Vertebrate 4.1 proteins have a spectrin-actin-binding (SAB) domain, which is lacking in all the invertebrate 4.1 proteins indentified so far, and it was therefore proposed that the SAB domain emerged with the advent of vertebrates during evolution. Here we demonstrated for the first time that amphioxus (an invertebrate chordate) protein 4.1, though lacking a recognizable SAB, was able to bind both spectrin and actin, with a binding capacity comparable to that of human protein 4.1. Detailed structure-activity analyses revealed that the unique domain U2/3 was a newly identified SAB-like domain capable of interacting with spectrin and actin, suggesting the presence of a “cryptic” SAB domain in amphioxus 4.1 protein. We also showed that amphioxus 4.1 protein gene was the common ancestor of vertebrate 4.1 protein genes, from which 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B genes originated. This work will encourage further study on the structure-activity of invertebrate 4.1 protein and its interacting proteins.
A1 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists display antiischemic and antiepileptic neuroprotective activity, but peripheral cardiovascular side effects impeded their development. SAR study of N6-cycloalkylmethyl 4′-truncated (N)-methanocarba-adenosines identified 10 (MRS5474, N6-dicyclopropylmethyl, Ki 47.9 nM) as a moderately A1AR-selective full agonist. Two stereochemically defined N6-methynyl group substituents displayed narrow SAR; larger than cyclobutyl greatly reduced AR affinity, and larger or smaller than cyclopropyl reduced A1AR selectivity. Nucleoside docking to A1AR homology model characterized distinct hydrophobic cyclopropyl subpockets, the larger “A” forming contacts with Thr270 (7.35), Tyr271 (7.36), Ile274 (7.39) and carbon chains of glutamates (EL2), and smaller subpocket “B” between TM6 and TM7. 10 suppressed minimal clonic seizures (6 Hz mouse model) without typical rotarod impairment of A1AR agonists. Truncated nucleosides, an appealing preclinical approach, have more drug-like physicochemical properties than other A1AR agonists. Thus, we identified highly restricted regions for substitution around N6 suitable for an A1AR agonist with anticonvulsant activity.
G protein-coupled receptor; purines; molecular modeling; seizures; in vivo
The structure-activity relationship (SAR) for a novel class of 1,2,4-triazole antagonists of the human A2A adenosine receptor (hA2AAR) was explored. Thirty-three analogs of a ligand that was discovered in a structure-based virtual screen against the hA2AAR were tested in hA1, A2A, and A3 radioligand binding assays and in functional assays for the A2BAR subtype. As a series of closely related analogs of the initial lead, 1, did not display improved binding affinity or selectivity, molecular docking was used to guide the selection of more distantly related molecules. This resulted in the discovery of 32, a hA2AAR antagonist (Ki 200 nM) with high ligand efficiency. In the light of the SAR for the 1,2,4-triazole scaffold, we also investigated the binding mode of these compounds based on docking to several A2AAR crystal structures.
1,2,4-triazole; A2A adenosine receptor; antagonist; molecular docking; structure-activity relationship
The high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the Chinese population poses a threat to blood safety; however, few studies have examined epidemiological data regarding HBV infection of Chinese blood donors. The present study investigated the demographic characteristics of blood donors at the Anhui blood center in China, the prevalence, incidence, and residual risk (RR) associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in terms of transfusion transmitted HBV (TTHBV) infections.
The demographic characteristics and HBV status of people who donated blood at the Anhui blood center between 2009 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence of HBV was estimated through HBsAg yield approach. The window period model was then used to estimate the RR of TTHBV infection.
The typical donor at the Anhui blood center was a first-time volunteer, aged less than 25 years, unmarried, of Han ethnicity, and with an education below high school level. The prevalence of HBV infection among repeat donors, first-time donors, and all donors was 28.9, 127.2 and 82.1 per 100,000, respectively. The incidence estimate was 333.9 per 105 person-years. Using an infectious window period of 59 days, the RR for HBV was estimated to be 1 in 1853 between 2009 and 2011.
