Patients with pancreatic cancer have dismal prognoses, and novel therapies are urgently needed. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene occur frequently in pancreatic cancer and represent an attractive target. Direct targeting of the predominant KRAS pathways have been challenging and research into therapeutic strategies have been now refocused on pathways downstream of KRAS, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK [MEK]). We hypothesized that concurrent inhibition of the PI3K and MEK pathways would result in synergistic antitumor activity, as it would circumvent the compensatory feedback loop between the two pathways. We investigated the combined effect of the PI3K inhibitor, GDC0941, and the MEK inhibitor, AZD6244, on cell viability, apoptosis and cell signaling in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines. An in vivo analysis was conducted on pancreatic cancer xenografts. While BxPC-3 (KRAS wild type) and MIA PaCa-2 (KRAS mutated) cell lines were sensitive to GDC0941 and AZD6244 as single agents, synergistic inhibition of tumor cell growth and induction of apoptosis were observed in both cell lines when the two drugs were combined. Interestingly, phosphorylation of the cap-dependent translational components, 4E-binding protein (p-4E-BP1) and S6 was found to be closely associated with sensitivity to GDC0941 and AZD6244. In BxPC-3 cell xenografts, survival differences were observed between the control and the AZD6244, GDC0941, and combination groups. Our study provides the rationale for concurrent targeting of the PI3K and MEK pathways, regardless of KRAS status, and suggests that phosphorylation of 4E-BP1and S6 can serve as a predictive biomarker for response to treatment.
Nanoarchitectured electroactive materials can boost rates of Li insertion/extraction, showing genuine potential to increase power output of Li-ion batteries. However, electrodes assembled with low-dimensional nanostructured transition metal oxides by conventional approach suffer from dramatic reductions in energy capacities owing to sluggish ion and electron transport kinetics. Here we report that flexible bulk electrodes, made of three-dimensional bicontinuous nanoporous Cu/MnO2 hybrid and seamlessly integrated with Cu solid current collector, substantially optimizes Li storage behavior of the constituent MnO2. As a result of the unique integration of solid/nanoporous hybrid architecture that simultaneously enhances the electron transport of MnO2, facilitates fast ion diffusion and accommodates large volume changes on Li insertion/extraction of MnO2, the supported MnO2 exhibits a stable capacity of as high as ~1100 mA h g−1 for 1000 cycles, and ultrahigh charge/discharge rates. It makes the environmentally friendly and low-cost electrode as a promising anode for high-performance Li-ion battery applications.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine development requires selection of appropriate envelope (Env) immunogens. Twenty HIV-1 Env glycoproteins were examined for their ability to bind human anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and then used as immunogens in guinea pigs to identify promising immunogens. These included five Envs derived from chronically infected individuals, each representing one of five common clades and eight consensus Envs based on these five clades, as well as the consensus of the entire HIV-1 M group, and seven transmitted/founder (T/F) Envs from clades B and C. Sera from immunized guinea pigs were tested for neutralizing activity using 36 HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses. All Envs bound to CD4 binding site, membrane-proximal, and V1/V2 MAbs with similar apparent affinities, although the T/F Envs bound with higher affinity to the MAb 17b, a CCR5 coreceptor binding site antibody. However, the various Envs differed in their ability to induce neutralizing antibodies. Consensus Envs elicited the most potent responses, but neutralized only a subset of viruses, including mostly easy-to-neutralize tier 1 and some more-difficult-to-neutralize tier 2 viruses. T/F Envs elicited fewer potent neutralizing antibodies but exhibited greater breadth than chronic or consensus Envs. Finally, chronic Envs elicited the lowest level and most limited breadth of neutralizing antibodies overall. Thus, each group of Env immunogens elicited a different antibody response profile. The complementary benefits of consensus and T/F Env immunogens raise the possibility that vaccines utilizing a combination of consensus and T/F Envs may be able to induce neutralizing responses with greater breadth and potency than single Env immunogens.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity and carbonyl formation. Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival following LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice following LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O2−, and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury following LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant NAC and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy.
