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1.  Elevated HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam: a systematic review 
BMJ Open  2012;2(5):e001511.
To review and analyse original studies on HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam.
Systematic literature review. Comprehensive identification of material was conducted by systematic electronic searches of selected databases. Inclusion criteria included studies conducted from 2002 onwards, following a systematic review concluding in 2001 conducted by Colby, Nghia Huu and Doussantousse. Data analysis was undertaken through the application of both the Cochrane Collaboration and ePPI Centre approaches to the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative studies.
Sixteen studies, undertaken during 2005–2011, were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The analysis showed that HIV prevalence among MSM in Vietnam has increased significantly (eg, from 9.4% in 2006 to 20% in 2010 in Hanoi) and that protective behaviours, such as condom use and HIV testing and counselling, continue at inadequately low levels.
Increasing HIV prevalence and the lack of effective protective behaviours such as consistent condom use during anal sex among MSM in Vietnam indicate a potential for a more severe HIV epidemic in the future unless targeted and segmented comprehensive HIV prevention strategies for MSM in Vietnam are designed and programmes implemented.
PMCID: PMC3467604  PMID: 23015604
HIV; AIDS; Homosexuality; Gay men; Sexual behaviour
2.  Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programs Can Address Low HIV Testing and Counseling Usage and ART Enrollment among Young Men: Lessons from Lesotho 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e83614.
Early diagnosis of HIV and treatment initiation at higher CD4 counts improves outcomes and reduces transmission. However, Lesotho is not realizing the full benefits of ART because of the low proportion of men tested (40%). Public sector VMMC services, which were launched in district hospitals in February 2012 by the Lesotho MOH supported by USAID/MCHIP, include HIV testing with referral to care and treatment. The objective of this study was to better understand the contribution of VMMC services to HIV diagnosis and treatment.
VMMC clients diagnosed with HIV were traced after 6 months to ascertain whether they: (1) presented to the referral HIV center, (2) had a CD4 count done and (3) were enrolled on ART. Linkages between VMMC and HIV services were assessed by comparing the proportion of HIV-infected males referred from VMMC services with those from other hospital departments.
Between March and September 2012, 72 men presenting for VMMC services tested positive for HIV, representing 65% of the total male tests at the hospital; 45 of these men (62.5%) received an immediate CD4 count and went to the HIV referral site; 40 (89%) were eligible for treatment and initiated ART. 27 clients did not have a CD4 count due to stock-out of reagents. Individuals who did not receive a CD4 count on the same day did not return to the HIV center.
All VMMC clients testing positive for HIV and receiving a CD4 count on the testing day began ART. Providing VMMC services in a district hospital offering the continuum of care could increase diagnoses and treatment uptake among men, but requires an investment in communication between VMMC and ART clinics. In high HIV prevalence settings, investing in PIMA CD4 devices at integrated VMMC clinics is likely to increase male ART enrolment.
PMCID: PMC4011866  PMID: 24801714

Results 1-2 (2)