Adenosine released during myocardial ischemia mediates cardioprotective preconditioning. Multivalent drugs covalently bound to nanocarriers may differ greatly in chemical and biological properties from the corresponding monomeric agents. Here, we conjugated chemically functionalized nucleosides to poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimeric polymers and investigated their effects in rat primary cardiac cell cultures and in the isolated heart. Three conjugates of A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists, chain-functionalized at the C2 or N6 position, were cardioprotective, with greater potency than monomeric agonist Cl-IB-MECA. Multivalent amide-linked MRS5216 was selective for A1 and A3ARs, and triazole-linked MRS5246 and MRS5539 (optionally containing fluorescent label) were A3AR-selective. The conjugates protected ischemic rat cardiomyocytes, an effect blocked by an A3AR antagonist MRS1523, and isolated hearts with significantly improved infarct size, rate of pressure product, and rate of contraction and relaxation. Thus, strategically derivatized nucleosides tethered to biocompatible polymeric carriers display enhanced cardioprotective potency via activation of A3AR on the cardiomyocyte surface.
dendrimer; cardiomyocyte; adenosine receptor; ischemia; isolated heart; rat
Polymorphisms in the TCRA and P2RY11, two immune related genes, are associated with narcolepsy in Caucasians and Asians. In contrast, CPT1B/CHKB polymorphisms have only been shown to be associated with narcolepsy in Japanese, with replication in a small group of Koreans. Our aim was to study whether these polymorphisms are associated with narcolepsy and its clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with narcolepsy.
We collected clinical data on 510 Chinese patients presenting with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients were included either when hypocretin deficiency was documented (CSF hypocretin-1 ≤110 pg/ml, n=91) or on the basis of the presence of clear cataplexy and HLA-DQB1*0602 positivity (n=419). Genetic data was compared to typing obtained in 452 controls matched for geographic origin within China. Clinical evaluations included demographics, the Stanford Sleep Inventory (presence and age of onset of each symptom), and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) data.
Chinese narcolepsy was strongly and dose dependently associated with TCRA (rs1154155C) and P2RY11 (rs2305795A) but not CPT1B/CHKB (rs5770917C) polymorphisms. CPT1B/CHKB polymorphisms were not associated with any specific clinical characteristics. TCRA rs1154155A homozygotes (58 subjects) had a later disease onset, but this was not significant when corrected for multiple comparisons, thus replication is needed. CPT1B/CHKB or P2RY11 polymorphisms were not associated with any specific clinical characteristics.
The study extends on the observation of a strong multiethnic association of polymorphisms in the TCRA and P2RY11 with narcolepsy, but does not confirm the association of CPT1B/CHKB (rs5770917) in the Chinese population.
narcolepsy; TCR alpha; P2RY11; CPT1B/CHKB; hypocretin; orexin; MSLT; HLADQB1*0602
Antibiotics administered in low doses have been widely used as growth promoters in the agricultural industry since the 1950s, yet the mechanisms for this effect are unclear. Because antimicrobial agents of different classes and varying activity are effective across several vertebrate species, we hypothesized that such subtherapeutic administration alters the population structure of the gut microbiome as well as its metabolic capabilities. We generated a model of adiposity by giving subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy to young mice and evaluated changes in the composition and capabilities of the gut microbiome. Administration of subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy increased adiposity in young mice and increased hormones related to metabolism. We observed substantial taxonomic changes in the microbiome, changes in copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids, increases in colonic short-chain fatty acid levels, and alterations in the regulation of hepatic metabolism of lipids and cholesterol. In this model, we demonstrate the alteration of early-life murine metabolic homeostasis through antibiotic manipulation.
