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author:("gutell, J M")
1.  Daptomycin Is Effective for Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant and Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus epidermidis▿  
This study evaluated the daptomycin activity against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) clinical isolates with different vancomycin susceptibilities: MRSE-375, with a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml, and NRS6, a glycopeptide-intermediate S. epidermidis (GISE) strain with a vancomycin MIC of 8 μg/ml. The in vivo activity of daptomycin at two different doses (standard dose [SD-daptomycin], 6 mg/kg of body weight/day intravenously [i.v.]; high dose [HD-daptomycin], 10 mg/kg/day i.v.) was evaluated in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis and compared with that of a standard dose of vancomycin (SD-vancomycin; 1 g i.v. every 12 h) for 2 days. For the MRSE-375 strain, high-dose vancomycin (HD-vancomycin; 1 g i.v. every 6 h) was also studied. For MRSE-375, SD- and HD-daptomycin therapy sterilized significantly more vegetations than SD-vancomycin therapy (9/15 [60%] and 11/15 [73%] vegetations, respectively, versus 3/16 [19%] vegetations; P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). HD-daptomycin sterilized more vegetations than HD-vancomycin (11/15 [73%] versus 5/15 [33%] vegetations; P = 0.03) and was more effective than SD- and HD-vancomycin in reducing the density of bacteria in valve vegetations (0 log10 CFU/g vegetation [interquartile range {IQR}, 0 to 1 log10 CFU/g vegetation] versus 2 log10 CFU/g vegetation [IQR, 2 to 2 log10 CFU/g vegetation] and 2 log10 CFU/g vegetation [IQR, 0 to 2.8 log10 CFU/g vegetation]; P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). For the NRS6 strain, SD- and HD-daptomycin were significantly more effective than vancomycin in reducing the density of bacteria in valve vegetations (3.7 log10 CFU/g vegetation [IQR, 2 to 6 log10 CFU/g vegetation] versus 7.1 log10 CFU/g vegetation [IQR, 5.2 to 8.5 log10 CFU/g vegetation]; P = 0.02). In all treatment arms, isolates recovered from vegetations remained susceptible to daptomycin and vancomycin and had the same MICs. In conclusion, daptomycin at doses of 6 mg/kg/day or 10 mg/kg/day is more effective than vancomycin for the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to MRSE and GISE.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01011-09
PMCID: PMC2897304  PMID: 20421394
2.  Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Antibodies in HIV-1 Patients with Undetectable Viremia▿ 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(12):5804-5813.
Several recent studies have identified HIV-infected patients able to produce a broad neutralizing response, and the detailed analyses of their sera have provided valuable information to improve future vaccine design. All these studies have excluded patients on antiretroviral treatment and with undetectable viral loads, who have an improved B cell profile compared to untreated patients. To better understand the induction of neutralizing antibodies in patients on antiretroviral treatment with undetectable viremia, we have screened 508 serum samples from 364 patients (173 treated and 191 untreated) for a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) response using a new strategy based on the use of recombinant viruses. Sera able to neutralize a minipanel of 6 recombinant viruses, including envelopes from 5 different subtypes, were found in both groups. After IgG purification, we were able to confirm the presence of IgG-associated broadly neutralizing activity in 3.7% (7 of 191) of untreated patients with detectable viremia and 1.7% (3 of 174) of aviremic patients receiving antiretroviral treatment. We thus confirm the possibility of induction of a broad IgG-associated neutralizing response in patients on antiretroviral treatment, despite having undetectable viremia. This observation is in stark contrast to the data obtained from long-term nonprogressors, whose little neutralizing activity has been attributed to the low levels of viral replication.
doi:10.1128/JVI.02482-10
PMCID: PMC3126317  PMID: 21471239
3.  Addition of Gentamicin or Rifampin Does Not Enhance the Effectiveness of Daptomycin in Treatment of Experimental Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2009;53(10):4172-4177.