The incidence and RR of HBV in Chinese blood donors are much higher than those of donors in developed countries. This is because sensitive ELISAs and nucleic acid tests are not available in China. Further work is needed to improve both the safety and availability of blood products in China.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is directly linked to mutations in proteins (e.g., RyR2R4496C) responsible for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in the heart. However, the mechanism of Ca2+ release dysfunction underlying CPVT has only been investigated in isolated cells but not in the in situ undisrupted myocardium.
Methods and Results
We investigated in situ myocyte Ca2+ dynamics in intact Langendorff perfused hearts (ex vivo) from wildtype (WT) and RyR2R4496C+/− mice using laser scanning confocal microscopy. We found that myocytes from both WT and RyR2R4496C+/− hearts displayed uniform, synchronized Ca2+ transients. Ca2+ transients from beat to beat were comparable in amplitude with identical activation and decay kinetics in WT and RyR2R4496C+/− hearts, suggesting that excitation-contraction (EC) coupling between the sarcolemmal Ca2+ channels and mutated RyR2R4496C+/− channels remains intact under baseline resting conditions. Upon adrenergic stimulation, RyR2R4496C+/− hearts exhibited a high degree of Ca2+ release variability (CRV). The varied pattern of Ca2+ release was absent in single isolated myocytes, independent of cell cycle length, synchronized among neighboring myocytes, and correlated with CPVT. A similar pattern of action potential variability, which was synchronized among neighboring myocytes, was also revealed under adrenergic stress in intact hearts but not in isolated myocytes.
Our studies using in situ confocal imaging approach suggest that mutated RyR2s are functionally normal at rest but display a high degree of CRV upon intense adrenergic stimulation. CRV is a Ca2+ release abnormality resulting from electrical defects rather than the failure of the Ca2+ release response to action potentials in mutated ventricular myocytes. Our data provide important insights into Ca2+ release and electrical dysfunction in an established model of CPVT.
arrhythmia (mechanisms); calcium; catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; sarcoplasmic reticulum; ryanodine receptors
The role of the A2B adenosine receptor (AR) in prostate cell death and growth was studied. The A2B AR gene expression quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis was the highest among four AR subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) in all three commonly used prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3, DU145, and LNCaP. We explored the function of the A2B AR using PC-3 cells as a model. The A2B AR was visualized in PC-3 cells by laser confocal microscopy. The nonselective A2B AR agonist NECA and the selective A2B AR agonist BAY60-6583, but not the A2A AR agonist CGS21680, concentration-dependently induced adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation. NECA diminished lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, TNF-α-induced increase of caspase-3 activity, and cycloheximide (CHX)-induced morphological changes typical of apoptosis in PC-3 cells, which were blocked by a selective A2B AR antagonist PSB603. NECA-induced proliferation of PC-3 cells was diminished by siRNA specific for the A2B AR. The selective A2B AR antagonist PSB603 was shown to inhibit cell growth in all three cell lines. Thus, A2B AR blockade inhibits growth of prostate cancer cells, suggesting selective A2B AR antagonists as potential novel therapeutics.
Prostate cancer; Cancer; Adenosine receptor; A2B; G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR); Cell proliferation
C2-Arylethynyladenosine-5′-N-methyluronamides containing a bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane ((N)-methanocarba) ring are selective A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists. Similar 4′-truncated C2-arylethynyl-(N)-methanocarba nucleosides containing alkyl or alkylaryl groups at the N6 position were low-efficacy agonists or antagonists of the human A3AR with high selectivity. Higher hA3AR affinity was associated with N6-methyl and ethyl (Ki 3–6 nM), than with N6-arylalkyl groups. However, combined C2-phenylethynyl and N6-2-phenylethyl substitutions in selective antagonist 15 provided a Ki of 20 nM. Differences between 4′-truncated and nontruncated analogues of extended C2-p-biphenylethynyl substitution suggested a ligand reorientation in AR binding, dominated by bulky N6 groups in analogues lacking a stabilizing 5′-uronamide moiety. Thus, 4′-truncation of C2-arylethynyl-(N)-methanocarba adenosine derivatives is compatible with general preservation of A3AR selectivity, especially with small N6 groups, but reduced efficacy in A3AR-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase.
