collected from subjects who had been genotyped. We then integrated the GWAS and gene expression data using expression single nucleotide (eSNP), coexpression network, and pathway approaches to identify the biologic relevance of our GWAS.
GWAS revealed ethnicity-specific findings, with 4 genome-wide significant loci among Latinos and 1 genome-wide significant locus in the GWAS meta-analysis across ethnic groups. To identify biologic context for these results, we constructed a coexpression network to define modules of genes with similar patterns of CD4+ gene expression (coexpression modules) that could serve as constructs of broader gene expression. 6 of the 22 GWAS loci with P-value ≤ 1x10−6 tagged one particular coexpression module (4.0-fold enrichment, P-value 0.0029), and this module also had the greatest enrichment (3.4-fold enrichment, P-value 2.6 × 10−24) for allergic rhinitis-associated eSNPs (genetic variants associated with both gene expression and allergic rhinitis). The integrated GWAS, coexpression network, and eSNP results therefore supported this coexpression module as an allergic rhinitis module. Pathway analysis revealed that the module was enriched for mitochondrial pathways (8.6-fold enrichment, P-value 4.5 × 10−72).
Our results highlight mitochondrial pathways as a target for further investigation of allergic rhinitis mechanism and treatment. Our integrated approach can be applied to provide biologic context for GWAS of other diseases.
Genome-wide association study; Allergic rhinitis; Coexpression network; Expression single-nucleotide polymorphism; Coexpression module; Pathway; Mitochondria; Hay fever; Allergy
Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3) and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09), which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78). The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively) and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03). Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.
High intake of red and processed meat and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fiber are associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer. We investigate if the effect of these dietary factors on colorectal cancer risk is modified by common genetic variants across the genome (total of about 2.7 million genetic variants), also known as gene-diet interactions. We included over 9,000 colorectal cancer cases and 9,000 controls that were not diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Our results provide strong evidence for a gene-diet interaction and colorectal cancer risk between a genetic variant (rs4143094) on chromosome 10p14 near the gene GATA3 and processed meat consumption (p = 8.7E-09). This genetic locus may have interesting biological significance given its location in the genome. Our results suggest that genetic variants may interact with diet and in combination affect colorectal cancer risk, which may have important implications for personalized cancer care and provide novel insights into prevention strategies.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is both a marker and mediator of allergic inflammation. Despite reported differences in serum total IgE levels by race-ethnicity, African American and Latino individuals have not been well represented in genetic studies of total IgE.
To identify the genetic predictors of serum total IgE levels.
We used genome wide association (GWA) data from 4,292 individuals (2,469 African Americans, 1,564 European Americans, and 259 Latinos) in the EVE Asthma Genetics Consortium. Tests for association were performed within each cohort by race-ethnic group (i.e., African American, Latino, and European American) and asthma status. The resulting p-values were meta-analyzed accounting for sample size and direction of effect. Top single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations from the meta-analysis were reassessed in six additional cohorts comprising 5,767 individuals.
We identified 10 unique regions where the combined association statistic was associated with total serum IgE levels (P-value <5.0×10−6) and the minor allele frequency was ≥5% in two or more population groups. Variant rs9469220, corresponding to HLA-DQB1, was the most significantly associated SNP with serum total IgE levels when assessed in both the replication cohorts and the discovery and replication sets combined (P-value = 0.007 and 2.45×10−7, respectively). In addition, findings from earlier GWA studies were also validated in the current meta-analysis.
This meta-analysis independently identified a variant near HLA-DQB1 as a predictor of total serum IgE in multiple race-ethnic groups. This study also extends and confirms the findings of earlier GWA analyses in African American and Latino individuals.
meta-analysis; genome wide association study; total immunoglobulin E; race-ethnicity; continental population groups
Association studies among admixed populations pose many challenges including confounding of genetic effects due to population substructure and heterogeneity due to different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD). We use simulations to investigate controlling for confounding by indicators of global ancestry and the impact of including a covariate for local ancestry. In addition, we investigate the use of an interaction term between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and local ancestry to capture heterogeneity in SNP effects. Although adjustment for global ancestry can control for confounding, additional adjustment for local ancestry may increase power when the induced admixture LD is in the opposite direction as the LD in the ancestral population. However, if the induced LD is in the same direction, there is the potential for reduced power because of overadjustment. Furthermore, the inclusion of a SNP by local ancestry interaction term can increase power when there is substantial differential LD between ancestry populations. We examine these approaches in genome-wide data using the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study investigating asthma risk. The analysis highlights rs10519951 (P = 8.5 × 10−7), a SNP lacking any evidence of association from a conventional analysis (P = 0.5).
confounding; genetic association studies; genome-wide association studies; heterogeneity; linkage disequilibrium; population stratification
Genome-wide association studies of asthma have implicated many genetic risk factors, with
well-replicated associations at approximately 10 loci that account for only a small proportion of
the genetic risk.