The structure activity relationship (SAR) of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine derivatives related to ZM241385 as antagonists of the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) was explored through the synthesis of analogues substituted at the 5 position. The A2A AR X-ray structure was used to propose a structural basis for the activity and selectivity of the analogues and to direct the synthetic design strategy to provide access to solvent-exposed regions. Thus, we have identified a point of substitution for the attachment of solubilizing groups to enhance both aqueous solubility and physicochemical properties, maintaining potent interactions with the A2A AR and, in some cases, receptor subtype selectivity. Among the most potent and selective novel compounds were a long-chain ether-containing amine congener 20 (Ki 11.5 nM) and its urethane-protected derivative 14 (Ki 17.8 nM). Compounds 20 and 31 (Ki 11.5 and 16.9 nM, respectively) were readily water soluble up to 10 mM. The analogues were docked in the crystallographic structure of the hA2A AR and in a homology model of the hA3 AR, and the per residue electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions to the binding were assessed and stabilizing factors were proposed.
G protein-coupled receptor; purines; molecular modeling; structure activity relationship; radioligand binding; adenylyl cyclase
On the basis of potent and selective binding affinity of truncated 4′-thioadenosine derivatives at the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR), their bioisosteric 4′-oxo derivatives were designed and synthesized from commercially available 2,3-O-isopropylidene-d-erythrono lactone. The derivatives tested in AR binding assays were substituted at the C2 and N6 positions. All synthesized nucleosides exhibited potent and selective binding affinity at the human A3 AR. They were less potent than the corresponding 4′-thio analogues, but showed higher selectivity to other subtypes. The 2-Cl series generally were better than the 2-H series in view of binding affinity and selectivity. Among compounds tested, compound 5d (X = Cl, R = 3-bromobenzyl) showed the highest binding affinity (Ki = 13.0±6.9 nM) at the hA3 AR with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold) in comparison to other AR subtypes. Like the corresponding truncated 4′-thio series, compound 5d antagonized the action of an agonist to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in hA3 AR-expressing CHO cells. Although the 4′-oxo series were less potent than the 4′-thio series, this class of human A3 AR antagonists is also regarded as another good template for the design of A3 AR antagonists and for further drug development.
A3 Adenosine Receptor; Antagonists; Truncated Adenosine; Structure-Activity Relationships
Adenosine derivatives were modified with alkynyl groups on N6 substituents for linkage to carriers using Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. Two parallel series, both containing a rigid North-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring system in place of ribose, behaved as A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists: (5′-methyluronamides) or partial agonists (4′-truncated). Terminal alkynyl groups on a chain at the 3 position of a N6-benzyl group or simply through a N6–propargyl group were coupled to azido derivatives, which included both small molecules and G4 (fourth-generation) multivalent poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, to form 1,2,3-triazolyl linkers. The small molecular triazoles probed the tolerance in A3AR binding of distal, sterically bulky groups such as 1-adamantyl. Terminal 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl groups anticipated nucleophilic substitution for chain extension and 18F radiolabeling. N6-(4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl)-triazolylmethyl derivative 32 displayed a Ki of 9.1 nM at A3AR with ~1000-fold subtype selectivity. Multivalent conjugates additionally containing click-linked water-solubilizing polyethylene glycol groups potently activated A3AR in the 5′-methyluronamide, but not 4′ truncated series. N6-Benzyl nucleoside conjugate 43 (apparent Ki 24 nM) maintained binding affinity of the monomer better than a N6-triazolylmethyl derivative. Thus, the N6 region of 5′-methyluronamide derivatives, as modeled in receptor docking, is suitable for functionalization and tethering by click chemistry to achieve high A3AR agonist affinity and enhanced selectivity.