This study evaluated the activity of daptomycin combined with either gentamicin or rifampin against three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates in vitro and one isolate in vivo against a representative strain (MRSA-572). Time-kill experiments showed that daptomycin was bactericidal against these strains at concentrations over the MIC. Daptomycin at sub-MIC concentrations plus gentamicin at 1× and 2× the MIC yielded synergy, while the addition of rifampin at 2 to 4 μg/ml resulted in indifference (two strains) or antagonism (one strain). The in vivo activity of daptomycin (6 mg/kg of body weight once a day) was evaluated ± gentamicin (1 mg/kg intravenously [i.v.] every 8 h [q8h]) or rifampin (300 mg i.v. q8h) in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis by simulating human pharmacokinetics. Daptomycin plus gentamicin (median, 0 [interquartile range, 0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) was as effective as daptomycin alone (0 [0 to 2] log10 CFU/g vegetation) in reducing the density of bacteria in valve vegetations (P = 0.83), and both were more effective than daptomycin plus rifampin (3 [2 to 3.5] log10 CFU/g vegetation; P < 0.05) for the strain studied. In addition, daptomycin sterilized a ratio of vegetations that was similar to that of daptomycin plus gentamicin (10/15 [67%] versus 9/15 [60%]; P = 0.7), and both regimens did so more than daptomycin plus rifampin (3/15 [20%]; P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). No statistical difference was noted between daptomycin plus gentamicin and daptomycin alone for MRSA treatment. In the combination arm, all isolates from vegetations remained susceptible to daptomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Sixty-one percent of the isolates (8/13) acquired resistance to rifampin during monotherapy. In the daptomycin arm, resistance was detected in only one case, in which the daptomycin MIC rose to 2 μg/ml among the recovered bacteria. In conclusion, the addition of gentamicin or rifampin does not enhance the effectiveness of daptomycin in the treatment of experimental endocarditis due to MRSA.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00051-09
PMCID: PMC2764216  PMID: 19620326
4.  Staphylococcus lugdunensis infective endocarditis: description of 10 cases and analysis of native valve, prosthetic valve, and pacemaker lead endocarditis clinical profiles 
Heart  2005;91(2):e10.
Objective: To evaluate the incidence and the clinical and echocardiographic features of infective endocarditis (IE) caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to identify the prognostic factors of surgery and mortality in this disease.
Design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting: Study at two centres (a tertiary care centre and a community hospital).
Patients: 10 patients with IE caused by S lugdunensis in 912 consecutive patients with IE between 1990 and 2003.
Methods: Prospective study of consecutive patients carried out by the multidisciplinary team for diagnosis and treatment of IE from the study institutions. English, French, and Spanish literature was searched by computer under the terms “endocarditis” and “Staphylococcus lugdunensis” published between 1989 and December 2003.
Main outcome measures: Patient characteristics, echocardiographic findings, required surgery, and prognostic factors of mortality in left sided cases of IE.
Results: 10 cases of IE caused by S lugdunensis were identified at our institutions, representing 0.8% (four of 467), 1.5% (two of 135), and 7.8% (four of 51) of cases of native valve, prosthetic valve, and pacemaker lead endocarditis in the non-drug misusers. Native valve IE was present in four patients (two aortic, one mitral, and one pulmonary), prosthetic valve aortic IE in two patients, and pacemaker lead IE in the other four patients. All patients with left sided IE had serious complications (heart failure, periannular abscess formation, or shock) requiring surgery in 60% (three of five patients) of cases with an overall mortality rate of 80% (four of five patients). All patients with pacemaker IE underwent combined medical treatment and surgery, and mortality was 25% (one patient). In total 59 cases of IE caused by S lugdunensis were identified in a review of the literature. The combined analysis of these 69 cases showed that native valve IE (53 patients, 77%) is characterised by mitral valve involvement and frequent complications such as heart failure, abscess formation, and embolism. Surgery was needed in 51% of cases and mortality was 42%. Prosthetic valve endocarditis (nine of 60, 13%) predominated in the aortic position and was associated with abscess formation, required surgery, and high mortality (78%). Pacemaker lead IE (seven of 69, 10%) is associated with a better prognosis when antibiotic treatment is combined with surgery.
