This study compared cardio-metabolic disease risk factors and their associations with serum vitamin D and omega-3 status in South Asian (SAC) and White Canadians (WC) living in Canada’s capital region.
Fasting blood samples were taken from 235 SAC and 279 WC aged 20 to 79 years in Ottawa, and 22 risk factors were measured.
SAC men and women had significantly higher fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), ratios of total (TC) to HDL cholesterol (HDLC) and ApoB to ApoA1, leptin, E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and omega-3 (p < 0.05), but lower HDLC, ApoA1, vitamin D levels than WC (p < 0.05). SAC women had higher CRP and VEGF than WC women. Adequate (50–74.9 nmol/L) or optimal (≥ 75 nmol/L) levels of 25(OH)D were associated with lower BMI, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, TG, TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, CRP, leptin, and higher HDLC, ApoA1, omega-3 index, L-selectin levels in WC, but not in SAC. Intermediate (>4%-<8%) or high (≥ 8%) levels of omega-3 indices were related to lower E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and higher HDLC, 25(OH)D levels in WC, but not in SAC. The BMIs of ≤ 25 kg/m2 were related to lower LDLC, ApoB, VEGF, creatinine and higher 25(OH)D in WC, but not in SAC.
The associations of vitamin D, omega-3 status, BMI and risk factors were more profound in the WC than SAC. Compared to WC, vitamin D status and omega-3 index may not be good predictive risk factors for the prevalence of CVD and diabetes in SAC.