G protein-coupled receptor; PAMAM dendrimer; purines; structure activity relationship; molecular modeling; adenylate cyclase
Mast cell degranulation affects many conditions, e.g., asthma and urticaria. We explored the potential role of the P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14R) and other P2Y subtypes in degranulation of human LAD2 mast cells. All eight P2YRs were expressed at variable levels in LAD2 cells (quantitative real-time RT-PCR). Gene expression levels of ADP receptors, P2Y1R, P2Y12R, and P2Y13R, were similar, and P2Y11R and P2Y4R were highly expressed at 5.8- and 3.8-fold of P2Y1R, respectively. Least expressed P2Y2R was 40-fold lower than P2Y1R, and P2Y6R and P2Y14R were ≤50 % of P2Y1R. None of the native P2YR agonists alone induced β-hexosaminidase (β-Hex) release, but some nucleotides significantly enhanced β-Hex release induced by C3a or antigen, with a rank efficacy order of ATP > UDPG ≥ ADP >> UDP, UTP. Although P2Y11R and P2Y4R are highly expressed, they did not seem to play a major role in degranulation as neither P2Y4R agonist UTP nor P2Y11R agonists ATPγS and NF546 had a substantial effect. P2Y1R-selective agonist MRS2365 enhanced degranulation, but ~1,000-fold weaker compared to its P2Y1R potency, and the effect of P2Y6R agonist 3-phenacyl-UDP was negligible. The enhancement by ADP and ATP appears mediated via multiple receptors. Both UDPG and a synthetic agonist of the P2Y14R, MRS2690, enhanced C3a-induced β-Hex release, which was inhibited by a P2Y14R antagonist, specific P2Y14R siRNA and pertussis toxin, suggesting a role of P2Y14R activation in promoting human mast cell degranulation.
P2Y; Mast cells; Uracil nucleotide; Degranulation; GPCR; G protein-coupled receptors
Molecular modeling of agonist binding to the human A2A adenosine receptor (AR) was assessed and extended in light of crystallographic structures. Heterocyclic adenine nitrogens of co-crystallized agonist overlayed corresponding positions of the heterocyclic base of a bound triazolotriazine antagonist, and ribose moiety was coordinated in a hydrophilic region, as previously predicted based on modeling using the inactive receptor. Automatic agonist docking of 20 known potent nucleoside agonists to agonist-bound A2AAR crystallographic structures predicted new stabilizing protein interactions, to provide a structural basis for previous empirical structure activity relationships consistent with previous mutagenesis results. We predicted binding of novel C2 terminal amino acid conjugates of A2AAR agonist CGS21680 and used these models to interpret effects on binding affinity of newly-synthesized agonists. D-Amino acid conjugates were generally more potent than L- stereoisomers, and free terminal carboxylates more potent than corresponding methyl esters. Amino acid moieties were coordinated close to extracellular loops 2 and 3. Thus, molecular modeling is useful in probing ligand recognition and rational design of GPCR–targeting compounds with specific pharmacological profiles.
G protein-coupled receptor; nucleosides; purines; radioligand binding; docking; X-ray crystallography
Truncated N6-substituted-4′-oxo- and 4′-thioadenosine derivatives with C2 or C8 substitution were studied as dual acting A2A and A3 adenosine receptor (AR) ligands. The lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions were utilized for functionalization of the C2 position of 6-chloropurine nucleosides. An unsubstituted 6-amino group and a hydrophobic C2 substituent were required for high affinity at the hA2AAR, but hydrophobic C8 substitution abolished binding at the hA2AAR. However, most of synthesized compounds displayed medium to high binding affinity at the hA3AR, regardless of C2 or C8 substitution, and low efficacy in a functional cAMP assay. Several compounds tended to be full hA2AAR agonists. C2 substitution probed geometrically through hA2AAR-docking, was important for binding in order of hexynyl > hexenyl > hexanyl. Compound 4g was the most potent ligand acting dually as hA2AAR agonist and hA3AR antagonist, which might be useful for treatment of asthma or other inflammatory diseases.
lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer; structure-activity relationship; adenosine receptors; truncated adenosine; palladium-catalyzed cross coupling; dual-acting ligands
Adenosine receptors (ARs), the major targets of caffeine and theophylline, comprise four receptor subtypes designated as A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Over a dozen AR agonists are currently in clinical trials for various conditions, including cardiac arrhythmias, neuropathic pain, myocardial perfusion imaging, cardiac ischemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Adenosine (non-selective), regadenoson (A2A) and dipyridamole (act indirectly via ARs) have received regulatory approval for clinical use. The present editorial will give a brief update on the current status of AR agonists in clinical trials.