lipopolysaccharide; cardiac; contractile function; oxidative stress; autophagy
We examined the Safety-Net referral process for breast diseases to identify factors contributing to delays within it. Each record was mapped to a time line beginning with first abnormality and concluding with definitive diagnosis/treatment. The median interval between first sign and definitive diagnosis/treatment was 93 days. Need for repeat imaging and missed visits prolonged the interval. System- and patient-specific factors were associated with delayed diagnosis/treatment in breast patients referred through the Safety-Net specialty clinic.
microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Increasing evidence has shown that the deregulation of miRNAs is linked to cancer. The overexpression of miR-224 has been reported in several human cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of miR-224 in the pathogenetic process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the precise mechanism underlying its function. Both gain-of-function and loss-of function assays were conducted through transfection with miR-224 mimics and miR-224 inhibitors in the HepG2 liver carcinoma cell line. The data revealed that miR-224 exerts a significant role in promoting cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Western blot analysis showed that the phosphorylation levels of AKT positively correlated with endogenous levels of miR-224. In addition, results from a dual luciferase reporter assay showed that the expression of the serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A 65 kDa regulatory subunit A β isoform (PPP2R1B) is inhibited by miR-224; thus, it appears that PPP2R1B is a candidate target of miR-224 in HCC. These data suggest that miR-224 plays a significant role in HCC, possibly through the activation of the AKT signaling pathway by targeting PPP2R1B.
miR-224; hepatocellular carcinoma; PPP2R1B; AKT signaling
This first study in humans was designed to evaluate the safety and dosimetry of a cellular proliferative marker, N-(4-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)butyl)-2-(2-18F-fluoroethoxy)-5-methylbenzamide (18F-ISO-1), and evaluate the feasibility of imaging tumor proliferation by PET in patients with newly diagnosed malignant neoplasms.
Patients with biopsy-proven lymphoma, breast cancer, or head and neck cancer underwent 18F-ISO-1 PET. Tumor 18F-ISO-1 uptake was assessed semiquantitatively by maximum standardized uptake value, ratios of tumor to normal tissue and tumor to muscle, and relative distribution volume ratio. The PET results were correlated with tumor Ki-67 and mitotic index, from in vitro assays of the tumor tissue. The biodistribution of 18F-ISO-1 and human dosimetry were evaluated.
Thirty patients with primary breast cancer (n = 13), head and neck cancer (n = 10), and lymphoma (n = 7) were evaluated. In the entire group, tumor maximum standardized uptake value and tumor-to-muscle ratio correlated significantly with Ki-67 (τ = 0.27, P = 0.04, and τ = 0.38, P = 0.003, respectively), but no significant correlation was observed between Ki-67 and tumor–to–normal-tissue ratio (τ = 0.07, P = 0.56) or distribution volume ratio (τ = 0.26, P = 0.14). On the basis of whole-body PET data, the gallbladder is the dose-limiting organ, with an average radiation dose of 0.091 mGy/MBq. The whole-body and effective doses were 0.012 mGy/MBq and 0.016 mSv/MBq, respectively. No adverse effects of 18F-ISO-1 were encountered.
The presence of a significant correlation between 18F-ISO-1 and Ki-67 makes this agent promising for evaluation of the proliferative status of solid tumors. The relatively small absorbed doses to normal organs allow for the safe administration of up to 550 MBq, which is sufficient for PET imaging in clinical trials.
PET; cell proliferation; 18F-ISO-1; cancer
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Although its pathogenesis is still unclear, increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by environmental toxins, such as mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, plays a significant role in the disease process. The microglia in PD brains are highly activated, and inflammation is also an essential element in PD pathogenesis. However, the means by which these toxins activate microglia is still unclear. In the present study, we found that rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, could directly activate microglia via the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, thereby inducing significantly increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. We further observed that rotenone induced caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1β release, both of which are strictly dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The activation of p38 is associated with the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by rotenone. Removal of these ROS abrogated the activation of the microglia. Therefore, our data suggest that the environmental toxin rotenone can directly activate microglia through the p38 MAPK pathway.