G protein-coupled receptor; purines; molecular modeling; structure activity relationship; radioligand binding; adenosine receptor
The physiological role of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) was explored in cardiac ischaemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer. We report a new fluorophore-conjugated human (h) A3AR antagonist for application to cell-based assays in ligand discovery and for receptor imaging. Fluorescent pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-ylamine (pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine, PTP) and triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-yl)amine (triazolo-quinazoline, TQ) AR antagonists were compared. A chain-extended and click-conjugated Alexa Fluor-488 TQ derivative (MRS5449) displayed a radioligand binding Ki value of 6.4 ± 2.5 nM in hA3AR-expressing CHO cell membranes. MRS5449 antagonized hA3AR agonist-induced inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner (KB 4.8 nM). Using flow cytometry (FCM), MRS5449 saturated hA3ARs with very high specific-to-nonspecific binding ratio with an equilibrium binding constant 5.15 nM, comparable to the Kd value of 6.65 nM calculated from kinetic experiments. Ki values of known AR antagonists in inhibition of MRS5449 binding in whole cell FCM were consistent with radioligand binding in membranes, but agonist binding was 5–20 fold weaker than obtained with agonist radioligand [125I]I-AB-MECA. Further binding analysis of MRS5549 suggested multiple agonist binding states of the A3AR. Molecular docking predicted binding modes of these fluorescent antagonists. Thus, MRS5449 is a useful tool for hA3AR characterization.
purines; fluorescence; G protein-coupled receptor; A3 adenosine receptor; flow cytometry
(N)-Methanocarba adenosine 5′-methyluronamides containing known A3 AR (adenosine receptor)-enhancing modifications, i.e. 2-(arylethynyl)adenine and N6-methyl or N6-(3-substituted-benzyl), were nanomolar full agonists of human (h) A3AR and highly selective (Ki ~0.6 nM, N6-methyl 2-(halophenylethynyl) analogues 13, 14). Combined 2-arylethynyl-N6-3-chlorobenzyl substitutions preserved A3AR affinity/selectivity in the (N)-methanocarba series (e.g. 3,4-difluoro full agonist MRS5698 31, Ki 3 nM, human and mouse A3) better than for ribosides. Polyaromatic 2-ethynyl N6-3-chlorobenzyl analogues, such as potent linearly extended 2-p-biphenylethynyl MRS5679 34 (Ki hA3 3.1 nM; A1, A2A: inactive) and fluorescent 1-pyrene adduct MRS5704 35 (Ki hA3 68.3 nM) were conformationally rigid; receptor docking identified a large, mainly hydrophobic binding region. The vicinity of receptor-bound C2 groups was probed by homology modeling based on recent X-ray structure of an agonist-bound A2AAR, with a predicted helical rearrangement requiring an agonist-specific outward displacement of TM2 resembling opsin. Thus, X-ray structure of related A2AAR is useful in guiding design of new A3AR agonists.
