PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-10 (10)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
1.  Longitudinal association between serum urate and subclinical atherosclerosis: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study 
Journal of internal medicine  2013;274(6):10.1111/joim.12120.
Objective
The aim of the present study was to determine whether serum urate (sUA) concentration is positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, independent of body mass index (BMI), among generally healthy adults.
Design and setting
The CARDIA study followed 5115 black and white individuals aged 18–30 years in 1985–1986 (year 0). Subclinical atherosclerosis comprised coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC; years 15, 20 and 25) and maximum common carotid intima–media thickness (IMT; year 20). sUA (years 0, 10, 15 and 20) was modelled as gender-specific quartiles that were pooled. Discrete-time hazard regressions and generalized linear regressions were used for analyses.
Results
Mean sUA concentration was lower in women than in men, and increased with age. Adjusting for demographic and lifestyle factors, the highest versus lowest quartile of sUA at year 0 was associated with a 44% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20%, 73%] greater risk of CAC progression from year 15 to 25 (Ptrend < 0.001), which was attenuated by adjustment for BMI at year 0 (Ptrend = 0.45). A stronger association was found between sUA at year 15 and CAC progression at year 20 or 25 (hazard ratio 2.07, 95% CI 1.66, 2.58 for the highest versus lowest sUA quartile Ptrend < 0.001), which was attenuated but remained significant with additional adjustment for BMI at year 15 (Ptrend = 0.01). A greater increment in sUA concentration from year 0 to year 15, independent of change in BMI, was related to a higher risk of CAC progression (Ptrend < 0.001). Similar associations were found between sUA and IMT, but only in men.
Conclusion
sUA may be an early biomarker for subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults; starting in early middle age, sUA predicts subclinical atherosclerosis independently of BMI.
doi:10.1111/joim.12120
PMCID: PMC3825786  PMID: 23952533
calcified plaque; intima–media thickness; subclinical atherosclerosis; urate; uric acid
2.  COMORBIDITIES IN PATIENTS WITH CRYSTAL DISEASES AND HYPERURICEMIA 
Summary
Crystal arthropathies are among the most common causes of painful inflammatory arthritis. Gout, the most common example, has been associated with cardiovascular and renal disease. In the last years, evidence on these associations and those involving other comorbidities, such as the metabolic syndrome, have emerged and established the importance of asymptomatic hyperuricemia. This review article presents an update on evidence, both experimental and clinical, describing associations between hyperuricemia, gout, and several comorbidities. Causality on calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy and associated comorbidities is also briefly reviewed.
doi:10.1016/j.rdc.2014.01.005
PMCID: PMC4159668  PMID: 24703346
crystal arthropathies; comorbidities; gout; hyperuricemia; cardiovascular disease; metabolic syndrome; renal disease; calcium pyrophosphate arthropathy
3.  Association of Functional Polymorphism rs2231142 (Q141K) in the ABCG2 Gene With Serum Uric Acid and Gout in 4 US Populations 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2013;177(9):923-932.
A loss-of-function mutation (Q141K, rs2231142) in the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 gene (ABCG2) has been shown to be associated with serum uric acid levels and gout in Asians, Europeans, and European and African Americans; however, less is known about these associations in other populations. Rs2231142 was genotyped in 22,734 European Americans, 9,720 African Americans, 3,849 Mexican Americans, and 3,550 American Indians in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study (2008–2012). Rs2231142 was significantly associated with serum uric acid levels (P = 2.37 × 10−67, P = 3.98 × 10−5, P = 6.97 × 10−9, and P = 5.33 × 10−4 in European Americans, African Americans, Mexican Americans, and American Indians, respectively) and gout (P = 2.83 × 10−10, P = 0.01, and P = 0.01 in European Americans, African Americans, and Mexican Americans, respectively). Overall, the T allele was associated with a 0.24-mg/dL increase in serum uric acid level (P = 1.37 × 10−80) and a 1.75-fold increase in the odds of gout (P = 1.09 × 10−12). The association between rs2231142 and serum uric acid was significantly stronger in men, postmenopausal women, and hormone therapy users compared with their counterparts. The association with gout was also significantly stronger in men than in women. These results highlight a possible role of sex hormones in the regulation of ABCG2 urate transporter and its potential implications for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
doi:10.1093/aje/kws330
PMCID: PMC4023295  PMID: 23552988
ABCG2 protein, human; genetic association studies; gout; meta-analysis; polymorphism, single nucleotide; urate transporter; uric acid
4.  A qualitative assessment of internal medicine resident perceptions of graduate medical education following implementation of the 2011 ACGME duty hour standards 
BMC Medical Education  2014;14:84.
