This study aimed to compare continuous intravenous infusion combinations of propofol-remifentanil and propofol-ketamine for deep sedation for surgical extraction of all 4 third molars. In a prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled study, participants received 1 of 2 sedative combinations for deep sedation for the surgery. Both groups initially received midazolam 0.03 mg/kg for baseline sedation. The control group then received a combination of propofol-remifentanil in a ratio of 10 mg propofol to 5 μg of remifentanil per milliliter, and the experimental group received a combination of propofol-ketamine in a ratio of 10 mg of propofol to 2.5 mg of ketamine per milliliter; both were given at an initial propofol infusion rate of 100 μg/kg/min. Each group received an induction loading bolus of 500 μg/kg of the assigned propofol combination along with the appropriate continuous infusion combination . Measured outcomes included emergence and recovery times, various sedation parameters, hemodynamic and respiratory stability, patient and surgeon satisfaction, postoperative course, and associated drug costs. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in the study. Both groups demonstrated similar sedation parameters and hemodynamic and respiratory stability; however, the ketamine group had prolonged emergence (13.6 ± 6.6 versus 7.1 ± 3.7 minutes, P = .0009) and recovery (42.9 ± 18.7 versus 24.7 ± 7.6 minutes, P = .0004) times. The prolonged recovery profile of continuously infused propofol-ketamine may limit its effectiveness as an alternative to propofol-remifentanil for deep sedation for third molar extraction and perhaps other short oral surgical procedures, especially in the ambulatory dental setting.
Propofol; Ketamine; Remifentanil; Deep sedation; TIVA
In order to determine if dentist anesthesiologists (DAs) actively contribute to research in the field of anesthesiology, and thus contribute new knowledge to the field, an extensive literature search was accomplished. DAs make up only 1.5% of dentists who actively contribute to anesthesia research but account for 10% of publications. To determine if the impact of DA research was similar to the American Dental Association (ADA) recognized specialties, h-indices of noted researchers in other specialties were compared to the h-indices of noted DA researchers. The results show that the impact of top DA researchers in dental anesthesiology is similar to the impact of top dental specialty researchers, despite lack of academic departments in dental schools where a large percentage of dental research is completed. Dentist anesthesiologists actively contribute to the research in anesthesiology for dentistry and thus, actively contribute to new knowledge in the field.
H-index; Dental research; Anesthesia, dental
The present study investigated the physiologic and sedative effects between two different continuous infusion doses of dexmedetomidine (DEX). Thirteen subjects were separately sedated with DEX at a continuous infusion dose of 0.2 µg/kg/hr for 25 minutes after a loading dose of 6 µg/kg/hr for 5 minutes (0.2 group) and a continuous infusion dose of 0.4 µg/kg/hr for 25 minutes after a loading dose of 6 µg/kg/hr for 5 minutes (0.4 group). The recovery process was then observed for 60 minutes post infusion. The tidal volume, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate in both groups decreased significantly during infusion, but they were within a clinically acceptable level. A Trieger dot test plot error ratio in the 0.4 group was significantly higher than that in the 0.2 group until 15 minutes post infusion. Sedation appears to be safe at the infusion doses of DEX studied. However, increasing maintenance infusion doses of DEX from 0.2 µg/kg/hr to 0.4 µg/kg/hr delays some recovery parameters.
Dexmedetomidine; Sedation; α2 adenoceptor; Amnesia; Trieger dot test
The pharmacologic management of chronic orofacial pain involves the use of medications not used routinely in dental practice. Additionally, many drugs are used for long periods of time necessitating careful monitoring for adverse effects and potential drug interactions. This article will review commonly used medications for chronic orofacial pain and highlight important areas of concern.
Chronic pain; Orofacial pain; Pain management
This study is a randomized, prospective, double-blind study to evaluate the effects of the combination of local anesthetics and an intravenous nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) vs NSAID alone on quality of recovery following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia (GA). Twenty-seven healthy children aged 3–5.5 years underwent dental rehabilitation under GA. Fifteen children in the experimental group received oral infiltration of local anesthetic in addition to intravenous ketorolac tromethamine, while 12 children in the control group received intravenous ketorolac tromethamine alone for postoperative pain management. Pain behaviors were evaluated immediately postoperatively using a FLACC scale and 4 hours postoperatively by self-report using various scales. Parents reported perception of child pain and comfort and any occurrences of postoperative cheek biting. The use of intraoral infiltration local anesthesia for complete dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia for children aged 3–5.5 years did not result in improved pain behaviors in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), nor did it result in improved pain behaviors 4–6 hours postoperatively as measured by the FLACC scale, FACES scale, and subjective reports of parents or a PACU nurse. Those children receiving local anesthesia had a higher incidence of negative symptoms related to local anesthetic administration, including a higher incidence of lip and cheek biting, which was of clinical importance, but not statistically significant. Infiltration of local anesthetic for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia did not improve quality of recovery in children aged 3–5.5 years.
