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1.  Steps in the management of psoriatic arthritis: a guide for clinicians 
Psoriatic arthritis is a common systemic inflammatory disorder, which in addition to skin and nail involvement may be associated with peripheral and axial joint involvement, enthesitis, dactylitis, and important comorbidities – especially cardiovascular morbidity. Better insights into the involved pathogenic mechanisms have resulted in an improved therapeutic armamentarium, which targets key pathways in its pathogenesis. This has resulted in significant clinical responses to newer therapeutic agents, especially those directed at inhibition of tumor necrosis factor α. Biological therapy leads to significant levels of remission, improved quality of life, and retards or improves structural radiological damage.
PMCID: PMC3539260  PMID: 23342240
metabolic syndrome; psoriasis; psoriatic arthritis; rituximab; T helper 17 cells; tumor necrosis factor α blockade
2.  Efficacy and Safety of Febuxostat in Patients with Hyperuricemia and Gout 
The past decade has witnessed an exponential increase of novel therapeutic modalities for a variety of rheumatic disorders, including gout. During the past few years two novel therapeutic agents have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hyperuricemia in patients with gout, one of them being febuxostat, a nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Review of its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, efficacy and safety profile, and use in gout patients with comorbid conditions reveals that age and gender have no clinically significant effect and dose adjustments based on age or gender are not required. In addition, febuxostat can be used in patients with mild-to-moderate renal or hepatic involvement. Its overall efficacy and safety profile is comparable and, in certain subsets such as gout patients with mild and moderate renal insufficiency, is superior to allopurinol.
PMCID: PMC3383531  PMID: 22870483
hyperuricemia; febuxostat; gout; safety profile; efficacy profile
3.  Comparative assessment of biologics in treatment of psoriasis: drug design and clinical effectiveness of ustekinumab 
The development of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is a multistep process that leads to chronic or recurrent inflammation. Recent studies have suggested the importance of T helper (TH)1 and TH17 cells, accessory cells, and proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of the enthesis, synovium, and skin involvement in psoriasis in the presence of susceptibility genes that remain quiescent until triggered. Biologics, such as soluble CTLA-4 immunoglobulin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, and ustekinumab, inhibit T cell activation which eventually leads to further stimulation of the interleukin 12, 17, and 23 axis, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-α. Treatment with TNF-α blockers has been effective in refractory psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, but there is still a subgroup of patients who do not respond to TNF inhibitors and, paradoxically, when treated, may develop TNF-induced psoriasis. Ustekinumab, because of its different mechanism of action at the level of the interleukin 12, 17, and 23 pathways, is an alternative treatment for this group of patients.
PMCID: PMC3023274  PMID: 21267358
psoriasis; psoriatic arthritis; biologics; ustekinumab; tumor necrosis factor inhibitors

Results 1-3 (3)