adenosine receptor; agonist; cardiac arrhythmia; cardiac perfusion imaging; cancer; G protein-coupled receptor; inflammation; nucleoside; pain; rheumatoid arthritis
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are attractive targets for pharmaceutical research. With the recent determination of several GPCR X-ray structures, the applicability of structure-based computational methods for ligand identification, such as docking, has increased. Yet, as only about 1% of GPCRs have a known structure, receptor homology modeling remains necessary. In order to investigate the usability of homology models and the inherent selectivity of a particular model in relation to close homologs, we constructed multiple homology models for the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) and docked ∼2.2 M lead-like compounds. High-ranking molecules were tested on the A1AR as well as the close homologs A2AAR and A3AR. While the screen yielded numerous potent and novel ligands (hit rate 21% and highest affinity of 400 nM), it delivered few selective compounds. Moreover, most compounds appeared in the top ranks of only one model. These findings have implications for future screens.
The dedifferentiation agent ‘reversine’ (2-(4-morpholinoanilino)-N6-cyclohexyladenine 2) was found to be a moderately potent antagonist for the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR) with a Ki value 0.66 μM. This result prompted an exploration of the structure-activity relationship of related derivatives, synthesized via sequential substitution of 6-chloro-2-fluoropurine with selected nucleophiles. Optimization of substituents at these two positions identified 2-phenylamino-N6-(cyclohexyl)adenine 12, 2-phenylamino-N6-(cycloheptyl)adenine 19, and 2-phenylamino-N6-(endo-norbornyl)adenine 21 as potent A3 AR ligands with Ki values of 51, 42 and 37 nM, respectively, with 30 – 200-fold selectivity in comparison to A1 and A2A ARs. The most selective A3 AR antagonist (>200-fold) was 2-phenyloxy-N6-(cyclohexyl)adenine 22. 9-Methylation of 12, but not 19, was well tolerated in A3 AR binding. Extension of the 2-phenylamino group to 2-benzyl- and 2-(2-phenylethylamino) reduced affinity. In the series of 2-phenylamino, 2-phenyloxy, and 2-phenylthio substitutions, the order of affinity at the A3 AR was oxy ≥ amino > thio. Selected derivatives, including reversine (KB value of 466 nM in Schild analysis), competitively antagonized the functional effects of a selective A3 AR agonist, i.e. inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. These results are in agreement with other studies suggesting the presence of a lipophilic pocket in the AR binding site that is filled by moderately sized cycloalkyl rings at the N6 position of both adenine and adenosine derivatives. Thus, the compound series reported herein comprise an important new series of selective A3 AR antagonists. We were unable to reproduce the dedifferentiation effect of reversine, previously reported, or to demonstrate any connection between A3 AR antagonist effects and dedifferentiation.
An alternative approach to overcome the inherent lack of specificity of conventional agonist therapy can be the reengineering of the GPCRs and their agonists. A reengineered receptor (neoceptor) could be selectively activated by a modified agonist, but not by the endogenous agonist. Assisted by rhodopsin-based molecular modeling, we pinpointed mutations of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) for selective affinity enhancement following complementary modifications of adenosine. Ribose modifications examined included, at 3′: amino, aminomethyl, azido, guanidino, ureido; and at 5′: uronamido, azidodeoxy. N6-Variations included 3-iodobenzyl, 5-chloro-2-methyloxybenzyl, and methyl. An N6-3-iodobenzyl-3′-ureido adenosine derivative 10 activated phospholipase C in COS-7 cells (EC50) 0.18 μM) or phospholipase D in chick primary cardiomyocytes, both mediated by a mutant (H272E), but not the wild-type, A3AR. The affinity enhancements for 10 and the corresponding 3′-acetamidomethyl analogue 6 were >100-fold and >20-fold, respectively. 10 concentration-dependently protected cardiomyocytes transfected with the neoceptor against hypoxia. Unlike 10, adenosine activated the wild-type A3AR (EC50 of 1.0 μM), but had no effect on the H272E mutant A3AR (100 μM). Compound 10 was inactive at human A1, A2A, and A2BARs. The orthogonal pair comprising an engineered receptor and a modified agonist should be useful for elucidating signaling pathways and could be therapeutically applied to diseases following organ-targeted delivery of the neoceptor gene.