Evidence suggests Ginsenoside Rd (GSRd), a biologically active extract from the medical plant Panax Ginseng, exerts antioxidant effect, decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Current study determined the effect of GSRd on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury (a pathological condition where ROS production is significantly increased) and investigated the underlying mechanisms. The current study utilized an in vivo rat model of MI/R injury and an in vitro neonatal rat cardiomyocyte (NRC) model of simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R) injury. Infarct size was measured by Evans blue/TTC double staining. NRC injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. ROS accumulation and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was determined by 5, 5′, 6, 6′-tetrachloro-1, 1′, 3, 3′-tetrathylbenzimidazol carbocyanine iodide (JC-1). Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and expression of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bcl-2 family proteins, and phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β were determined by western blot. Pretreatment with GSRd (50 mg/kg) significantly augmented rat cardiac function, as evidenced by increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and ±dP/dt. GSRd reduced myocardial infarct size, apoptotic cell death, and blood creatine kinase/lactate dehydrogenase levels after MI/R. In NRCs, GSRd (10 µM) inhibited SI/R-induced ROS generation (P<0.01), decreased cellular apoptosis, stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and attenuated cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c. GSRd inhibited activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, increased the phosphorylated Akt and GSK-3β, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Together, these data demonstrate GSRd mediated cardioprotective effect against MI/R–induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of organ ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI), the underlying mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. In particular, as tissue pro-inflammatory immune response is the key mediator of local IRI, how ER stress impacts liver immune cell activation cascade remains to be determined.
In vitro, ER stress in macrophages and hepatocytes were induced by pharmacological agents. Macrophage TLR4 and hepatocyte TNF-α responses were studied. In vivo, the induction of ER stress by IR and the impact of ER stress amelioration by a small molecule chaperon 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) on liver immune response were studied in a murine partial liver warm ischemia model.
ER stressed macrophages generated a significantly enhanced pro-inflammatory immune response against TLR4 stimulation; while ER stressed hepatocyte became more susceptible to TNF-α induced cell death. IR resulted in upregulations of sXBP-1 and ATF6 levels in affected livers. Mice pre-treated with PBA were protected from liver IRI, in parallel with diminished local pro-inflammatory gene induction program.
Our study documents a potential immune regulatory role of ER stress in the mechanism of liver IRI, and provides a rationale for targeting stress response as a new therapeutic means to ameliorate tissue inflammation in organ transplant recipients.
ER stress; Liver ischemia; TLR4; Inflammation
AIM: To evaluate 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy compared with computed tomography (CT) for detecting secondary infections associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in swine.
METHODS: Six healthy swine were assigned to a normal control group (group A, n = 6). SAP was induced in group B (n = 9) and C (n = 18), followed by inoculation of the resulting pancreatic necroses with inactive Escherichia coli (E. coli) (group B) and active E. coli (group C), respectively. At 7 d after inoculation, a CT scan and a series of analyses using infecton imaging (at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h after the administration of 370 MBq of intravenous infecton) were performed. The scintigrams were visually evaluated and semi-quantitatively analyzed using region of interest assignments. The differences in infecton uptake and changes in the lesion-background radioactive count ratios (L/B) in the 3 groups were recorded and compared. After imaging detection, histopathology and bacterial examinations were performed, and infected SAP was regarded as positive. The imaging findings were compared with histopathological and bacteriological results.
RESULTS: In group A, 6 animals survived without infection in the pancreas. In group B, 7/9 swine survived and one suffered from infection. In group C, 15/18 animals survived with infection. Hence, the number of normal, non-infected and infected SAP swine was 6, 6 and 16, respectively. The sensitivity, speciﬁcity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the infecton method were 93.8% (15/16), 91.7% (11/12), 92.9% (26/28), 93.8% (15/16) and 91.7% (11/12), whereas these values for CT were 12.5% (2/16), 100.0% (12/12), 50.0% (14/28), 100.0% (2/2) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. The changes in L/B for the infected SAP were significantly different from those of the non-infected and normal swine (P < 0.001). The mean L/B of the infectious foci at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h was 1.17 ± 0.10, 1.71 ± 0.30, 2.46 ± 0.45, 3.36 ± 0.33, 2.04 ± 0.37 and 1.1988 ± 0.09, respectively. At 3 h, the radioactive counts (2350.25 ± 602.35 k) and the mean L/B of the infectious foci were significantly higher than that at 0.5 h (P = 0.000), 1 h (P = 0.000), 2 h (P = 0.04), 4 h (P = 0.000) and 6 h (P = 0.000).