G protein-coupled receptor; purines; molecular modeling; structure activity relationship; radioligand binding; adenylate cyclase
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allow the tuning of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties by active or passive targeting of drugs for cancer and other diseases. We have functionalized gold nanoparticles by tethering specific ligands, agonists and antagonists, of adenosine receptors (ARs) to the gold surface as models for cell surface interactions with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The AuNP conjugates with chain-extended AR ligands alone (PEGylated nucleosides and nonnucleosides, anchored to the Au via thioctic acid) were found to be insoluble in water due to hydrophobic entities in the ligand. Therefore, we added a second, biologically inactive pendant moiety to increase the water solubility, consisting of a PEGylated chain terminating in a carboxylic or phosphate group. The purity and stability of the immobilized biologically active ligand were examined by ultrafiltration and HPLC. Pharmacological receptor binding studies on these GPCR ligand-derivatized AuNPs (2–5 nm in diameter), performed using membranes of mammalian cells stably expressing human A1, A2A, and A3ARs, showed that the desired selectivity was retained with Ki values (nanomolar) of A3AR agonist 21b and A2AAR antagonists 24 and 26a of 14 (A3), 34 (A2A), and 69 (A2A), respectively. The corresponding monomers displayed Ki values of 37, 61, and 1,420 nM, respectively. In conclusion, we have synthesized stable, water-soluble AuNP derivatives of tethered A3 and A2AAR ligands that retain the biological properties of their monomeric ligands and are intended for therapeutic and imaging applications. This is the first prototypical application to gold carriers of small molecule (nonpeptide) GPCR ligands, which are under investigation for treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11302-012-9338-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
G protein-coupled receptor; Nanoparticle; Nucleoside; Adenosine; Radioligand binding
The objective of this study was to create constitutively active mutant human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) using single amino acid replacements, based on findings from other G protein-coupled receptors. A3 ARs mutated in transmembrane helical domains (TMs) 1, 3, 6, and 7 were expressed in COS-7 cells and subjected to agonist radioligand binding and phospholipase C (PLC) and adenylyl cyclase (AC) assays. Three mutant receptors, A229E in TM6 and R108A and R108K in the DRY motif of TM3, were found to be constitutively active in both functional assays. The potency of the A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA (2–chloro-N6-(3–iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide) in PLC activation was enhanced by at least an order of magnitude over wild type (EC50 951 nM) in R108A and A229E mutant receptors. Cl-IB-MECA was much less potent (>10-fold) in C88F, Y109F and Y282F mutants or inactive following double mutation of the DRY motif. The degree of constitutive activation was more pronounced for the AC signaling pathway than for the PLC signaling pathway. The results indicated that specific locations within the TMs proximal to the cytosolic region were responsible for constraining the receptor in a G protein-uncoupled conformation.
purines; G protein-coupled receptor; phospholipase C; adenylyl cyclase; radioligand binding; nucleosides
Novel D- and L-4′-thioadenosine derivatives lacking the 4′-hydroxymethyl moiety were synthesized, starting from D-mannose and D-gulonic γ-lactone, respectively, as potent and selective species-independent A3 adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists. Among the novel 4′-truncated 2-H nucleosides tested, a N6-(3-chlorobenzyl) derivative 7c was the most potent at the human A3 AR (Ki = 1.5 nM), but a N6-(3-bromobenzyl) derivative 7d showed the optimal species-independent binding affinity.
Adenosine released during myocardial ischemia mediates cardioprotective preconditioning. Multivalent drugs covalently bound to nanocarriers may differ greatly in chemical and biological properties from the corresponding monomeric agents. Here, we conjugated chemically functionalized nucleosides to poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimeric polymers and investigated their effects in rat primary cardiac cell cultures and in the isolated heart. Three conjugates of A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists, chain-functionalized at the C2 or N6 position, were cardioprotective, with greater potency than monomeric agonist Cl-IB-MECA. Multivalent amide-linked MRS5216 was selective for A1 and A3ARs, and triazole-linked MRS5246 and MRS5539 (optionally containing fluorescent label) were A3AR-selective. The conjugates protected ischemic rat cardiomyocytes, an effect blocked by an A3AR antagonist MRS1523, and isolated hearts with significantly improved infarct size, rate of pressure product, and rate of contraction and relaxation. Thus, strategically derivatized nucleosides tethered to biocompatible polymeric carriers display enhanced cardioprotective potency via activation of A3AR on the cardiomyocyte surface.
dendrimer; cardiomyocyte; adenosine receptor; ischemia; isolated heart; rat
Polymorphisms in the TCRA and P2RY11, two immune related genes, are associated with narcolepsy in Caucasians and Asians. In contrast, CPT1B/CHKB polymorphisms have only been shown to be associated with narcolepsy in Japanese, with replication in a small group of Koreans. Our aim was to study whether these polymorphisms are associated with narcolepsy and its clinical characteristics in Chinese patients with narcolepsy.
We collected clinical data on 510 Chinese patients presenting with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients were included either when hypocretin deficiency was documented (CSF hypocretin-1 ≤110 pg/ml, n=91) or on the basis of the presence of clear cataplexy and HLA-DQB1*0602 positivity (n=419). Genetic data was compared to typing obtained in 452 controls matched for geographic origin within China. Clinical evaluations included demographics, the Stanford Sleep Inventory (presence and age of onset of each symptom), and Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) data.