We studied the structural determinants of binding affinity and efficacy of adenosine receptor (AR) agonists. Substituents at the 2-position of adenosine were combined with N6-substitutions known to enhance human A3AR affinity. Selectivity of binding of the analogues and their functional effects on cAMP production were studied using recombinant human A1, A2A, A2B, and A3ARs. Mainly sterically small substituents at the 2-position modulated both the affinity and intrinsic efficacy at all subtypes. The 2-cyano group decreased hA3AR affinity and efficacy in the cases of N6-(3-iodobenzyl) and N6-(trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclopropyl), for which a full A3AR agonist was converted into a selective antagonist; the 2-cyano-N6-methyl analogue was a full A3AR agonist. The combination of N6-benzyl and various 2-substitutions (chloro, trifluoromethyl, and cyano) resulted in reduced efficacy at the A1AR. The environment surrounding the 2-position within the putative A3AR binding site was explored using rhodopsin-based homology modeling and ligand docking.
Purines; Cyclic AMP; Binding; Antagonists; Agonists; GPCR; Molecular modeling
Adenosine receptors are major targets of caffeine, the most commonly consumed drug in the world. There is growing evidence that they could also be promising therapeutic targets in a wide range of conditions, including cerebral and cardiac ischaemic diseases, sleep disorders, immune and inflammatory disorders and cancer. After more than three decades of medicinal chemistry research, a considerable number of selective agonists and antagonists of adenosine receptors have been discovered, and some have been clinically evaluated, although none has yet received regulatory approval. However, recent advances in the understanding of the roles of the various adenosine receptor subtypes, and in the development of selective and potent ligands, as discussed in this review, have brought the goal of therapeutic application of adenosine receptor modulators considerably closer.
A series of ring-constrained (N)-methanocarba-5′-uronamide 2,N6-disubstituted adenine nucleosides have been synthesized via Mitsunobu condensation of the nucleobase precursor with a pseudosugar ring containing a 5′-ester functionality. Following appropriate functionalization of the adenine ring, the ester group was converted to the 5′-N-methylamide. The compounds, mainly 2-chloro substituted derivatives, were tested in both binding and functional assays at human adenosine receptors (ARs), and many were found to be highly potent and selective A3AR agonists. Selected compounds were compared in binding to the rat A3AR to assess their viability for testing in rat disease models. The N6-(3-chlorobenzyl) and N6-(3-bromobenzyl) analogues displayed Ki values at the human A3AR of 0.29 and 0.38 nM, respectively. Other subnanomolar affinities were observed for the following N6 derivatives: 2,5-dichlorobenzyl, 5-iodo-2-methoxybenzyl, trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclopropyl, and 2,2-diphenylethyl. Selectivity for the human A3AR in comparison to the A1AR was (fold): the N6-(2,2-diphenylethyl) analogue 34 (1900), the N6-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl) analogue 26 (1200), the N6-(2,5-dichlorobenzyl) and N6-(2-phenyl-1-cyclopropyl) analogues 20 and 33 (1000), and the N6-(3-substituted benzyl) analogues 17, 18, 28, and 29 (700–900). Typically, even greater selectivity ratios were obtained in comparison with the A2A and A2BARs. The (N)-methanocarba-5′-uronamide analogues were full agonists at the A3AR, as indicated by the inhibition of forskolin-stimluated adenylate cyclase at a concentration of 10 µM. The N6-(2,2-diphenylethyl) derivative was an A3AR agonist in the (N)-methanocarba-5′-uronamide series, although it was an antagonist in the ribose series. Thus, many of the previously known groups that enhance A3AR affinity in the 9-riboside series, including those that reducing intrinsic efficacy, may be adapted to the (N)-methanocarba nucleoside series of full agonists.