CONCLUSION: 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy may be an effective procedure for detecting SAP secondary infections with higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT.
Pancreatitis; Infection; Radionuclide imaging; Ciprofloxacin; X-ray computed tomography
Intrapartum administration of single-dose nevirapine (sdNVP) reduces perinatal HIV-1 transmission in resource-limiting settings by half. Yet this strategy has limited effect on subsequent breast milk transmission, making the case for new treatment approaches to extend maternal/infant antiretroviral prophylaxis through the period of lactation. Maternal and transmitted infant HIV-1 variants frequently develop NVP resistance mutations following sdNVP, complicating subsequent treatment/prophylaxis regimens. However, it is not clear whether NVP-resistant viruses are transmitted via breastfeeding or arise de novo in the infant.
We performed a detailed HIV genetic analysis using single genome sequencing to identify the origin of drug-resistant variants in an sdNVP-treated postnatally-transmitting mother-infant pair. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV sequences from the child revealed low-diversity variants indicating infection by a subtype C single transmitted/founder virus that shared full-length sequence identity with a clonally-amplified maternal breast milk virus variant harboring the K103N NVP resistance mutation.
In this mother/child pair, clonal amplification of maternal NVP-resistant HIV variants present in systemic and mammary gland compartments following intrapartum sdNVP represents one source of transmitted NVP-resistant variants that is responsible for the acquisition of drug resistant virus by the breastfeeding infant. This finding emphasizes the need for combination antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission.
Mother-to-child transmission; Breast milk; HIV-transmission; Nevirapine; Drug-resistant variant; K103N; Transmitted virus; Clonal amplification; Antiretroviral prophylaxis
Human enterovirus type 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A group type 16 (CA16) belong to human Enterovirus species A of the family Picornaviridae. These viruses are recognized as the major pathogens responsible for epidemics of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), which presents with fever and vesicular eruptions of palms, soles of the feet or mouth. Human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been identified as the receptor for both EV71 and CA16, as overexpression of SCARB2 in cells can enhance virus replication significantly.
In this study, we used a lentivirus packaging vector to transduce the SCARB2 gene into human embryonic kidney cells (293), human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD) and African green monkey kidney cells (Vero) to create stable expression lines. Expression of SCARB2 in the resulting three transgenic cell lines was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry.
Levels of SCARB2 mRNA determined by real-time RT-PCR in 293-SCARB2 (293S) or RD-SCARB2 (RDS) transgenic cell lines were approximately 2 × 102 times higher than those in 293 and RD cells, respectively, and three times higher in Vero-SCARB2 (VeroS) than in Vero cells. Furthermore, EV71 and CA16 virus titers in 293S and RDS cells were 102–103-fold higher (detected in RD cell) than those in the parental cells, and a 10-fold higher titer of EV71 was achieved in VeroS cells compared with that in Vero cells.
We established for the first time three cell lines stably overexpressing SCARB2, which showed drastic increases in susceptibility to EV71/CA16 infection. These optimal cell lines may be utilized to develop inactivated vaccines for EV71/CA16 and facilitate rapid detection and isolation of HFMD pathogens or other Enterovirus serotypes. Furthermore, these stable cell lines also can serve as tools to facilitate drug screenings as well as molecular studies on virus-host interactions and pathogenesis of causative agents for HFMD.
SCARB2; EV71/CA16; 293 cells; RD cells; Vero cells
Crystals of swine CD8α diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.97, b = 80.97, c = 95.19 Å; they contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 3.23 Å3 Da−1 and 61.89%, respectively.