We aimed to identify additional asthma risk loci by performing an extensive replication
study of the results from the EVE Consortium meta-analysis.
We selected 3186 SNPs for replication based on the p-values from the EVE Consortium
meta-analysis. These SNPs were genotyped in ethnically diverse replication samples from nine
different studies, totaling to 7202 cases, 6426 controls, and 507 case-parent trios. Association
analyses were conducted within each participating study and the resulting test statistics were
combined in a meta-analysis.
Two novel associations were replicated in European Americans: rs1061477 in the
KLK3 gene on chromosome 19 (combined OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.10 – 1.25)
and rs9570077 (combined OR =1.20 95% CI 1.12–1.29) on chromosome 13q21. We could not
replicate any additional associations in the African American or Latino individuals.
This extended replication study identified two additional asthma risk loci in populations
of European descent. The absence of additional loci for African Americans and Latino individuals
highlights the difficulty in replicating associations in admixed populations.
Asthma; genetic risk factors; meta-analysis; KLK3
A recent meta-analysis suggested an association between exposure to paternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk, but no studies have evaluated whether this association differs by polymorphisms in genes that metabolize tobacco-smoke chemicals.
We assessed 9 functional polymorphisms in 6 genes that affect the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to evaluate potential interactions with parental smoking during pregnancy in a population-based case-control study of childhood brain tumors. Cases (N = 202) were ≤10 years old, diagnosed from 1984–1991 and identified in three Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries in the western U.S. Controls in the same regions (N = 286) were frequency matched by age, sex, and study center. DNA for genotyping was obtained from archived newborn dried blood spots.
We found positive interaction odds ratios (ORs) for both maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, EPHX1 H139R, and childhood brain tumors (Pinteraction = 0.02; 0.10), such that children with the high-risk (greater PAH activation) genotype were at a higher risk of brain tumors relative to children with the low-risk genotype when exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy. A dose-response pattern for paternal smoking was observed among children with the EPHX1 H139R high-risk genotype only (ORno exposure = 1.0; OR≤3
hours/day = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.52–3.34; OR>3hours/day = 3.18, 95% CI: 0.92–11.0; Ptrend = 0.07).
Parental smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood brain tumors among genetically susceptible children who more rapidly activate PAH in tobacco smoke.
Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a clinically important risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and keratoconus. Genetic factors controlling CCT in Latinos, the most populous minority population in the United States, are unclear. Here we describe the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) report of CCT in Latinos.
We performed a GWAS for CCT on 1768 Latinos recruited in the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES) using Illumina's HumanOmniExpress BeadChip (∼730K markers). To discover additional associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we imputed SNPs based on the 1000 Genomes Project reference panels. All subjects were 40 years of age and older. We used linear regression with adjustment for age, sex, and principal components of genetic ancestry.
We replicated the involvement of several previously reported loci, such as RXRA-COL5A1, FOXO1, and ZNF469, for CCT in Latinos (P < 0.002). Moreover, we discovered novel SNPs, rs3118515, rs943423, rs3118594, and rs3132307, that reached GWAS significance (P < 5 × 10−8) in the uncharacterized LOC100506532 (gene type: miscRNA) for CCT in Latinos. By conditional analysis, we demonstrate that rs3118515 in this gene is responsible for the GWAS signal in the chromosome 9 RXRA-COL5A1 region in Latinos. Moreover, multiple sources of ENCODE evidence suggest that rs3118515 is in a regulatory region. Reverse-transcription PCR products indicated that transcripts of LOC100506532 surrounding rs3118515 were expressed in human corneas.
We discovered novel SNPs for CCT in Latinos and provided the first reported evidence of the corneal expression of LOC100506532. These results help to further increase our understanding of the genetic architecture of CCT.