Background
In 2011, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education implemented updated guidelines for medical resident duty hours, further limiting continuous work hours for first-year residents. We sought to investigate the impact of these restrictions on graduate medical education among internal medicine residents.
Methods
We conducted eight focus groups with internal medicine residents at the University of Alabama at Birmingham in 06/2012-07/2012. Discussion questions included, “How do you feel the 2011 ACGME work hour restrictions have impacted your graduate medical education?” Transcripts of the focus groups were reviewed and themes identified using a deductive/inductive approach. Participants completed a survey to collect demographic information and future practice plans.
Results
Thirty-four residents participated in our focus groups. Five themes emerged: decreased teaching, decreased experiential learning, shift-work mentality, tension between residency classes, and benefits and opportunities. Residents reported that since implementation of the guidelines, teaching was often deferred to complete patient-care tasks. Residents voiced concern that PGY-1 s were not receiving adequate clinical experience and that procedural and clinical reasoning skills are being negatively impacted. PGY-1 s reported being well-rested and having increased time for independent study.
Conclusions
Residents noted a decline in teaching and are concerned with the decrease in “hands-on” clinical education that is inevitably impacted by fewer hours in the hospital, though some benefits were also reported. Future studies are needed to further elucidate the impact of decreased resident work hours on graduate medical education.
doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-84
PMCID: PMC4012765  PMID: 24755276
Medical education; Medical education-graduate; Qualitative research
5.  Patient-reported Outcomes in Chronic Gout: A Report from OMERACT 10 
The Journal of rheumatology  2011;38(7):10.3899/jrheum.110271.
Objective
To summarize the endorsement of measures of patient-reported outcome (PRO) domains in chronic gout at the 2010 Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Meeting (OMERACT 10).
Methods
During the OMERACT 10 gout workshop, validation data were presented for key PRO domains including pain [pain by visual analog scale (VAS)], patient global (patient global VAS), activity limitation [Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI)], and a disease-specific measure, the Gout Assessment Questionnaire version 2.0 (GAQ v2.0). Data were presented on all 3 aspects of the OMERACT filters of truth, discrimination, and feasibility. One PRO, health-related quality of life measurement with the Medical Outcomes Study Short-form 36 (SF-36), was previously endorsed at OMERACT 9.
Results
One measure for each of the 3 PRO of pain, patient global, and activity limitation was endorsed by > 70% of the OMERACT delegates to have appropriate validation data. Specifically, pain measurement by VAS was endorsed by 85%, patient global assessment by VAS by 73%, and activity limitation by HAQ-DI by 71%. GAQ v2.0 received 30% vote and was not endorsed due to several concerns including low internal consistency and lack of familiarity with the measure. More validation studies are needed for this measure.
Conclusion
With the endorsement of one measure each for pain, patient global, SF-36, and activity limitation, all 4 PRO for chronic gout have been endorsed. Future validation studies are needed for the disease-specific measure, GAQ v2.0. Validation for PRO for acute gout will be the focus of the next validation exercise for the OMERACT gout group.
