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1.  Six-Month Sleep–Wake Organization and Stability in Preschool-Age Children With Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development 
Behavioral sleep medicine  2011;9(2):92-106.
This study examined sleep–wake patterns in 3 matched comparison groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism (AUT), children with developmental delay (DD) without AUT, and children who are developing typically (TYP). Sleep was assessed via actigraphy and parent-report diaries for 7 consecutive 24-hr periods across 3 time points: at enrollment (n = 194), 3 months later (n = 179), and 6 months after enrollment (n = 173). At each recording period, children in the AUT group slept less per 24-hr period, on average, and were less likely to awaken at night than children in the other two groups. In contrast, children in the DD group had more frequent and longer duration nighttime awakenings than children in the AUT group. Overall, children in the 2 neurodevelopmentally disordered groups demonstrated more night-to-night variability in their sleep–wake measures than children in the TYP group.
doi:10.1080/15402002.2011.557991
PMCID: PMC3498819  PMID: 21491232
2.  A comprehensive volumetric analysis of the cerebellum in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder 
Scientific Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and postmortem neuropathological studies have implicated the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of autism. Controversy remains, however, concerning the nature and the consistency of cerebellar alterations. MRI studies of the cross-sectional area of the vermis have found both decreases and no difference in autism groups. Volumetric analysis of the vermis, which is less prone to “plane of section artifacts” may provide a more reliable assessment of size differences but few such studies exist in the literature. Here we present the results of a volumetric analysis of the structure of the whole cerebellum and its components in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Structural MRI’s were acquired from 62 male participants (7.5 to 18.5 years-old) who met criteria for the following age-matched diagnostic groups: low functioning autism, high functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, and typically-developing children. When compared to controls, the midsagittal area of the vermis, or of subgroups of lobules, was not reduced in any of the autism groups. However, we did find that total vermis volume was decreased in the combined autism group. When examined separately, the vermis of only the high functioning autism group was significantly reduced compared to typically-developing controls. Neither IQ nor age predicted the size of the vermis within the autism groups. There were no differences in the volume of individual vermal lobules or cerebellar hemispheres. These findings are discussed in relation to the pathology of autism and to the fairly common alterations of vermal morphology in various neurodevelopmental disorders.
doi:10.1002/aur.97
PMCID: PMC2999464  PMID: 19885834
Asperger; MRI; developmental delays; vermis; neurodevelopmental disorder
3.  Use of Sleep Aids During the First Year of Life 
Pediatrics  2002;109(4):594-601.
Objective.
In an attempt to foster self-soothing during the night, a novel sleep aid infused with maternal odor was introduced to 4 groups of infants ranging in age from 3 to 12 months. Infants’ use of parent-provided sleep aids also was examined.
Methodology.
Nighttime sleep and waking behaviors were videotaped for 2 consecutive nights on 3 occasions over a 3-month interval. Using all-night video recording, the study examined the infant’s use of a novel sleep aid and parent-provided sleep aids during sleep onset and after nighttime awakenings.
Results.
Results indicated that infants of different ages differed in the types of sleep aids used when falling asleep either at the beginning of the night or after awakenings in the middle of the night. More 3-month-olds used their thumbs/fingers/hands, whereas more 6-month-olds used soft objects. The 6-month-olds were most likely to use the novel sleep aid. Almost all of the infants at all 4 ages used some type of object during the night. Intra-individual analyses showed that infants tended to change their pattern of sleep aid use over the 3-month study period.
Conclusions.
The data provide evidence that infants during the first year of life use sleep aids frequently and interchangeably rather than a specific favorite object.
PMCID: PMC1351014  PMID: 11927702
4.  Nighttime sleep-wake patterns and self-soothing from birth to one year of age: a longitudinal intervention study 
Background
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the longitudinal development of sleep-wake patterns of solitary-sleeping infants from 1 to 12 months of age, (2) identify effects on sleep patterns and on self-soothing behaviors of introducing a novel sleep aid, and (3) identify predictive factors of self-soothing at 12 months using a transactional model as a guide.
Methods
Eighty infants’ nighttime sleep-wake patterns and associated variables were studied at 5 times across the first year of life using videosomnography and questionnaires.
Results
Sleep-wake state developmental changes, as reported in investigations of infant sleep, were replicated, although a great deal of individual variability in the development of all sleep-related variables was noted. No major effects on sleep or on self-soothing behavior were evident from the introduction of the novel sleep aid. Three variables were identified as significant predictors of self-soothing at 12 months: decreasing amounts of time spent out of crib across the first year, high levels of quiet sleep at birth, and longer parental response times to infant awakenings at 3 months.
Conclusions
These data lend preliminary support for the transactional model and suggest that infant and parental factors interact to influence the development of self-soothing.
PMCID: PMC1201415  PMID: 12236607
Infancy; normal development; parent-child interaction; paediatrics; sleep; temperament; AS: active sleep; AW: wakefulness; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; GLM: general linear modeling; LSP: longest sleep period; OOC: out of crib; PSOCS: Parenting Sense of Competence Scale; QS: quiet sleep; RSA: representational sleep aid; SC: sham control; SS: self-soothed; TST: total sleep time
5.  Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders 
Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), ages 2–11 years, using sleep diaries, the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and the Parenting Events Questionnaire. Two time periods were sampled to assess short-term stability of sleep–wake patterns. Before data collection, slightly more than half of the parents, when queried, reported a sleep problem in their child. Subsequent diary and CSHQ reports confirmed more fragmented sleep in those children who were described by their parents as having a sleep problem compared to those without a designated problem. Interestingly, regardless of parental perception of problematic sleep, all children with PDD exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. The results demonstrate that sleep problems identified by the parent, as well as fragmentation of sleep patterns obtained from sleep diary and CSHQ data, exist in a significant proportion of children with PPD.