In this first GWAS of central corneal thickness in Latinos, we discovered the involvement of novel SNPs, both directly genotyped and imputed, that reached genome-wide significance. This study provided the first reported evidence of the corneal expression of LOC100506532.
central corneal thickness; Latino; GWAS; rs3118515; LOC100506532
Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The genetics of asthma have been widely studied in mouse and human, and homologous genomic regions have been associated with mouse AHR and human asthma-related phenotypes. Our goal was to identify asthma-related genes by integrating AHR associations in mouse with human genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. We used Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA) analysis to conduct a GWAS of baseline AHR measures from males and females of 31 mouse strains. Genes near or containing SNPs with EMMA p-values <0.001 were selected for further study in human GWAS. The results of the previously reported EVE consortium asthma GWAS meta-analysis consisting of 12,958 diverse North American subjects from 9 study centers were used to select a subset of homologous genes with evidence of association with asthma in humans. Following validation attempts in three human asthma GWAS (i.e., Sepracor/LOCCS/LODO/Illumina, GABRIEL, DAG) and two human AHR GWAS (i.e., SHARP, DAG), the Kv channel interacting protein 4 (KCNIP4) gene was identified as nominally associated with both asthma and AHR at a gene- and SNP-level. In EVE, the smallest KCNIP4 association was at rs6833065 (P-value 2.9e-04), while the strongest associations for Sepracor/LOCCS/LODO/Illumina, GABRIEL, DAG were 1.5e-03, 1.0e-03, 3.1e-03 at rs7664617, rs4697177, rs4696975, respectively. At a SNP level, the strongest association across all asthma GWAS was at rs4697177 (P-value 1.1e-04). The smallest P-values for association with AHR were 2.3e-03 at rs11947661 in SHARP and 2.1e-03 at rs402802 in DAG. Functional studies are required to validate the potential involvement of KCNIP4 in modulating asthma susceptibility and/or AHR. Our results suggest that a useful approach to identify genes associated with human asthma is to leverage mouse AHR association data.
One goal in the post-genome-wide association study era is characterizing gene-environment interactions, including scanning for interactions with all available polymorphisms, not just those showing significant main effects. In recent years, several approaches to such “gene-environment-wide interaction studies” have been proposed. Two contributions in this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology provide systematic comparisons of the performance of these various approaches, one based on simulation and one based on application to 2 real genome-wide association study scans for type 2 diabetes. The authors discuss some of the broader issues raised by these contributions, including the plausibility of the gene-environment independence assumption that some of these approaches rely upon, the need for replication, and various generalizations of these approaches.
epidemiologic research design; genetic epidemiology; genome-wide association study; genotype-environment interaction; polymorphisms, single nucleotide
Rationale: Emerging evidence indicates that psychosocial stress enhances the effect of traffic exposure on the development of asthma.
Objectives: We hypothesized that psychosocial stress would also modify the effect of traffic exposure on lung function deficits.
Methods: We studied 1,399 participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study undergoing lung function testing (mean age, 11.2 yr). We used hierarchical mixed models to assess the joint effect of traffic-related air pollution and stress on lung function.
Measurements and Main Results: Psychosocial stress in each child's household was assessed based on parental response to the perceived stress scale (range, 0–16) at study entry. Exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and total oxides of nitrogen (NOx), surrogates of the traffic-related pollution mixture, were estimated at schools and residences based on a land-use regression model. Among children from high-stress households (parental perceived stress scale >4) deficits in FEV1 of 4.5 (95% confidence interval, −6.5 to −2.4) and of 2.8% (−5.7 to 0.3) were associated with each 21.8 ppb increase in NOx at homes and schools, respectively. These pollutant effects were significantly larger in the high-stress compared with lower-stress households (interaction P value 0.007 and 0.05 for residential and school NOx, respectively). No significant NOx effects were observed in children from low-stress households. A similar pattern of association was observed for FVC. The observed associations for FEV1 and FVC remained after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and after restricting the analysis to children who do not have asthma.
Conclusions: A high-stress home environment is associated with increased susceptibility to lung function effects of air pollution both at home and at school.
parental stress; traffic exposure; lung function; children
Asthma is a common disease with a complex risk architecture including both genetic and environmental factors. We performed a meta-analysis of North American genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of asthma in 5,416 asthma cases representing European Americans, African Americans/African Caribbeans, and Latinos, and replicated five regions among the most significant signals in 12,649 individuals from the same ethnic groups. Four were at previously reported loci on 17q21, and near the IL1RL1, TSLP, and IL33, genes, but we report for the first time that these loci are associated with asthma risk in three ethnic groups. In addition, we identified a novel association with asthma in the PYHIN1, gene that was specific to individuals of African descent (p=3.9×10−9). These results suggest that some asthma susceptibility loci are robust to differences in ancestry when sufficiently large samples sizes are investigated, and that ancestry-specific associations also contribute to the complex genetic architecture of asthma.
