Human dexterity with tools is believed to stem from our ability to incorporate and use tools as parts of our body. However tool incorporation, evident as extensions in our body representation and peri-personal space, has been observed predominantly after extended tool exposures and does not explain our immediate motor behaviours when we change tools. Here we utilize two novel experiments to elucidate the presence of additional immediate tool incorporation effects that determine motor planning with tools. Interestingly, tools were observed to immediately induce a trial-by-trial, tool length dependent shortening of the perceived limb lengths, opposite to observations of elongations after extended tool use. Our results thus exhibit that tools induce a dual effect on our body representation; an immediate shortening that critically affects motor planning with a new tool, and the slow elongation, probably a consequence of skill related changes in sensory-motor mappings with the repeated use of the tool.
Previous studies have shown that repeated tool use results in extension of body representation. Ganesh et al. now show that in addition to extension of body representation, tool use is also accompanied by an immediate shortening of perceived arm length on a trial-by-trial basis.
To study the efficacy of fetal Doppler and non-stress test (NST) in predicting fetal compromise in preeclampsia and growth-restricted fetuses.
ln a prospective study, 189 pregnant women beyond 32 weeks of gestation with preeclampsia or growth-restricted fetuses confirmed by ultrasound were evaluated by Doppler velocimetry (umbilical and middle cerebral artery) and non-stress testing. The outcome of pregnancy was recorded according to Group I (n = 109, Doppler and NST normal), Group II (n = 48, Doppler abnormal and NST normal), Group III (n = 14, Doppler normal and NST abnormal), and Group IV (n = 18, Doppler and NST both abnormal). The evaluation was done by Chi square testing.
Both Doppler and NST had a better specificity and negative predictive value, indicating that these tests were more predictive of a healthy fetus. The fetal compromise in terms of APGAR scores, NICU admissions, birth weight, etc., was greater when both Doppler and NST were abnormal. Doppler detected changes earlier in the disease cascade than NST as evidenced by the lead time of 5.86 days.
The use of both the tests is necessary as it helps in detecting a spectrum of fetuses compromised at various stages of disease affection.
Umbilical Doppler; Non-stress test; Preeclampsia; IUGR
How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.
Our brain is known to automatically optimize effort expenditure during motor coordination, such that for example, during bimanual braking of a bicycle, a well-oiled brake will automatically be used more than a corroded, heavy brake. But how does our brain infer the effort expenditure? All previous motor coordination models have believed that the effort in a task is known precisely to our brain, solely from the motor commands it generates. Here we show that this belief is incorrect. Through experiments and simulation we exhibit that in addition to the motor commands, the returning haptic signals play a crucial role in the inference of the effort during a force sharing task. Our results thus elucidate a previously unknown sensory-motor association that has major ramifications for our understanding of motor coordination and provides new insights into how sensory modifications due to ergonomics, stroke and disease can affect motor coordination in humans.
Presence of single umbilical persistent vitelline artery distinguishes sirenomelia from caudal regression syndrome. We report a case of a12-year-old boy who had bilateral umbilical arteries presented with fusion of both legs in the lower one third of leg. Both feet were rudimentary. The right foot had a valgus rocker-bottom deformity. All toes were present but rudimentary. The left foot showed absence of all toes. Physical examination showed left tibia vara. The chest evaluation in sitting revealed pigeon chest and elevated right shoulder. Posterior examination of the trunk showed thoracic scoliosis with convexity to right. The patient was operated and at 1 year followup the boy had two separate legs with a good aesthetic and functional results.
Caudal regression syndrome; ectromelia; sirenomelia; conjoined legs
The whole of the title molecule, C13H14ClNO, is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.560 (6):0.440 (6). The oxime group having a C=N double bond adopts an E conformation. The dihedral angles between the rings (all atoms) are 89.5 (5) (major componenent) and 88.0 (6)° (minor component).
A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay employing IS900 gene specific primers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. parartuberculosis (MAP) was compared with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 sheep showing granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis with and without demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n = 23), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant AFB, and paucibacillary (PB) (n = 15), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few or no AFB. In the multibacillary group (MB), IS900 PCR detected 19 (82.6%), and qPCR detected all 23 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in the intestine and lymph node tissues. In the paucibacillary group (PB), IS900 PCR detected 2 (13.3%), and qPCR detected all 15 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in tissues. When results of both groups were taken together, IS900 PCR detected 21(55.2%), and qPCR detected all 38 (100%) animals positive for MAP genome either in the intestine or lymph node tissues. On Herrold egg yolk medium, tissues of 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep were found to be positive for MAP. Out of 27 sheep (PB = 8, MB = 19) tested by an ELISA, 21 (77.7%) were found to be positive for MAP antibody, of which 25% (2/8) and 100% (19/19) sheep were from PB and MB sheep, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that qPCR was a highly sensitive test in comparison to conventional PCR, ELISA and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis on infected tissues especially from paucibacillary sheep.