PMCID: PMC1201413  PMID: 12553592
Sleep; autism; neurodevelopmental disorder; night waking; behavior
6.  Secretin and Sleep in Children with Autism 
The objectives of this pilot study were 1) to examine possible effects of secretin infusions on sleep-wake state organization in children with autism, and 2) to assess the feasibility of home recordings using time-lapse videosomnography in children with autism. Participants were a subset of subjects from two double blind, placebo-control, multi-center clinical trials. One trial, the UC Irvine study, assessed the effects of porcine secretin vs. saline infusions on children’s behavior, language and IQ. The UC Davis trial assessed the effects of synthetic human secretin vs. saline infusions on behavior, language and gastrointestinal function. The sleep study enrolled some of the children from each of the two trials to observe possible secretin effects on sleep. To examine sleep, the UC Irvine trial used the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire and daily sleep diaries, whereas the UC Davis study used home-recorded time-lapse videosomnography. Because of the small sample size, the results from both trials are preliminary. They suggest that secretin, porcine or synthetic, does not improve sleep-wake state organization dramatically.
PMCID: PMC1201388  PMID: 12462350
autism; sleep; secretin
7.  A Comparison of the Sleep–Wake Patterns of Cosleeping and Solitary-Sleeping Infants 
This study examined whether 3–15 month-old cosleeping infants displayed differences in time spent in active versus quiet sleep, and in the number/duration of nighttime awakenings when compared with solitary-sleeping infants; and also whether they spent the majority of the night sleeping face-to-face, as previously reported. Nine cosleeping and nine solitary-sleeping infants were matched on age, gender, ethnicity, maternal age, and family SES. Video recordings of nighttime sleep yielded percentage of time in active sleep, quiet sleep, and awake, number of awakenings, and the percentage of time cosleeping infants and mothers spent face-to-face. Across age, cosleeping infants had more awakenings per night (mean 5.8(1.50) versus 3.2(1.95); t = 3.16, p = .006). The percent of the nighttime spent awake did not differ between groups, suggesting that cosleeping infants had shorter awakenings. Cosleeping infants spent 40% of the night face-to-face with their mothers.
doi:10.1007/s10578-004-1879-0
PMCID: PMC1201416  PMID: 15577276
cosleeping; infants; sleep
8.  Night Waking, Sleep-Wake Organization, and Self-Soothing in the First Year of Life 
Few objective data are available regarding infants’ night waking behaviors and the development of self-soothing during the first year of life. This cross-sectional study examined 80 infants in one of four age groups (3, 6, 9, or 12 mo) for four nights by using videosomnography to code nighttime awakenings and parent-child interactions. A large degree of variability was observed in parents’ putting the infant to bed awake or asleep and in responding to vocalizations after nighttime awakenings. Most infants woke during the night at all ages observed. Younger infants tended to require parental intervention at night to return to sleep, whereas older infants exhibited a greater proportion of self-soothing after nighttime awakenings. However, even in the 12-month-old group, 50% of infants typically required parental intervention to get back to sleep after waking. Results emphasize the individual and contextual factors that effect the development of self-soothing behavior during the first year of life.
PMCID: PMC1201414  PMID: 11530895
9.  A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Young Children’s Sleep Patterns Using a Developmental Classification System 
Behavioral sleep medicine  2005;3(1):44-61.
Sixty-eight families participated in a longitudinal study that included video observations of sleep during the 1st year of life and annual follow-up phone interviews until the children were 4 years of age. Results revealed that approximately 19% of children have a sleep problem at 2 years of age, defined either by research criteria or parental report, and that sleep problems diminished over time. Approximately 25% of children were reported to be cosleeping at each follow-up interview, but only a third of the parents reported this behavior to be problematic. A subgroup of infants (33%), who were considered stable, non-self-soothers in the 1st year, were more likely to have a sleep onset problem and be cosleeping at the 2-year follow-up assessment.
doi:10.1207/s15402010bsm0301_6
PMCID: PMC1201412  PMID: 15639757
10.  Six-Month Sleep–Wake Organization and Stability in Preschool-Age Children With Autism, Developmental Delay, and Typical Development 
This study examined sleep–wake patterns in 3 matched comparison groups of preschool-aged children: children with autism (AUT), children with developmental delay (DD) without AUT, and children who are developing typically (TYP). Sleep was assessed via actigraphy and parent-report diaries for 7 consecutive 24-hr periods across 3 time points: at enrollment (n = 194), 3 months later (n = 179), and 6 months after enrollment (n = 173). At each recording period, children in the AUT group slept less per 24-hr period, on average, and were less likely to awaken at night than children in the other two groups. In contrast, children in the DD group had more frequent and longer duration nighttime awakenings than children in the AUT group. Overall, children in the 2 neurodevelopmentally disordered groups demonstrated more night-to-night variability in their sleep–wake measures than children in the TYP group.
doi:10.1352/1944-7558-116.2.142
PMCID: PMC3283033  PMID: 21381949

Results 1-10 (10)