doi:10.3899/jrheum.110271
PMCID: PMC3850171  PMID: 21724715
PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOMES; CHRONIC GOUT; VALIDATION; PAIN; PATIENT GLOBAL; FUNCTIONAL LIMITATION
6.  Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations 
Köttgen, Anna | Albrecht, Eva | Teumer, Alexander | Vitart, Veronique | Krumsiek, Jan | Hundertmark, Claudia | Pistis, Giorgio | Ruggiero, Daniela | O’Seaghdha, Conall M | Haller, Toomas | Yang, Qiong | Tanaka, Toshiko | Johnson, Andrew D | Kutalik, Zoltán | Smith, Albert V | Shi, Julia | Struchalin, Maksim | Middelberg, Rita P S | Brown, Morris J | Gaffo, Angelo L | Pirastu, Nicola | Li, Guo | Hayward, Caroline | Zemunik, Tatijana | Huffman, Jennifer | Yengo, Loic | Zhao, Jing Hua | Demirkan, Ayse | Feitosa, Mary F | Liu, Xuan | Malerba, Giovanni | Lopez, Lorna M | van der Harst, Pim | Li, Xinzhong | Kleber, Marcus E | Hicks, Andrew A | Nolte, Ilja M | Johansson, Asa | Murgia, Federico | Wild, Sarah H | Bakker, Stephan J L | Peden, John F | Dehghan, Abbas | Steri, Maristella | Tenesa, Albert | Lagou, Vasiliki | Salo, Perttu | Mangino, Massimo | Rose, Lynda M | Lehtimäki, Terho | Woodward, Owen M | Okada, Yukinori | Tin, Adrienne | Müller, Christian | Oldmeadow, Christopher | Putku, Margus | Czamara, Darina | Kraft, Peter | Frogheri, Laura | Thun, Gian Andri | Grotevendt, Anne | Gislason, Gauti Kjartan | Harris, Tamara B | Launer, Lenore J | McArdle, Patrick | Shuldiner, Alan R | Boerwinkle, Eric | Coresh, Josef | Schmidt, Helena | Schallert, Michael | Martin, Nicholas G | Montgomery, Grant W | Kubo, Michiaki | Nakamura, Yusuke | Tanaka, Toshihiro | Munroe, Patricia B | Samani, Nilesh J | Jacobs, David R | Liu, Kiang | D’Adamo, Pio | Ulivi, Sheila | Rotter, Jerome I | Psaty, Bruce M | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gerard | Campbell, Susan | Devuyst, Olivier | Navarro, Pau | Kolcic, Ivana | Hastie, Nicholas | Balkau, Beverley | Froguel, Philippe | Esko, Tõnu | Salumets, Andres | Khaw, Kay Tee | Langenberg, Claudia | Wareham, Nicholas J | Isaacs, Aaron | Kraja, Aldi | Zhang, Qunyuan | Wild, Philipp S | Scott, Rodney J | Holliday, Elizabeth G | Org, Elin | Viigimaa, Margus | Bandinelli, Stefania | Metter, Jeffrey E | Lupo, Antonio | Trabetti, Elisabetta | Sorice, Rossella | Döring, Angela | Lattka, Eva | Strauch, Konstantin | Theis, Fabian | Waldenberger, Melanie | Wichmann, H-Erich | Davies, Gail | Gow, Alan J | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Study, LifeLines Cohort | Stolk, Ronald P | Kooner, Jaspal S | Zhang, Weihua | Winkelmann, Bernhard R | Boehm, Bernhard O | Lucae, Susanne | Penninx, Brenda W | Smit, Johannes H | Curhan, Gary | Mudgal, Poorva | Plenge, Robert M | Portas, Laura | Persico, Ivana | Kirin, Mirna | Wilson, James F | Leach, Irene Mateo | van Gilst, Wiek H | Goel, Anuj | Ongen, Halit | Hofman, Albert | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Imboden, Medea | von Eckardstein, Arnold | Cucca, Francesco | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Piras, Maria Grazia | Nauck, Matthias | Schurmann, Claudia | Budde, Kathrin | Ernst, Florian | Farrington, Susan M | Theodoratou, Evropi | Prokopenko, Inga | Stumvoll, Michael | Jula, Antti | Perola, Markus | Salomaa, Veikko | Shin, So-Youn | Spector, Tim D | Sala, Cinzia | Ridker, Paul M | Kähönen, Mika | Viikari, Jorma | Hengstenberg, Christian | Nelson, Christopher P | Consortium, CARDIoGRAM | Consortium, DIAGRAM | Consortium, ICBP | Consortium, MAGIC | Meschia, James F | Nalls, Michael A | Sharma, Pankaj | Singleton, Andrew B | Kamatani, Naoyuki | Zeller, Tanja | Burnier, Michel | Attia, John | Laan, Maris | Klopp, Norman | Hillege, Hans L | Kloiber, Stefan | Choi, Hyon | Pirastu, Mario | Tore, Silvia | Probst-Hensch, Nicole M | Völzke, Henry | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Parsa, Afshin | Schmidt, Reinhold | Whitfield, John B | Fornage, Myriam | Gasparini, Paolo | Siscovick, David S | Polašek, Ozren | Campbell, Harry | Rudan, Igor | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Metspalu, Andres | Loos, Ruth J F | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Borecki, Ingrid B | Ferrucci, Luigi | Gambaro, Giovanni | Deary, Ian J | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R | Chambers, John C | März, Winfried | Pramstaller, Peter P | Snieder, Harold | Gyllensten, Ulf | Wright, Alan F | Navis, Gerjan | Watkins, Hugh | Witteman, Jacqueline C M | Sanna, Serena | Schipf, Sabine | Dunlop, Malcolm G | Tönjes, Anke | Ripatti, Samuli | Soranzo, Nicole | Toniolo, Daniela | Chasman, Daniel I | Raitakari, Olli | Kao, W H Linda | Ciullo, Marina | Fox, Caroline S | Caulfield, Mark | Bochud, Murielle | Gieger, Christian
Nature genetics  2012;45(2):145-154.
Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout.
doi:10.1038/ng.2500
PMCID: PMC3663712  PMID: 23263486
7.  Association between being African-American, serum urate levels and the risk of developing hyperuricemia: findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults cohort 
Introduction
Findings that African-American race/ethnicity is associated with higher concentrations of serum urate have not been adjusted for possible confounding factors or have not explored this question as a primary outcome. We tested this hypothesis in a bi-racial cohort of younger African-American and white men and women.
Methods
Data from 5,049 participants at the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort baseline (1985 to1986) and follow-up for up to 20 years of individuals without hyperuricemia (defined as a serum urate of 6.8 mg/dL or more) at baseline were utilized. We determined associations between race, serum urate and the development of hyperuricemia in sex-specific cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Confounding factors examined included: age at enrollment, body mass index, development of hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, medication use, diet and alcohol intake and menopausal symptoms in women.
Results
Referent to whites, African-American men and women had significantly lower concentrations of serum urate at baseline. African-American men had an essentially equal risk of developing incident hyperuricemia during follow-up compared with white men (multivariable adjusted HR = 1.12 (0.88 to1.40)). African-American women developed a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia when compared to white women (HR = 2.31 (1.34 to 3.99)).
Conclusions
Young African-American men and women had lower concentrations of serum urate than whites. During longitudinal follow-up, African-American women had a significantly increased risk of developing hyperuricemia when compared with white women, a difference that was not observed in men. Differences in production of serum urate or a more rapid decline in fractional excretion of serum urate are potential, albeit still unproven, explanations for these findings in African-American women.
doi:10.1186/ar3552
PMCID: PMC3392790  PMID: 22225548
8.  Febuxostat: the evidence for its use in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout 
Core evidence  2010;4:25-36.
Introduction:
Gout is a common and disabling cause of arthritis in middle-aged and elderly populations, with its main predisposing factor being hyperuricemia (serum urate > 6.8 mg/dL). Options for treatment of chronic gout until 2008 were allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, and the group of drugs known as uricosurics that stimulate the renal excretion of uric acid. A proportion of patients, including some with chronic kidney disease and solid organ transplantations, could not be treated with the those therapies because of intolerance, drug interactions, or adverse events. Febuxostat is a nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, recently approved in Europe and the United States for the treatment of chronic gout.
Aim:
To review the clinical evidence (phase II and III studies) of the effectiveness and safety of febuxostat for treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.
Evidence review:
Febuxostat, at doses ranging from 40 to 240 mg/day, is efficacious in reducing serum urate in patients with hyperuricemia and gout, comparing favorably with fixed doses of allopurinol in that respect. Early safety signals with respect to liver test abnormalities and cardiovascular outcomes have not been confirmed in recent large prospective trials but need to be further monitored.
Clinical potential:
Given its low cost and extensive clinical experience, allopurinol will likely remain the first-line drug for management of hyperuricemia and gout. Febuxostat may provide an important option in patients unable to use allopurinol, those with very high serum urate levels, or in the presence of refractory tophi.
PMCID: PMC2899777  PMID: 20694062
febuxostat; gout; hyperuricemia; evidence
9.  Gout. Hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease: how strong is the evidence for a causal link? 
An association between high levels of serum urate and cardiovascular disease has been proposed for many decades. However, it was only recently that compelling basic science data, small clinical trials, and epidemiological studies have provided support to the idea of a true causal effect. In this review we present recently published data that study the association between hyperuricemia and selected cardiovascular diseases, with a final conclusion about the possibility of this association being causal.
doi:10.1186/ar2761
PMCID: PMC2745789  PMID: 19725932
10.  Serum urate, menopause, and postmenopausal hormone use: from eminence to evidence-based medicine 
The relationship between serum urate, menopause, and aging has not been clearly defined by scientific evidence. In the present issue of Arthritis Research and Therapy, Hak and Choi present a cross-sectional analysis to clarify the effect of menopause and hormone replacement therapy on serum urate in women within the Third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. Menopause increased serum urate and hormone replacement therapy significantly decreased serum urate, although the overall level of change was small. The implications of these urate changes on gout and cardiovascular disease outcomes require further study.
doi:10.1186/ar2524
PMCID: PMC2592808  PMID: 18983690

Results 1-10 (10)