Conclusions: S lugdunensis IE is an uncommon cause of IE, involving mainly native left sided valves, and it is characterised by an aggressive clinical course. Mortality in left sided native valve IE is high but the prognosis has improved in recent years. Surgery has improved survival in left sided IE and, therefore, early surgery should always be considered. Prosthetic valve S lugdunensis IE carries an ominous prognosis.
doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.040659
PMCID: PMC1768720  PMID: 15657200
infective endocarditis; Staphylococcus lugdunensis; surgical treatment; mortality
5.  Prognostic factors influencing the outcome in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. 
Thorax  1995;50(6):668-671.
BACKGROUND--Studies attempting to identify the prognostic factors that influence the outcome of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in patients with AIDS using a multivariate analysis are few. In order to identify those prognostic factors amenable to medical intervention, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed on 102 patients with AIDS suffering a first episode of PCP. METHODS--One hundred and two consecutive patients with AIDS (51% drug abusers, 45% homosexuals, and 4% with other HIV risk factors) admitted to our institution between 1986 and 1989 whose respiratory infection was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage were studied prospectively. RESULTS--The overall mortality was 28%, rising to 79% in those patients who required mechanical ventilation. According to univariate analysis the following variables were related to a poor prognosis: age > 35 years; risk factor for HIV infection other than drug abuse; and AIDS diagnosis confirmed before 1988; PaO2 < 8 kPa at admission; severe acute respiratory failure on admission (PaO2/FIO2 < 20 kPa); mechanical ventilation; antibiotic therapy for PCP other than trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole; multiple microbial pulmonary infection; serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 22.5 mukat/l on admission; serum albumin level < 30 g/l. Multivariate analysis showed that only mechanical ventilation was independently associated with a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS--The mortality of AIDS patients presenting with a first episode of PCP before 1990 was high (28%). The main prognostic factor associated with poor outcome was the requirement for mechanical ventilation due to severe acute respiratory failure.
PMCID: PMC1021269  PMID: 7638811
6.  Prospective randomized double-blind comparison of nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of tobramycin and netilmicin. 
Netilmicin or tobramycin was administered to 197 patients in a prospective randomized double-blind trial. Of these patients, 140 recipients of nine or more doses of netilmicin or tobramycin could be evaluated for nephrotoxicity. Fifty-five patients were able to cooperate in the administration of serial audiograms. Nephrotoxicity of similar severity developed in 7 of 73 (9.6%) recipients of tobramycin and in 7 of 67 (10.4%) recipients of netilmicin (P greater than 0.05). Mild or slight auditory toxicity developed in 5 of 28 (17.8%) recipients of tobramycin and in 2 of 27 (7.4%) recipients of netilmicin (P greater than 0.05).
PMCID: PMC180010  PMID: 6393868
7.  Survival differences in European patients with AIDS, 1979-89. The AIDS in Europe Study Group. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1994;308(6936):1068-1073.