Chinese narcolepsy was strongly and dose dependently associated with TCRA (rs1154155C) and P2RY11 (rs2305795A) but not CPT1B/CHKB (rs5770917C) polymorphisms. CPT1B/CHKB polymorphisms were not associated with any specific clinical characteristics. TCRA rs1154155A homozygotes (58 subjects) had a later disease onset, but this was not significant when corrected for multiple comparisons, thus replication is needed. CPT1B/CHKB or P2RY11 polymorphisms were not associated with any specific clinical characteristics.
The study extends on the observation of a strong multiethnic association of polymorphisms in the TCRA and P2RY11 with narcolepsy, but does not confirm the association of CPT1B/CHKB (rs5770917) in the Chinese population.
narcolepsy; TCR alpha; P2RY11; CPT1B/CHKB; hypocretin; orexin; MSLT; HLADQB1*0602
Antibiotics administered in low doses have been widely used as growth promoters in the agricultural industry since the 1950s, yet the mechanisms for this effect are unclear. Because antimicrobial agents of different classes and varying activity are effective across several vertebrate species, we hypothesized that such subtherapeutic administration alters the population structure of the gut microbiome as well as its metabolic capabilities. We generated a model of adiposity by giving subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy to young mice and evaluated changes in the composition and capabilities of the gut microbiome. Administration of subtherapeutic antibiotic therapy increased adiposity in young mice and increased hormones related to metabolism. We observed substantial taxonomic changes in the microbiome, changes in copies of key genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates to short-chain fatty acids, increases in colonic short-chain fatty acid levels, and alterations in the regulation of hepatic metabolism of lipids and cholesterol. In this model, we demonstrate the alteration of early-life murine metabolic homeostasis through antibiotic manipulation.
The structure activity relationship (SAR) of 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine derivatives related to ZM241385 as antagonists of the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) was explored through the synthesis of analogues substituted at the 5 position. The A2A AR X-ray structure was used to propose a structural basis for the activity and selectivity of the analogues and to direct the synthetic design strategy to provide access to solvent-exposed regions. Thus, we have identified a point of substitution for the attachment of solubilizing groups to enhance both aqueous solubility and physicochemical properties, maintaining potent interactions with the A2A AR and, in some cases, receptor subtype selectivity. Among the most potent and selective novel compounds were a long-chain ether-containing amine congener 20 (Ki 11.5 nM) and its urethane-protected derivative 14 (Ki 17.8 nM). Compounds 20 and 31 (Ki 11.5 and 16.9 nM, respectively) were readily water soluble up to 10 mM. The analogues were docked in the crystallographic structure of the hA2A AR and in a homology model of the hA3 AR, and the per residue electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions to the binding were assessed and stabilizing factors were proposed.
G protein-coupled receptor; purines; molecular modeling; structure activity relationship; radioligand binding; adenylyl cyclase
On the basis of potent and selective binding affinity of truncated 4′-thioadenosine derivatives at the human A3 adenosine receptor (AR), their bioisosteric 4′-oxo derivatives were designed and synthesized from commercially available 2,3-O-isopropylidene-d-erythrono lactone. The derivatives tested in AR binding assays were substituted at the C2 and N6 positions. All synthesized nucleosides exhibited potent and selective binding affinity at the human A3 AR. They were less potent than the corresponding 4′-thio analogues, but showed higher selectivity to other subtypes. The 2-Cl series generally were better than the 2-H series in view of binding affinity and selectivity. Among compounds tested, compound 5d (X = Cl, R = 3-bromobenzyl) showed the highest binding affinity (Ki = 13.0±6.9 nM) at the hA3 AR with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold) in comparison to other AR subtypes. Like the corresponding truncated 4′-thio series, compound 5d antagonized the action of an agonist to inhibit forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in hA3 AR-expressing CHO cells. Although the 4′-oxo series were less potent than the 4′-thio series, this class of human A3 AR antagonists is also regarded as another good template for the design of A3 AR antagonists and for further drug development.