Although previous investigations have indicated a role for genetic factors in smoking initiation, the underlying genetic mechanisms are still unknown. In 2,339 adolescents from a Chinese Han population in the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial (Wuhan, China, 1998–1999), the authors explored the association of 57 genes in the dopamine pathway with smoking initiation. Using a conservative approach for declaring significance, positive findings were further examined in an independent sample of 603 Caucasian adolescents followed for up to 10 years as part of the Children's Health Study (Southern California, 1993–2009). The authors identified 1 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2298122) in the calcyon neuron-specific vesicular protein gene (CALY) that was positively associated with smoking initiation in females (odds ratio = 2.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.49, 3.27; P = 8.4 × 10−5) in the Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial cohort, and they replicated the association in females from the Children's Health Study cohort (hazard rate ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.27, 3.31; P = 0.003). These results suggest that the CALY gene may influence smoking initiation in adolescents, although the potential roles of underlying psychological characteristics that may be components of the smoking-initiation phenotype, such as impulsivity or novelty-seeking, remain to be explored.
adolescent; dopamine; genetic association studies; smoking
Many complex diseases are likely to be a result of the interplay of genes and environmental exposures. The standard analysis in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) scans for main effects and ignores the potentially useful information in the available exposure data. Two recently proposed methods that exploit environmental exposure information involve a two-step analysis aimed at prioritizing the large number of SNPs tested to highlight those most likely to be involved in a G×E interaction. For example, Murcray et al (2009) proposed screening on a test that models the G-E association induced by an interaction in the combined case-control sample. Alternatively, Kooperberg et al (2008) suggested screening on genetic marginal effects. In both methods, SNPs that pass the respective screening step at a pre-specified significance threshold are followed up with a formal test of interaction in the second step. We propose a hybrid method that combines these two screening approaches by allocating a proportion of the overall genomewide significance level to each test. We show that the Murcray et al. approach is often the most efficient method, but that the hybrid approach is a powerful and robust method for nearly any underlying model. As an example, for a GWAS of 1 million markers including a single true disease SNP with minor allele frequency of 0.15, and a binary exposure with prevalence 0.3, the Murcray, Kooperberg and hybrid methods are 1.90, 1.27, and 1.87 times as efficient, respectively, as the traditional case-control analysis to detect an interaction effect size of 2.0.
G×E interaction; case-control; genome-wide association study; efficiency
Exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation. In the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis pathway, nitric oxide synthases (encoded by NOS1, NOS2A and NOS3) and arginases (encoded by ARG1 and ARG2) compete for L-arginine. Although FeNO levels are higher in children with asthma/allergy, influence of these conditions on the relationships between variations in these genes and FeNO remains unknown. The aims of the study were to evaluate the role of genetic variations in nitric oxide synthases and arginases on FeNO in children and to assess the influence of asthma and respiratory allergy on these genetic associations.
Among children (6–11 years) who participated in the southern California Children’s Health Study, variations in these five genetic loci were characterized by tagSNPs. FeNO was measured in two consecutive years (N = 2298 and 2515 in Years 1 and 2, respectively). Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate the associations between these genetic variants and FeNO.
Sequence variations in the NOS2A and ARG2 loci were globally associated with FeNO (P = 0.0002 and 0.01, respectively). The ARG2 association was tagged by intronic variant rs3742879 with stronger association with FeNO in asthmatic children (P-interaction = 0.01). The association of a NOS2A promoter haplotype with FeNO varied significantly by rs3742879 genotypes and by asthma.
Variants in the NO synthesis pathway genes jointly contribute to differences in FeNO concentrations. Some of these genetic influences were stronger in children with asthma. Further studies are required to confirm our findings.
airway inflammation; asthma; biomarker; exhaled nitric oxide; nitrosative stress
Rationale: Glutathione plays an important role in antioxidant and inflammatory processes in the lung. Alterations in glutathione metabolism are a central feature of several chronic lung diseases.