CD8αα homodimers or CD8αβ heterodimers form on the T-cell surface, where they are essential as co-receptors for MHC class I molecules in activation of the CTL response. To date, swine have been found to show the highest percentage of lymphocytes with surface expression of CD8α. Crystallographic analysis of swine CD8α (sCD8α) to 1.8 Å resolution revealed that the crystals belonged to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.97, b = 80.97, c = 95.19 Å. The Matthews coefficient and the solvent content were calculated to be 3.23 Å3 Da−1 and 61.89%, respectively. These results may aid further structural and functional analyses of sCD8α.
To investigate the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival in Chinese patients with chronic liver disease (CLD).
HRQOL was measured with the Chinese version of Short Form 36 (SF-36). SF-36 scores, demographic and clinical data were collected at baseline and after 18 months follow-up. Kaplan-Meier and Cox Proportional Hazard Regression survival analyses were used for interpretation of data. Surviving patients were censored in the analyses.
A total of 415 Chinese patients with CLD and 86 healthy controls were enrolled. During the follow-up period 50 patients died. SF-36 scores in healthy controls and surviving patients were higher compared with those in deceased patients. Scores of physical component summary (PCS) in healthy controls, surviving and deceased patients were 54.1 ± 5.2, 48.9 ± 7.7 and 33.5 ± 8.2 respectively (p < 0.001). Scores of mental component summary (MCS) in healthy controls, surviving and deceased patients were 56.6 ± 8.2, 53.0 ± 5.6 and 37.1 ± 12.1 (p < 0.001) respectively. Survival was significantly associated with PCS and MCS scores, and the presence of ascites.
HRQOL was associated with survival in patients with CLD. PCS and MCS scores were predictors of survival.
Health-related quality of life; Chronic liver disease; SF-36; Survival
The role of preexisting minority drug-resistance mutations in treatment failure has not been fully understood in chronic hepatitis B patients. To understand mechanisms of drug resistance, we analyzed drug-resistance mutations in 46 treatment-failure patients and in 29 treatment-naïve patients and determined linkage patterns of the drug-resistance mutations in individual viral genomes using a highly sensitive parallel allele-specific sequencing (PASS) method. Lamivudine resistance (LAMr) mutations were predominant in treatment-failure patients, irrespective of the inclusion of LAM in the regimen. The primary LAMr mutations M204V and M204I were detected in 100% and 30% of the treatment-failure patients, respectively. Two secondary LAMr mutations (L180M and V173L) were also found in most treatment-failure patients (87% and 78%, respectively). The linkages containing these three mutations dominated the resistant viruses. Importantly, minority LAMr mutations present in <2% of the viral population were detected in 83% of the treatment-naïve patients. Moreover, the low-frequency same linked LAMr mutations (<0.15%) were detected in 24% of the treatment-naïve patients. Our results demonstrate that the selection of preexisting minority linked LAMr mutations may be an important mechanism for the rapid development of LAM resistance, caution the continuous use of LAM to treat drug-experienced and -naïve hepatitis B patients, and underline the importance of the detection of minority single and linked drug-resistance mutations before initiating antiviral therapy.
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a potent form of endogenous protection. However, IPC-induced cardioprotective effect is significantly blunted in insulin resistance-related diseases and the underlying mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to determine the role of glucose metabolism in IPC-reduced reperfusion injury.
Normal or streptozotocin (STZ)-treated diabetic rats subjected to 2 cycles of 5 min ischemia/5 min reperfusion prior to myocardial ischemia (30 min)/reperfusion (3 h). Myocardial glucose uptake was determined by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) scan and gamma-counter biodistribution assay.