A3 Adenosine Receptor; Antagonists; Truncated Adenosine; Structure-Activity Relationships
Adenosine derivatives were modified with alkynyl groups on N6 substituents for linkage to carriers using Cu(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. Two parallel series, both containing a rigid North-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) ring system in place of ribose, behaved as A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists: (5′-methyluronamides) or partial agonists (4′-truncated). Terminal alkynyl groups on a chain at the 3 position of a N6-benzyl group or simply through a N6–propargyl group were coupled to azido derivatives, which included both small molecules and G4 (fourth-generation) multivalent poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers, to form 1,2,3-triazolyl linkers. The small molecular triazoles probed the tolerance in A3AR binding of distal, sterically bulky groups such as 1-adamantyl. Terminal 4-fluoro-3-nitrophenyl groups anticipated nucleophilic substitution for chain extension and 18F radiolabeling. N6-(4-Fluoro-3-nitrophenyl)-triazolylmethyl derivative 32 displayed a Ki of 9.1 nM at A3AR with ~1000-fold subtype selectivity. Multivalent conjugates additionally containing click-linked water-solubilizing polyethylene glycol groups potently activated A3AR in the 5′-methyluronamide, but not 4′ truncated series. N6-Benzyl nucleoside conjugate 43 (apparent Ki 24 nM) maintained binding affinity of the monomer better than a N6-triazolylmethyl derivative. Thus, the N6 region of 5′-methyluronamide derivatives, as modeled in receptor docking, is suitable for functionalization and tethering by click chemistry to achieve high A3AR agonist affinity and enhanced selectivity.
G protein-coupled receptor; PAMAM dendrimer; purines; structure activity relationship; molecular modeling; adenylate cyclase
Diabetes increases oxidant stress and doubles the risk of dying after myocardial
infarction, but the mechanisms underlying increased mortality are unknown. Mice with
streptozotocin-induced diabetes developed profound heart rate slowing and doubled
mortality compared with controls after myocardial infarction. Oxidized
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (ox-CaMKII) was
significantly increased in pacemaker tissues from diabetic patients compared with
that in nondiabetic patients after myocardial infarction. Streptozotocin-treated mice
had increased pacemaker cell ox-CaMKII and apoptosis, which were further enhanced by
myocardial infarction. We developed a knockin mouse model of oxidation-resistant
CaMKIIδ (MM-VV), the isoform associated with cardiovascular disease.
Streptozotocin-treated MM-VV mice and WT mice infused with MitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial
targeted antioxidant, expressed significantly less ox-CaMKII, exhibited increased
pacemaker cell survival, maintained normal heart rates, and were resistant to
diabetes-attributable mortality after myocardial infarction. Our findings suggest
that activation of a mitochondrial/ox-CaMKII pathway contributes to increased sudden
death in diabetic patients after myocardial infarction.
Mast cell degranulation affects many conditions, e.g., asthma and urticaria. We explored the potential role of the P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14R) and other P2Y subtypes in degranulation of human LAD2 mast cells. All eight P2YRs were expressed at variable levels in LAD2 cells (quantitative real-time RT-PCR). Gene expression levels of ADP receptors, P2Y1R, P2Y12R, and P2Y13R, were similar, and P2Y11R and P2Y4R were highly expressed at 5.8- and 3.8-fold of P2Y1R, respectively. Least expressed P2Y2R was 40-fold lower than P2Y1R, and P2Y6R and P2Y14R were ≤50 % of P2Y1R. None of the native P2YR agonists alone induced β-hexosaminidase (β-Hex) release, but some nucleotides significantly enhanced β-Hex release induced by C3a or antigen, with a rank efficacy order of ATP > UDPG ≥ ADP >> UDP, UTP. Although P2Y11R and P2Y4R are highly expressed, they did not seem to play a major role in degranulation as neither P2Y4R agonist UTP nor P2Y11R agonists ATPγS and NF546 had a substantial effect. P2Y1R-selective agonist MRS2365 enhanced degranulation, but ~1,000-fold weaker compared to its P2Y1R potency, and the effect of P2Y6R agonist 3-phenacyl-UDP was negligible. The enhancement by ADP and ATP appears mediated via multiple receptors. Both UDPG and a synthetic agonist of the P2Y14R, MRS2690, enhanced C3a-induced β-Hex release, which was inhibited by a P2Y14R antagonist, specific P2Y14R siRNA and pertussis toxin, suggesting a role of P2Y14R activation in promoting human mast cell degranulation.