General anesthesia; Pediatric dental general anesthesia; Pain; Local anesthesia; Recovery quality
This study investigated the physiologic and sedative parameters associated with a low-dose infusion of dexmedetomidine (Dex). Thirteen healthy volunteers were sedated with Dex at a loading dose of 6 mcg/kg/h for 5 minutes and a continuous infusion dose of 0.2 mcg/kg/h for 25 minutes. The recovery process was observed for 60 minutes post infusion. The tidal volume decreased significantly despite nonsignificant changes in respiratory rate, minute ventilation, oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide. The mean arterial pressure and heart rate also decreased significantly but within clinically acceptable levels. Amnesia to pin prick was present in 69% of subjects. A Trieger dot test plot error ratio did not show a significant change at 30 minutes post infusion despite a continued significant decrease in bispectral index. We conclude that sedation with a low dose of Dex appears to be safe and potentially efficacious for young healthy patients undergoing dental procedures.
Dexmedetomidine; Sedation; α2-Agonist; Amnesia; Dental procedure
Zalpelon was compared with triazolam for oral sedation in a third molar surgery model using a double-blind crossover design. Factors such as anxiolysis, amnesia, and quality of sedation were assessed. Of the 14 participants who completed the study, zaleplon sedation was found to be similar to triazolam sedation in all regards except that recovery from zaleplon was more rapid.
Zaleplon; Triazolam; Oral sedation; Third molar surgery; Anxiolysis; Amnesia
A healthy 5-year-old boy presented for arch bar placement under general anesthesia in an operating room in a dental school. The patient had previously undergone general anesthesia without complication, and no family history of anesthetic problems were reported. Halothane mask induction, intravenous catheter placement, and nasal intubation proceeded uneventfully without the aid of a muscle relaxant. Halfway through the procedure, signs and symptoms of malignant hyperthermia, including muscle rigidity, hypercarbia, tachypnea, and tachycardia were noted. Immediate treatment, including discontinuation of the triggering agent, dantrolene administration, and cooling measures were applied, and once stable, the child was transferred to Columbus Children's Hospital for further management. The patient experienced no postoperative complications. Further discussion regarding the pathophysiology and management of malignant hyperthermia is provided.
General anesthesia; Malignant hyperthermia; Dantrolene
This single-blind controlled clinical study characterized the effects of 30-70% nitrous oxide (N2O) and 0.2-0.8% sevoflurane conscious sedation on quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) readings of 22 healthy dental students as measured by the bispectral index (BIS). The study verified the 2 previously published BIS/N2O investigations showing no correlation between N2O dosage up to 70% and BIS. Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scores (OAA/S), however, correlated well with increasing doses of N2O from approximately 35 to 70%. A near linear dose-response relationship was established between OAA/S and end tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentrations of 0.4-0.7%. Only at the highest level of end tidal sevoflurane recorded, 0.7%, was statistically significant BIS depression seen. Subjects evaluated the acceptability of the sedative effect of the 2 gases, showing a slight preference for N2O. Comparable partial anterograde amnesia and sedation (OAA/S) were produced by both agents in administered concentrations of 40-70% N2O and 0.6-0.8% sevoflurane. Female subjects exhibited better memory and significantly less amnesia than males. No statistically significant changes occurred in any of the monitored vital signs. EMG readings demonstrated a statistically significant difference from control values only at the highest, 0.7%, ET concentration of sevoflurane. BIS does not appear useful for evaluating the level of nitrous oxide sedation in the dental setting but may have some value in assessing depth of sedation at deeper levels of sevoflurane sedation.
This study attempted to determine if sevoflurane in oxygen inhaled via a nasal hood as a sole sedative agent would provide an appropriate level of deep sedation for outpatient third molar surgery. Twenty-four patients scheduled for third molar removal were randomly assigned to receive either nasal hood inhalation sevoflurane or an intravenous deep sedation using midazolam and fentanyl followed by a propofol infusion. In addition to measuring patient, surgeon, and dentist anesthesiologist subjective satisfaction with the technique, physiological parameters, amnesia, and psychomotor recovery were also assessed. No statistically significant difference was found between the sevoflurane and midazolam-fentanyl-propofol sedative groups in physiological parameters, degree of amnesia, reported quality of sedation, or patient willingness to again undergo a similar deep sedation. A trend toward earlier recovery in the sevoflurane group was identified. Sevoflurane can be successfully employed as a deep sedative rather than a general anesthetic for extraction of third molars in healthy subjects.