OBJECTIVES--To examine the pattern of survival and factors associated with the outcome of disease in patients with AIDS. DESIGN--Inception cohort. Data collected retrospectively from patients' charts. SETTING--52 clinical centres in 17 European countries. SUBJECTS--6578 adults diagnosed with AIDS from 1 January 1979 to 31 December 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Survival after the time of diagnosis. RESULTS--The median survival after diagnosis was 17 months, with an estimated survival at three years of 16% (95% confidence interval 15% to 17%). Patients diagnosed in southern Europe had a shorter survival, particularly immediately after the time of diagnosis, compared with patients diagnosed in central and northern Europe (survival at one year (95% confidence interval) 54% (52% to 56%) 66% (64% to 68%), 65% (63% to 66%), respectively. The three year survival, however, was similar for all regions. The regional differences in survival were less pronounced for patients diagnosed in 1989 compared with earlier years. Improved survival in recent years was observed for patients with a variety of manifestations used to define AIDS but was significant only for patients diagnosed with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The three year survival, however, remains unchanged over time. CONCLUSIONS--Survival of AIDS patients seems to vary within Europe, being shorter in southern than central and northern Europe. The magnitude of these differences, however, has declined gradually over time. Short term survival has improved in recent years, but the long term prognosis has remained equally poor, reflecting the fact that the underlying infection with HIV and many of the complicating diseases remains essentially uncontrolled.
PMCID: PMC2539932  PMID: 7909698
8.  Univariate and multivariate analyses of risk factors predisposing to auditory toxicity in patients receiving aminoglycosides. 
Risk factors predisposing to auditory toxicity of aminoglycosides were analyzed from records of 187 patients enrolled in three prospective randomized trials comparing the toxicity of netilmicin, tobramycin, and amikacin. Patients were eligible if they received three or more days of therapy and at least two serial audiograms were available. The overall auditory toxicity rate was 9.6% (18 of 187). Auditory toxicity was detected in 4.4, 10.8, and 23.5% of patients given netilmicin, tobramycin, and amikacin, respectively (P = 0.05). In the univariate analysis, patients who developed auditory toxicity were significantly older (P = 0.01) and had a significantly higher (P = 0.04) percentage of trough levels of netilmicin or tobramycin above 2 mg/liter or amikacin above 5 mg/liter. In the final logistic regression model, only age was retained as independently influencing the development of auditory toxicity (P less than 0.00001). Conversely, factors that did not add significantly to the prediction of auditory toxicity were aminoglycoside serum levels, total aminoglycoside dose, duration of therapy, sex, peak temperature, presence of bacteremia, shock, liver cirrhosis, dehydration, previous otic pathology or renal failure, and development of renal toxicity. At least in certain populations, age is the most important predisposing factor for the development of auditory toxicity in patients receiving aminoglycosides.
PMCID: PMC174947  PMID: 3674849
9.  Comparison of the nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of tobramycin and amikacin. 
A total of 157 patients were treated with tobramycin or amikacin in a controlled prospective randomized trial. Dosages were adjusted to renal function according to a nomogram. Trough and peak aminoglycoside levels were available at the end of the trial. Of the above total, 113 recipients of nine or more doses of tobramycin or six or more doses of amikacin, without other apparent cause of renal failure, were evaluated for nephrotoxicity. Thirty-six patients were evaluated for auditory toxicity. The patients in groups evaluated for either nephrotoxicity or auditory toxicity were similar with respect to intensity and etiology of bacterial disease, concurrent exposure to other antimicrobial drugs, age and sex distribution, initial serum creatinine level, and total dose and duration of antimicrobial therapy. Nephrotoxicity of similar severity developed in 4 of 59 (6.8%) recipients of tobramycin and in 7 of 54 (13.1%) recipients of amikacin (P greater than 0.05). Mild auditory toxicity developed in 3 of 19 (15.7%) recipients of tobramycin and in 2 of 17 (11.7%) recipients of amikacin (P greater than 0.05). When patients with abnormally high mean trough or peak aminoglycoside levels were excluded from comparison, nephrotoxicity was 6.12 and 5.12% (P greater than 0.05) and auditory toxicity was 17.6 and 7.69% (P greater than 0.05) in the groups given tobramycin and amikacin, respectively. We conclude that the nephrotoxicity and auditory toxicity of amikacin and tobramycin are not significantly different and that such toxicities are indeed infrequent events when the dosages of these drugs are adjusted to hold blood levels within the safe boundaries suggested by the studies of others.
PMCID: PMC184998  PMID: 6614894

Results 1-9 (9)