In this paper we investigated the influence on affinity, selectivity and intrinsic activity upon modification of the adenosine agonist scaffold at the 3′- and 5′-positions of the ribofuranosyl moiety and the 2- and N6-positions of the purine base. This resulted in the synthesis of various analogues, that is, 3–12 and 24–33, with good hA3AR selectivity and moderate-to-high affinities (as in 32, Ki = 27 nM). Interesting was the ability to tune the intrinsic activity depending on the substituent introduced at the 3′-position.
Adenosine receptors; Nucleoside analogues; Binding; Efficacy
Allosteric modulators for the Gi-coupled A3 adenosine receptor (AR) are of considerable interest as therapeutic agents and as pharmacological tools to probe various signaling pathways. In this study, we initially characterized the effects of several imidazoquinolinamine allosteric modulators (LUF5999, LUF6000 and LUF6001) on the human A3 AR stably expressed in CHO cells using a cyclic AMP functional assay. These modulators were found to affect efficacy and potency of the agonist Cl-IB-MECA differently. LUF5999 (2-cyclobutyl derivative) enhanced efficacy but decreased potency. LUF6000 (2-cyclohexyl derivative) enhanced efficacy without affecting potency. LUF6001 (2-H derivative) decreased both efficacy and potency. We further compared the agonist enhancing effects of LUF6000 in several other A3 AR-mediated events. It was shown that although LUF6000 behaved somewhat differently in various signaling pathways, it was more effective in enhancing the effects of low-efficacy than of high-efficacy agonists. In an assay of cyclic AMP accumulation, LUF6000 enhanced the efficacy of all agonists examined, but in the membrane hyperpolarization assay, it only enhanced the efficacy of partial agonists. In calcium mobilization, LUF6000 did not affect the efficacy of the full agonist NECA but was able to switch the nucleoside antagonist MRS542 into a partial agonist. In translocation of β-arrestin2, the agonist-enhancing effect LUF6000 was not pronounced. In an assay of ERK1/2 phosphorylation LUF6000 did not show any effect on the efficacy of Cl-IB-MECA. The differential effects of LUF6000 on the efficacy and potency of the agonist Cl-IB-MECA in various signaling pathway were interpreted quantitatively using a mathematical model.
G protein-coupled receptors; purines; positive allosteric modulator; second messenger; nucleoside
Allosteric modulators for adenosine receptors (ARs) are of an increasing interest and may have potential therapeutic advantage over orthosteric ligands. Benzoylthiophene derivatives (including PD 81,723), 2-aminothiazolium salts, and related allosteric modulators of the A1 AR have been studied. The benzoylthiophene derivatives were demonstrated to be selective enhancers for the A1 AR, with little or no effect on other subtypes of ARs. Allosteric modulation of the A2A AR has also been reported. A3 allosteric enhancers may be predicted to be useful against ischemic conditions. We have recently characterized two classes of A3 AR allosteric modulators: 3-(2-pyridinyl)isoquinolines (e.g. VUF5455) and 1H-imidazo-[4,5-c]quinolin-4-amines (e.g. DU124183), which selectively decreased the agonist dissociation rate at the human A3AR but not at A1 and A2A ARs. DU124183 left-shifted the agonist conc.-response curve for inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation in intact cells expressing the human A3AR with up to 30% potentiation of the maximal efficacy. The increased potency of A3 agonists was evident only in the presence of an A3 antagonist, since VUF5455 and DU124183 also antagonized, i.e. displaced binding at the orthosteric site, with Ki values of 1.68 and 0.82 μM, respectively. A3AR mutagenesis studies implicated F1825.43 and N2747.45 in the action of the enhancers and was interpreted using a rhodopsin-based A3AR molecular model, suggesting multiple binding modes. Amiloride analogues, SCH-202676 (N-(2,3-diphenyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5(2H)-ylidene)methanamine), and sodium ions were demonstrated to be common allosteric modulators for at least three subtypes (A1, A2A, and A3) of ARs.