IPC exerted significant cardioprotection and markedly improved myocardial glucose uptake 1 h after reperfusion (P<0.01) as evidenced by PET images and gamma-counter biodistribution assay in ischemia/reperfused rats. Meanwhile, myocardial translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to plasma membrane together with myocardial Akt and AMPK phosphorylation were significantly enhanced in preconditioned hearts. Intramyocardial injection of GLUT4 siRNA markedly decreased GLUT4 expression and blocked the cardioprotection of IPC as evidence by increased myocardial infarct size. Moreover, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin significantly inhibited activation of Akt and AMPK, reduced GLUT4 translocation, glucose uptake and ultimately, depressed IPC-induced cardioprotection. Furthermore, IPC-afforded antiapoptotic effect was markedly blunted in STZ-treated diabetic rats. Exogenous insulin supplementation significantly improved glucose uptake via co-activation of myocardial AMPK and Akt and alleviated ischemia/reperfusion injury as evidenced by reduced myocardial apoptosis and infarction size in STZ-treated rats (P<0.05).
The present study firstly examined the role of myocardial glucose metabolism during reperfusion in IPC using direct genetic modulation in vivo. Augmented glucose uptake via co-activation of myocardial AMPK and Akt in reperfused myocardium is essential to IPC-alleviated reperfusion injury. This intrinsic metabolic modulation and cardioprotective capacity are present in STZ-treated hearts and can be triggered by insulin.
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a multifunctional Ig-like cell adhesion molecule that has a wide range of biological functions. According to previous reports, serum CEACAM1 is dysregulated in different malignant tumours and associated with tumour progression. However, the serum CEACAM1 expression in non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) is unclear. The different expression ratio of CEACAM1-S and CEACAM1-L isoform has seldom been investigated in NSCLC. This research is intended to study the serum CEACAM1 and the ratio of CEACAM1-S/L isoforms in NSCLC.
The expression of the serum CEACAM1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression and the location of CEACAM1 in tumours were observed by immunohistochemical staining. The CEACAM1 mRNA levels in tumour and normal adjacent tissues were measured using quantitative real-time PCR, and the expression patterns and the rate of CEACAM1-S and CEACAM1-L were analysed by reverse transcription-PCR.
Serum CEACAM1 levels were significantly higher in NSCLC patients compared with that from normal healthy controls (P <0.0001). 17 patients (81%) among 21 showed high expression of CEACAM1 by immunohistochemical staining. Although no significant differences were found between tumour and normal tissues on mRNA expression levels of CEACAM1 (P >0.05), the CEACAM1-S and the CEACAM1-S/L (S: L) ratios were significantly higher in tumour than normal tissues (P <0.05).
Our data indicated that the serum levels of CEACAM1 could discriminate lung cancer patients from health donors and that CEACAM1 might be a useful marker in early diagnosis of NSCLC. Moreover, our results showed that the expression patterns of CEACAM1 isoforms could be changed during oncogenesis, even when total CEACAM1 in tumour tissues did not show significant changes. Our study suggested that the expression ratios of CEACAM1-S/CEACAM1-L might be a better diagnostic indicator in NSCLC than the quantitative changes of CEACAM1.
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1; Non-small-cell lung carcinomas; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Receiver operating characteristic curve
Conventional crystalline β-MnO2 usually exhibits poor electrochemical activities due to the narrow tunnels in its rutile-type structure. In this study, we synthesized a novel 2D β-MnO2 network with long-range order assembled by β-MnO2 nanowires and demonstrated that the novel 2D β-MnO2 network exhibits enhanced electrochemical performances. The 2D network is interwoven by crossed uniform β-MnO2 nanowires and the angle between the adjacent nanowires is about 60°. Such a novel structure makes efficient contact of β-MnO2 with electrolyte during the electrochemical process, decreases the polarization of the electrode and thus increases the discharge capacity and high-rate capability. The specific capacitance of the obtained 2D β-MnO2 network is 453.0 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g.
It has been predicted that nonameric peptides I (VP126–34, RRQHTDVSF), II (VP1157–165, RTLPTSFNY) and III (VP145–53, KEQVNVLDL) from the VP1 capsid protein of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) are T cell epitopes. To investigate whether these peptides have immunological activity, BALB/c mice were immunized with peptide I, II or III conjugated with immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs). A cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity induced by peptides along with by measuring peptide-specific T-cell proliferation and CD8+ T lymphocyte numbers in whole blood and interferon (IFN)-γ production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by peptides. To further identify the protective efficacy of peptides, an FMDV challenge assay was done in guinea pigs. Peptides I and II stimulated significant increases in T-cell proliferation, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and IFN-γ secretion and cytotoxic activity compared to controls. The FMDV challenge assay indicated peptides I and II can protect over 60% of animals from virus attack. The results demonstrate that peptides I and II encapsulated in liposomes should be CTL epitopes of FMDV and can protect animals from virus attack to some extent.