Bacterial culture; ELISA; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; PCR; qPCR; Sheep
In the title compound, C26H22N2O4, the pyrrolidine ring adopts a twisted conformation and the other five-membered rings adopt envelope conformations with the spiro C atoms as the flap atoms. The naphthalene ring system of the dihydroacenaphthylene group forms dihedral angles of 89.2 (9) and 75.5 (6)° with the pyrrolidine and indole rings, respectively. The pyrrolidine ring makes a dihedral angle of 80.1 (9)° with the indole ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b-axis direction.
In the title compound, C22H21N3O4, the central pyrrolidine ring adopts a C-envelope conformation with a C atom 0.6593 (13) Å displaced from the mean plane formed by the remaining ring atoms. The indoline ring systems (r.m.s. devisations of 0.0356 and 0.0547 Å) are almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, making dihedral angles of 89.7 (6) and 82.5 (6)°. The acetate group attached to the pyrrolidine ring assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal,N—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect adjacent molecules, forming an infinite tape extending along [1-1-1]. The crystal packing is further consolidated by strong π–π interactions with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.2585 (8) Å. The title compound is a polymorph of previously reported monoclinic structure [Ganesh et al. (2012 ▶). Acta Cryst. E68, o2902–o2903].
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in late adult life. But primary visceral malignant fibrous histiocytoma is a very rare entity. In peripheries, it is known to have an aggressive behavior but its biological pattern when involving liver and spleen is not well understood due to the rarity of its occurrence.
PRESENTATION OF CASE
A case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the liver and spleen as multiple cystic lesions in a 30 years old man is reported. The patient presented with hepatosplenomegaly resulting in central abdominal distention. Pre-operative investigations pointed toward the diagnosis of malignant cystic disease. The tumor presented as multiple hepatic cysts with massive hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. These cysts contained hemorrhagic fluid. Biopsy revealed highly cellular pleomorphic spindle cells fascicles arranged in storiform pattern at places with frequent mitoses. Immunohistochemistry revealed viamentin positivity. The tumor is compared with previous case reports.
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of liver and spleen has been mentioned in the literature as isolated case reports and most of these present as solid lesions but presentation as multiple cysts is also a possibility as was seen in this patient. It can be confirmed only on histo-pathology supported by immunohistochemistry. The disease carries guarded prognosis due to its rapid progression and diagnostic dilemma pre-operatively.
This rare malignancy affecting the viscera can be diagnosed only with high index of suspicion and awareness regarding its presentation can help surgeons deal with it.
Liver; Malignant; Histiocytoma; Spleen; Storiform
In the title compound, C24H16O2, the naphthalene ring system makes dihedral angles of 78.5 (6) and 65.5 (7)° with the terminal and central benzene rings, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 74.5 (8)°. In the crystal, neighbouring molecules are interlinked through two C—H⋯π interactions, which construct a two-dimensional supramolecular framework extending infinitely along (010).
In the title compound, C25H25N3O4, the central pyrrolidine ring and the two pyrrolidine rings adopt twisted conformations, whereas the piperidine ring in the octahydroindolizine fused ring system adopts a chair conformation. The indoline ring systems are almost perpendicular with respect to the mean plane of the octahydroindolizine ring system, making dihedral angles of 84.4 (5) and 79.4 (5)°. The acetate group attached to the octahydroindolizine ring system assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of a helical C(7) chain running parallel to . The crystal packing features C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C—H⋯π interactions.
In the title compound, C22H21N3O4, the central pyrrolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom in the flap position. The indoline ring systems are almost perpendicular to the mean plane of the pyrrolidine ring, making dihedral angles of 86.4 (8) and 83.1 (8)°. The acetate group attached to the pyrrolidine ring assumes an extended conformation. In thecrystal, N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds result in the formation of a C(7) chain running along . The crystal packing also features π–π interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.2032 (11) Å].