Human P2Y receptors encompass at least eight subtypes of Class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), responding to adenine and/or uracil nucleotides. Using a BLAST search against the Homo sapiens subset of the SWISS–PROT and TrEMBL databases, we identified 68 proteins showing high similarity to P2Y receptors. To address the problem of low sequence identity between rhodopsin and the P2Y receptors, we performed a multiple-sequence alignment of the retrieved proteins and the template bovine rhodopsin, combining manual identification of the transmembrane domains (TMs) with automatic techniques. The resulting phylogenetic tree delineated two distinct subgroups of P2Y receptors: Gq-coupled subtypes (e.g., P2Y1) and those coupled to Gi (e.g., P2Y12). On the basis of sequence comparison we mutated three Tyr residues of the putative P2Y1 binding pocket to Ala and Phe and characterized pharmacologically the mutant receptors expressed in COS-7 cells. The mutation of Y306 (7.35, site of a cationic residue in P2Y12) or Y203 in the second extracellular loop selectively decreased the affinity of the agonist 2-MeSADP, and the Y306F mutation also reduced antagonist (MRS2179) affinity by 5-fold. The Y273A (6.48) mutation precluded the receptor activation without a major effect on the ligand-binding affinities, but the Y273F mutant receptor still activated G proteins with full agonist affinity. Thus, we have identified new recognition elements to further define the P2Y1 binding site and related these to other P2Y receptor subtypes. Following sequence-based secondary-structure prediction, we constructed complete models of all the human P2Y receptors by homology to rhodopsin. Ligand docking on P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor models was guided by mutagenesis results, to identify the residues implicated in the binding process. Different sets of cationic residues in the two subgroups appeared to coordinate phosphate-bearing ligands. Within the P2Y1 subgroup these residues are R3.29, K/R6.55, and R7.39. Within the P2Y12 subgroup, the only residue in common with P2Y1 is R6.55, and the role of R3.29 in TM3 seems to be fulfilled by a Lys residue in EL2, whereas the R7.39 in TM7 seems to be substituted by K7.35. Thus, we have identified common and distinguishing features of P2Y receptor structure and have proposed modes of ligand binding for the two representative subtypes that already have well-developed ligands.
The medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of the four subtypes of adenosine receptors (ARs) and the eight subtypes of P2Y receptors (P2YRs, activated by a range of purine and pyrimidine mono- and dinucleotides) has recently advanced significantly leading to selective ligands. X-ray crystallographic structures of both agonist- and antagonist-bound forms of the A2AAR have provided unprecedented three-dimensional detail concerning molecular recognition in the binding site and the conformational changes in receptor activation. It is apparent that this ubiquitous cell signaling system has implications for understanding and treating many diseases. ATP and other nucleotides are readily released from intracellular sources under conditions of injury and organ stress, such as hypoxia, ischemia, or mechanical stress, and through channels and vesicular release. Adenosine may be generated extracellularly or by cellular release. Therefore, depending on pathophysiological factors, in a given tissue, there is often a tonic activation of one or more of the ARs or P2YRs that can be modulated by exogenous agents for a beneficial effect. Thus, this field has provided fertile ground for pharmaceutical development, leading to clinical trials of selective receptor ligands as imaging agents or for conditions including cardiac arrhythmias, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, pain, thrombosis, Parkinson’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, dry eye disease, pulmonary diseases such as cystic fibrosis, glaucoma, cancer, chronic hepatitis C, and other diseases.