To analyze the longitudinal length accuracy of gross tumor volume (GTV) delineation with diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
Forty-two patients from December 2011 to June 2012 with esophageal SCC who underwent radical surgery were analyzed. Routine computed tomography (CT) scan, T2-weighted MRI and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) were employed before surgery. Diffusion-sensitive gradient b-values were taken at 400, 600, and 800 s/mm2. Gross tumor volumes (GTV) were delineated using CT, T2-weighted MRI and DWI on different b-value images. GTV longitude length measured using the imaging modalities listed above was compared with pathologic lesion length to determine the most accurate imaging modality. CMS Xio radiotherapy planning system was used to fuse DWI scans and CT images to investigate the possibility of delineating GTV on fused images.
The differences between the GTV length according to CT, T2-weighted MRI and pathology were 3.63 ± 12.06 mm and 3.46 ± 11.41 mm, respectively. When the diffusion-sensitive gradient b-value was 400, 600, and 800 s/mm2, the differences between the GTV length using DWI and pathology were 0.73 ± 6.09 mm, -0.54 ± 6.03 mm and −1.58 ± 5.71 mm, respectively. DWI scans and CT images were fused accurately using the radiotherapy planning system. GTV margins were depicted clearly on fused images.
DWI displays esophageal SCC lengths most precisely when compared with CT or regular MRI. DWI scans fused with CT images can be used to improve accuracy to delineate GTV in esophageal SCC.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Diffusion weighted imaging; Gross tumor volume
Functional topography of rat class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule was studied. The α1-helical sequences that are shared by class I RT1.Al and RT1.Au were substituted in the RT1.Aa molecule to produce the composite [α1hl/u]-RT1.Aa MHC class I allochimeric molecule. Dominant immunogenic epitopes that induce accelerated rejection were identified within the hypervariable regions of the α1 domain of RT1.Aa, RT1.Al, and RT1.Au. Peri-transplant portal venous delivery of MHC class I allochimeric proteins, that included composite α1 helical immunodominant epitopes of RT1.Au and RT1.Al, induced donor-specific tolerance to RT1u (Wistar Furth, WF) and RT1l Lewis, LEW) disparate cardiac allografts in ACI (RT1a) hosts. Allochimeric generated tolerance was characterized by absence of T cell deletion or anergy. Donor specific IgM allo-Abs was not detected, while IgG alloresponse was markedly attenuated in sera of tolerant hosts. Further, long-term allografts in allochimeric-conditioned hosts exhibited moderate B cell infiltration when compared to rejecting controls. Analysis of intragraft cytokines revealed selective upregulation of IL-10 and marked inhibition of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. Our findings indicate the emergence of a peripherally induced tolerant state, afforded by the novel approach of soluble class I allochimeric conditioning that presents donor immunogenic epitopes in the context of recipient class I determinants.
MHC class I; allochimeric protein; allo-antibody; cardiac allograft; tolerance; humoral immunity
Our goal is to develop countermeasures for pulmonary injury following unpredictable events such as radiological terrorism or nuclear accidents. We have previously demonstrated that captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is more effective than losartan, an angiotensin type-1 receptor blocker, in mitigating radiation-pneumopathy in a relevant rodent model. In the current study we determined the dose modifying factors (DMFs) of captopril for mitigation of parameters of radiation pneumonitis. We used a whole animal model, irradiating 9–10-week-old female rats derived from a Wistar strain (WAG/RijCmcr) with a single dose of irradiation to the thorax of 11, 12, 13, 14 or 15 Gy. Our study develops methodology to measure DMFs for morbidity (survival) as well as physiological endpoints such as lung function, taking into account attrition due to lethal radiation-induced pneumonitis. Captopril delivered in drinking water (140–180 mg/m2/day, comparable with that given clinically) and started one week after irradiation has a DMF of 1.07–1.17 for morbidity up to 80 days (survival) and 1.21–1.35 for tachypnea at 42 days (at the peak of pneumonitis) after a single dose of ionizing radiation (X-rays). These encouraging results advance our goals, since DMF measurements are essential for drug labeling and comparison with other mitigators.