Objectives: To determine whether sequence variation in genes in the glutathione synthesis pathway alters susceptibility to air pollution effects on lung function.
Methods: In this prospective study, 14,821 lung function measurements were taken on 2,106 children from 12 Southern California cities. Tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms in glutathione metabolism pathway genes GSS, GSR, GCLM, and GCLC were genotyped by GoldenGate assay (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Mixed regression models were used to determine whether particular haplotypes were associated with FEV1, maximal mid-expiratory flow rate, and FVC and whether any of the genetic associations varied with levels of exposure to air pollutants.
Measurements and Main Results: We found that variation in the GSS locus was associated with differences in susceptibility of children for lung function growth deficits associated with NO2, PM10, PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and O3. The negative effects of air pollutants were largely observed within participants who had a particular GSS haplotype. The effects ranged from −124.2 to −149.1 for FEV1, from –92.9 to −126.7 for FVC, and from −193.9 to −277.9 for maximal mid-expiratory flow rate for all pollutants except O3, which showed a larger decrease in lung function in children without this haplotype.
Conclusions: Variation in GSS was associated with differences in susceptibility to adverse effects of pollutants on lung function growth.
GSS; glutathione; lung function; oxidative stress; air pollution
Complex trait variation is likely to be explained by the combined effects of genes, environmental factors, and gene × environment (G × E) interaction. The authors introduce a novel 2-step method for detecting a G × E interaction in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of case-parent trios. The method utilizes 2 sources of G × E information in a trio sample to construct a screening step and a testing step. Across a wide range of models, this 2-step procedure provides substantially greater power to detect G × E interaction than a standard test of G × E interaction applied genome-wide. For example, for a disease susceptibility locus with minor allele frequency of 15%, a binary exposure variable with 50% prevalence, and a GWAS scan of 1 million markers in 1,000 case-parent trios, the 2-step method provides 87% power to detect a G × E interaction relative risk of 2.3, as compared with only 25% power using a standard G × E test. The method is easily implemented using standard software. This 2-step scan for G × E interaction is independent of any prior scan that may have been conducted for genetic main effects, and thus has the potential to uncover new genes in a GWAS that have not been previously identified.
environmental exposure; epidemiologic methods; genetic association studies; genetics; genome-wide association study; models, genetic
To determine if a missense change at codon 64 of ADRB3 (Trp64Arg), a candidate obesity gene, is associated with obesity and levels of subcutaneous or visceral fat in African American breast cancer cases. Several observational studies have found that women who are overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis, as well as those who gain weight after diagnosis, are at greater risk for breast cancer recurrence and death than non-overweight women.
Prospective cohort of breast cancer cases.
219 African American breast cancer patients participating in the Los Angeles component of the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study.
ADRB3 Trp64Arg genotype, measures of weight including: body mass index (BMI), weight gain (weight 5 years prior to diagnosis compared to weight at 30 months post diagnosis), obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), waist/hip circumference, and visceral or subcutaneous fat determined by magnetic resonance imaging.
African American women who were homozygous for the ADRB3 wild type allele had significantly higher mean visceral fat levels than women who carried the variant (p=0.04) and were significantly more likely to be obese (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1–4.2). The association with obesity was most pronounced among women who were premenopausal (OR=4.8, 95%CI 1.3–18), who received chemotherapy for their breast cancer (OR=6.1, 95% CI 1.8–20), or who were not physically active (OR=3.9, 95%CI 1.5–9.7).
The wildtype allele of the ADRB3 missense change was associated with measures of obesity in our sample of African American women. The association was modified by menopausal status, history of chemotherapy, and modest levels of physical activity. These results will need to be confirmed in an independent sample.
African-American; obesity; visceral fat; cancer; magnetic resonance imaging
The individual effect of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms within the catalase and myeloperoxidase genes (CAT and MPO) has been studied in relation to asthma; however, their interrelationship with ambient air pollution exposures has yet to be determined. The authors investigated the interrelationships between variants in CAT and MPO, ambient air pollutants, and acute respiratory illness. Health information, air pollution, and incident respiratory-related school absences were ascertained in January–June 1996 for 1,136 Hispanic and non-Hispanic white US elementary schoolchildren as part of the prospective Children's Health Study. Functional and tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms for the CAT and MPO loci were genotyped. The authors found epistasis between functional polymorphisms in the CAT/MPO loci, which differed by levels of oxidant-stress-producing air pollutants. Risk of respiratory-related school absences was elevated for children with the CAT (G/G) and MPO (G/A or A/A) genes (relative risk = 1.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.77; P-interaction = 0.005). The epistatic effect of CAT and MPO variants was most evident in communities exhibiting high ambient ozone levels (P-interaction = 0.03). The association of respiratory-illness absences with functional variants in CAT and MPO that differ by air pollution levels illustrates the need to consider genetic epistasis in assessing gene-environment interactions.