P2Y; Mast cells; Uracil nucleotide; Degranulation; GPCR; G protein-coupled receptors
Molecular modeling of agonist binding to the human A2A adenosine receptor (AR) was assessed and extended in light of crystallographic structures. Heterocyclic adenine nitrogens of co-crystallized agonist overlayed corresponding positions of the heterocyclic base of a bound triazolotriazine antagonist, and ribose moiety was coordinated in a hydrophilic region, as previously predicted based on modeling using the inactive receptor. Automatic agonist docking of 20 known potent nucleoside agonists to agonist-bound A2AAR crystallographic structures predicted new stabilizing protein interactions, to provide a structural basis for previous empirical structure activity relationships consistent with previous mutagenesis results. We predicted binding of novel C2 terminal amino acid conjugates of A2AAR agonist CGS21680 and used these models to interpret effects on binding affinity of newly-synthesized agonists. D-Amino acid conjugates were generally more potent than L- stereoisomers, and free terminal carboxylates more potent than corresponding methyl esters. Amino acid moieties were coordinated close to extracellular loops 2 and 3. Thus, molecular modeling is useful in probing ligand recognition and rational design of GPCR–targeting compounds with specific pharmacological profiles.
G protein-coupled receptor; nucleosides; purines; radioligand binding; docking; X-ray crystallography
Truncated N6-substituted-4′-oxo- and 4′-thioadenosine derivatives with C2 or C8 substitution were studied as dual acting A2A and A3 adenosine receptor (AR) ligands. The lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer and palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions were utilized for functionalization of the C2 position of 6-chloropurine nucleosides. An unsubstituted 6-amino group and a hydrophobic C2 substituent were required for high affinity at the hA2AAR, but hydrophobic C8 substitution abolished binding at the hA2AAR. However, most of synthesized compounds displayed medium to high binding affinity at the hA3AR, regardless of C2 or C8 substitution, and low efficacy in a functional cAMP assay. Several compounds tended to be full hA2AAR agonists. C2 substitution probed geometrically through hA2AAR-docking, was important for binding in order of hexynyl > hexenyl > hexanyl. Compound 4g was the most potent ligand acting dually as hA2AAR agonist and hA3AR antagonist, which might be useful for treatment of asthma or other inflammatory diseases.
lithiation-mediated stannyl transfer; structure-activity relationship; adenosine receptors; truncated adenosine; palladium-catalyzed cross coupling; dual-acting ligands
Adenosine receptors (ARs), the major targets of caffeine and theophylline, comprise four receptor subtypes designated as A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Over a dozen AR agonists are currently in clinical trials for various conditions, including cardiac arrhythmias, neuropathic pain, myocardial perfusion imaging, cardiac ischemia, inflammatory diseases and cancer. Adenosine (non-selective), regadenoson (A2A) and dipyridamole (act indirectly via ARs) have received regulatory approval for clinical use. The present editorial will give a brief update on the current status of AR agonists in clinical trials.
adenosine receptor; agonist; cardiac arrhythmia; cardiac perfusion imaging; cancer; G protein-coupled receptor; inflammation; nucleoside; pain; rheumatoid arthritis
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are attractive targets for pharmaceutical research. With the recent determination of several GPCR X-ray structures, the applicability of structure-based computational methods for ligand identification, such as docking, has increased. Yet, as only about 1% of GPCRs have a known structure, receptor homology modeling remains necessary. In order to investigate the usability of homology models and the inherent selectivity of a particular model in relation to close homologs, we constructed multiple homology models for the A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) and docked ∼2.2 M lead-like compounds. High-ranking molecules were tested on the A1AR as well as the close homologs A2AAR and A3AR. While the screen yielded numerous potent and novel ligands (hit rate 21% and highest affinity of 400 nM), it delivered few selective compounds. Moreover, most compounds appeared in the top ranks of only one model. These findings have implications for future screens.