GPCR structure; Adenosine receptors; P2Y receptors; Agonists; Antagonists; Clinical trials, nucleosides; Nucleotides
Selective agonists for A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) could potentially be therapeutic agents for a variety of disorders, including brain and heart ischemic conditions, while partial agonists may have advantages over full agonists as a result of an increased selectivity of action. A number of structural determinants for A3AR activation have recently been identified, including the N6-benzyl group, methanocarba substitution of ribose, 2-chloro and 2-fluoro substituents, various 2’- and 3’-substitutions and 4’-thio substitution of oxygen. The 2-chloro substitution of CPA and R-PIA led to A3 antagonism (CCPA) and partial agonism (Cl-R-PIA). 2-Chloroadenosine was a full agonist, while 2-fluoroadenosine was a partial agonist. Both 2’- and 3’- substitutions have a pronounced effect on its efficacy, although the effect of 2’-substitution was more dramatic. The 4-thio substitution of oxygen may also diminish efficacy, depending on other substitutions. Both N6-methyl and N6-benzyl groups may contribute to the A3 affinity and selectivity; however, an N6-benzyl group but not an N6-methyl group diminishes A3AR efficacy. N6-benzyl substituted adenosine derivatives have similar potency for human and rat A3ARS while N6-methyl substitution was preferable for the human A3AR. The combination of 2-chloro and N6-benzyl substitutions appeared to reduce efficacy further than either modification alone. The A2AAR agonist DPMA was shown to be an antagonist for the human A3AR. Thus, the efficacy of adenosine derivatives at the A3AR appears to be more sensitive to small structural changes than at other subtypes. Potent and selective partial agonists for the A3AR could be identified by screening known adenosine derivatives and by modifying adenosine and the adenosine derivatives.
G protein-coupled receptors, the largest cell surface receptor family, have emerged as critical players in cell death and survival. High gene expression level of the Gq-coupled P2Y1 nucleotide receptor in PC-3 prostate cancer cells was demonstrated using real-time quantitative PCR and confirmed by Western blotting and confocal laser scanning microscopy. A selective P2Y1 receptor agonist, the ADP analogue MRS2365, concentration-dependently induced intracellular calcium mobilization (EC50 5.28 nM), which was diminished by P2Y1 receptor-selective antagonist MRS2500. P2Y1 receptor activation by MRS2365 induced apoptosis in assays of Caspase-3, LDH release, and Annexin-V staining. The pro-apoptotic effect of MRS2365 was blocked by MRS2500, P2Y1 siRNA, and an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway PD98059. MRS2365 significantly inhibited the proliferation of PC-3 cells, examined using a MTT assay. Thus, activation of the P2Y1 receptor induced cell death and inhibited growth of human prostatic carcinoma PC-3 cells. Activation of the P2Y1 receptor should be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer; P2Y1 receptor; apoptosis; nucleotide; GPCR
An integrated approach to the study of drug-receptor interactions has been applied to adenosine receptors (ARs) and P2Y nucleotide receptors. This approach includes probing the receptor structure through site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling, in concert with altering the structure of the agonist ligands. Goals of this structural approach are to generate a testable hypothesis for location of the binding site and subsequently to enable the rational design of new agonists and antagonists. In this manner, receptor subtype selectivity has been increased, and agonists have been converted into partial agonists and antagonists. An approach to receptor engineering (neoceptors) has been explored, in which synthetic small molecule agonists (neoligands) are specifically tailored to activate only receptors in which the putative binding sites have been modified. This orthogonal approach to receptor activation, intended for eventual gene therapy, has been demonstrated for A3 and A2A ARs.
A1 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists are neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anxiolytic. (N)-Methanocarba adenine nucleosides designed to bind to human A1AR were truncated to eliminate 5′-CH2OH. This modification previously converted A3AR agonists into antagonists, but the comparable effect at A1AR is unknown. In comparison to ribosides, affinity at the A1AR was less well preserved than at the A3AR, although a few derivatives were moderately A1AR selective, notably full agonist 21 (N6-dicyclopropylmethyl, Ki 47.9 nM). Thus, at the A1AR recognition elements for nucleoside binding depend more on 5′region interactions, and in their absence A3AR selectivity predominates. Based on the recently reported agonist-bound AR structure, this difference between subtypes likely correlates with an essential His residue in transmembrane domain 6 of A1 but not A3AR. The derivatives ranged from partial to full agonists in A1AR-mediated adenylate cyclase inhibition. Truncated derivatives have more drug-like physical properties than other A1AR agonists; this approach is appealing for preclinical development.
G protein-coupled receptor; purines; molecular modeling; radioligand binding; adenylate cyclase