air pollution; catalase; epistasis, genetic; peroxidase; respiratory tract infections
Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) metabolises xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Functional variants at this locus have been associated with respiratory diseases. The effects of EPHX1 variants may depend upon exposures from tobacco smoke and traffic emissions that contain PAHs as well as variants in other enzymes in the PAH metabolic pathway such as glutathione S‐transferase (GST) genes. A study was undertaken to investigate associations of variants in EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 with asthma and the relationships between asthma, EPHX1 metabolic phenotypes and exposure to sources of PAHs.
Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed to estimate the associations of genetic variants and exposures with asthma phenotypes using data from 3124 children from the Children's Health Study.
High EPHX1 activity was associated with an increased risk for lifetime asthma (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.98) which varied by GSTP1 Ile105Val genotype and by residential proximity to major roads (p for interaction = 0.006 and 0.03, respectively). Among children with GSTP1 105Val/Val genotype, those who had high EPHX1 phenotype had a fourfold (95% CI 1.97 to 8.16) increased risk of lifetime asthma than children with low/intermediate EPHX1 phenotype. Among children living within 75 metres of a major road, those with high EPHX1 activity had a 3.2‐fold (95% CI 1.75 to 6.00) higher lifetime asthma risk than those with low/intermediate activity. The results were similar for current, early persistent and late onset asthma. Children with high EPHX1 phenotype, GSTP1 Val/Val genotype who lived <75 metres from a major road were at the highest asthma risk.
EPHX1 and GSTP1 variants contribute to the occurrence of childhood asthma and increase asthma susceptibility to exposures from major roads.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) have been associated with IgE (in girls) and asthma (in general). We sought to determine whether TSLP SNPs are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion.
We conducted regular and sex-stratified analyses of association between SNPs in TSLP and asthma in families of asthmatic children in Costa Rica. Significant findings were replicated in white and African-American participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program, in African Americans in the Genomic Research on Asthma in the African Diaspora study, in whites and Hispanics in the Children’s Health Study, and in whites in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS).
Two SNPs in TSLP (rs1837253 and rs2289276) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in combined analyses of all cohorts (p values of 2×10−5 and 1×10−5, respectively). In a sex-stratified analysis, the T allele of rs1837253 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in males only (p= 3×10−6). Alternately, the T allele of rs2289276 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of asthma in females only (p= 2×10−4). Findings for rs2289276 were consistent in all cohorts except the FHS.
TSLP variants are associated with asthma in a sex-specific fashion.
asthma; genetic association; sex-specific; thymic stromal lymphopoietin; TSLP
The interrelationships between air pollution, lung function and the incidence of childhood asthma have yet to be established. A study was undertaken to determine whether lung function is associated with new onset asthma and whether this relationship varies by exposure to ambient air pollutants.
A cohort of children aged 9–10 years without asthma or wheeze at study entry were identified from the Children's Health Study and followed for 8 years. The participants resided in 12 communities with a wide range of ambient air pollutants that were measured continuously. Spirometric testing was performed and a medical diagnosis of asthma was ascertained annually. Proportional hazard regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship between lung function at study entry and the subsequent development of asthma and to determine whether air pollutants modify these associations.
The level of airway flow was associated with new onset asthma. Over the 10th–90th percentile range of forced expiratory flow over the mid‐range of expiration (FEF25–75, 57.1%), the hazard ratio (HR) of new onset asthma was 0.50 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.71). This protective effect of better lung function was reduced in children exposed to higher levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5). Over the 10th–90th percentile range of FEF25–75, the HR of new onset asthma was 0.34 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.56) in communities with low PM2.5 (<13.7 μg/m3) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.45 to 1.26) in communities with high PM2.5 (⩾13.7 μg/m3). A similar pattern was observed for forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Little variation in HR was observed for ozone.
Exposure to high levels of PM2.5 attenuates the protective effect of better lung function against new onset asthma.