In the title compound, C20H16O4S, the thiophene ring makes dihedral angles of 72.9 (2) and 60.5 (2)°, respectively, with the dimethoxy benzene and phenyl rings. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into a C(9) chain along the b axis. The S and C atoms of the thiophene ring are disordered over two sets of sites [site occupancies = 0.675 (3) and 0.325 (3)]. A short intermolecular S⋯O contact [3.084 (2) Å] is observed in the crystal structure, which also features C—H⋯π interactions.
In the title compound, C19H19NO4, the dihedral angle between the mean planes through the benzene rings is 82.18 (7)°. The C=N double bond is trans-configured. The molecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds with the motif R
2(6). The crystal packing also features C—H⋯O interactions. The methyl group attached to one of the aromatic rings is disordered over two almost equally occupied positions [occpancy ratio = 0.51 (4):0.49 (4)].
In the title compound, C20H21NO5, the dihedral angle between the mean planes through the two rings is 47.1 (8)°. The enoate group assumes an extended conformation. The hydroxyethanimine group is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.061 (1) Å for the O atom. In the crystal, molecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers with an R
2(6) motif via pairs of O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. Intermolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form a C(8) chain along the b axis. The crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H⋯π interactions.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) represents one of the most successful and widely distributed large mammal species within North America, yet very little nucleotide sequence information is available. We utilized massively parallel pyrosequencing of a reduced representation library (RRL) and a random shotgun library (RSL) to generate a complete mitochondrial genome sequence and identify a large number of putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed throughout the white-tailed deer nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. A SNP validation study designed to test specific classes of putative SNPs provides evidence for as many as 10,476 genome-wide SNPs in the current dataset. Based on cytogenetic evidence for homology between cow (Bos taurus) and white-tailed deer chromosomes, we demonstrate that a divergent genome may be used for estimating the relative distribution and density of de novo sequence contigs as well as putative SNPs for species without draft genome assemblies. Our approach demonstrates that bioinformatic tools developed for model or agriculturally important species may be leveraged to support next-generation research programs for species of biological, ecological and evolutionary importance. We also provide a functional annotation analysis for the de novo sequence contigs assembled from white-tailed deer pyrosequencing reads, a mitochondrial phylogeny involving 13,722 nucleotide positions for 10 unique species of Cervidae, and a median joining haplotype network as a putative representation of mitochondrial evolution in O. virginianus. The results of this study are expected to provide a detailed template enabling genome-wide sequence-based studies of threatened, endangered or conservationally important non-model organisms.
Hydrogel nanoparticles have gained attention in recent years as they demonstrate the features and characters of hydrogels and nanoparticles at the same time. In the present study chitosan and carrageenan have been used, as hydrogel nanoparticles of mercaptopurine are developed using natural, biodegradable, and biocompatible polymers like chitosan and carrageenan. As these polymers are hydrophilic in nature, the particles will have a long life span in systemic circulation. Hydrogel nanoparticles with mercaptopurine is form an antileukemia drug by the counter polymer gelation method. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) studies have shown a compatibility of polymers with the drug. The diameter of hydrogel nanoparticles was about 370 – 800 nm with a positive zeta potential of 26 – 30 mV. The hydrogel nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Drug loading varied from 9 to 17%. Mercaptopurine released from the nanoparticles at the end of the twenty-fourth hour was about 69.48 – 76.52% at pH 7.4. The drug release from the formulation was following zero order kinetics, which was evident from the release kinetic studies and the mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion, which indicated that the drug release was controlled by more than one process.
Carrageenan and mercaptopurine; chitosan; counter polymer gelation; hydrogel nanoparticles
In the title compound, C6H12O5, the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The absolute configuration is not defined. However, the relative configuration can be assigned as 1R*,3R*,4S*,S*. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by strong intermolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, producing a three-dimensional network.
In the title compound, C13H10OS2, the dihedral angle between the thiophene rings is 14.3 (1)°. The molecular structure is stabilized by C—H⋯π interactions between a thiophene H atom and an adjacent thiophene ring, and by intermolecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
In the title compound, C28H30N2O2, the cyclohexene ring system adopts a sofa conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H⋯O interactions between methyl H atoms of the ethyl substituents and the O atoms of carbonyl groups of adjacent molecules, and by an intermolecular carbonyl–carbonyl interactions [3.207 (2) Å]
Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a routine practice but still requires an intense level of attention to prevent complications. We report a rare case of gross hematuria in postoperative period after an uneventful laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.
Laparoscopic; donor nephrectomy; complications