radiation-pneumopathy; DMF; DRF; ACE inhibitors; breathing rate
Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remains unresolved problem in clinical organ transplantation. We analyzed the role of Type-I IFN pathway in a clinically relevant murine model of extended hepatic cold preservation followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Livers from Type-I IFN receptor (IFNAR) KO or WT mice (C57/Bl6) were harvested, preserved at 4°C in UW solution for 20h, and transplanted to groups of syngeneic IFNAR KO or WT recipients. Liver graft but not recipient IFNAR deficiency was required to consistently ameliorate IRI in OLTs. Indeed, disruption of Type-I IFN signaling decreased sALT levels (P<0.001), diminished Suzuki’s score of histological OLT damage (p<0.01), and improved 14-day survival (from 42% [5/12] in WT to 92% [11/12] in IFNAR KO; P<0.05). Unlike in WT group, IFNAR deficiency attenuated OLT expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, CXCL-10, ICAM-1; diminished infiltration by macrophages/PMNs; and enhanced expression of antioxidant HO-1/Nrf2. The frequency of TUNEL+ apoptotic cells and caspase-3 activity/expression selectively decreased in IFNAR KO group. Small interfering (si)RNA-directed targeting of HO-1 restored cardinal features of liver IRI in otherwise resistant IFNAR-deficient OLTs. Thus, intact Type-I IFN signaling is required for hepatic IRI, whereas HO-1 is needed for cytoprotection against innate immunity-dominated organ preservation damage in IFNAR-deficient liver transplants.
Liver transplantation; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Type-I IFN; HO-1
AIM: To identify the radiological characteristics of focal autoimmune pancreatitis (f-AIP) useful for differentiation from pancreatic cancer (PC).
METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and triple-phase computed tomography (CT) scans of 79 patients (19 with f-AIP, 30 with PC, and 30 with a normal pancreas) were evaluated retrospectively. A radiologist measured the CT attenuation of the pancreatic parenchyma, the f-AIP and PC lesions in triple phases. The mean CT attenuation values of the f-AIP lesions were compared with those of PC, and the mean CT attenuation values of pancreatic parenchyma in the three groups were compared. The diagnostic performance of CT attenuation changes from arterial phase to hepatic phase in the differentiation between f-AIP and PC was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. We also investigated the incidence of previously reported radiological findings for differentiation between f-AIP and PC.
RESULTS: The mean CT attenuation values of f-AIP lesions in enhanced phases were significantly higher than those of PC (arterial phase: 60 ± 7 vs 48 ± 10, P < 0.05; pancreatic phase: 85 ± 6 vs 63 ± 15, P < 0.05; hepatic phase: 95 ± 7 vs 63 ± 13, P < 0.05). The mean CT attenuation values of f-AIP lesions were significantly lower those of uninvolved pancreas and normal pancreas in the arterial and pancreatic phase of CT (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), with no significant difference at the hepatic phase or unenhanced scanning (P = 0.4, P = 0.1). When the attenuation value increase was equal or more than 28 HU this was considered diagnostic for f-AIP, and a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.974 (95%CI: 0.928-1.021) were achieved. Five findings were more frequently observed in f-AIP patients: (1) sausage-shaped enlargement; (2) delayed homogeneous enhancement; (3) hypoattenuating capsule-like rim; (4) irregular narrowing of the main pancreatic duct (MPD) and/or stricture of the common bile duct (CBD); and (5) MPD upstream dilation ≤ 5 mm.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of a combination of CT and MRI findings could improve the diagnostic accuracy of differentiating f-AIP from PC.
Focal autoimmune pancreatitis; Pancreatic cancer; Computer tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging; Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography