Pseudohaliea rubra strain DSM 19751T is an aerobic marine gammaproteobacterium that was isolated from surface coastal seawater of the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we present its genome sequence and annotation. Genome analysis revealed the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll-a and the reserve compound glycogen.
Earlier phylogenetic analyses of the marine Rhodobacteraceae (class Alphaproteobacteria) genera Leisingera and Phaeobacter indicated that neither genus might be monophyletic. We here used phylogenetic reconstruction from genome-scale data, MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry analysis and a re-assessment of the phenotypic data from the literature to settle this matter, aiming at a reclassification of the two genera. Neither Phaeobacter nor Leisingera formed a clade in any of the phylogenetic analyses conducted. Rather, smaller monophyletic assemblages emerged, which were phenotypically more homogeneous, too. We thus propose the reclassification of Leisingera nanhaiensis as the type species of a new genus as Sedimentitalea nanhaiensis gen. nov., comb. nov., the reclassification of Phaeobacter arcticus and Phaeobacter leonis as Pseudophaeobacter arcticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Pseudophaeobacter leonis comb. nov., and the reclassification of Phaeobacter aquaemixtae, Phaeobacter caeruleus, and Phaeobacter daeponensis as Leisingera aquaemixtae comb. nov., Leisingera caerulea comb. nov., and Leisingera daeponensis comb. nov. The genera Phaeobacter and Leisingera are accordingly emended.
marine microbiology; Roseobacter group; phylogenomics; supermatrix; gene content; genus boundaries
This manuscript calls for an international effort to generate a comprehensive catalog from genome sequences of all the archaeal and bacterial type strains.
Microbes hold the key to life. They hold the secrets to our past (as the descendants of the earliest forms of life) and the prospects for our future (as we mine their genes for solutions to some of the planet's most pressing problems, from global warming to antibiotic resistance). However, the piecemeal approach that has defined efforts to study microbial genetic diversity for over 20 years and in over 30,000 genome projects risks squandering that promise. These efforts have covered less than 20% of the diversity of the cultured archaeal and bacterial species, which represent just 15% of the overall known prokaryotic diversity. Here we call for the funding of a systematic effort to produce a comprehensive genomic catalog of all cultured Bacteria and Archaea by sequencing, where available, the type strain of each species with a validly published name (currently∼11,000). This effort will provide an unprecedented level of coverage of our planet's genetic diversity, allow for the large-scale discovery of novel genes and functions, and lead to an improved understanding of microbial evolution and function in the environment.
A novel Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic actinobacterium, tolerant to mitomycin C, heavy metals, metalloids, hydrogen peroxide, desiccation, and ionizing- and UV-radiation, designated G18T, was isolated from dolomitic marble collected from outcrops in Samara (Namibia). The growth range was 15–35°C, at pH 5.5–9.5 and in presence of 1% NaCl, forming greenish-black coloured colonies on GYM Streptomyces agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for other representatives of the genus Geodermatophilus. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, and small amount of diphosphatidylglycerol. MK-9(H4) was the dominant menaquinone and galactose was detected as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0 and the unsaturated C17:1ω8c and C16:1ω7c. The 16S rRNA gene showed 97.4–99.1% sequence identity with the other representatives of genus Geodermatophilus. Based on phenotypic results and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G18T is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus poikilotrophi. Type strain is G18T (= DSM 44209T = CCUG 63018T). The INSDC accession number is HF970583. The novel R software package lethal was used to compute the lethal doses with confidence intervals resulting from tolerance experiments.
Thermotoga thermarum Windberger et al. 1989 is a member to the genomically well characterized genus Thermotoga in the phylum ‘Thermotogae’. T. thermarum is of interest for its origin from a continental solfataric spring vs. predominantly marine oil reservoirs of other members of the genus. The genome of strain LA3T also provides fresh data for the phylogenomic positioning of the (hyper-)thermophilic bacteria. T. thermarum strain LA3T is the fourth sequenced genome of a type strain from the genus Thermotoga, and the sixth in the family Thermotogaceae to be formally described in a publication. Phylogenetic analyses do not reveal significant discrepancies between the current classification of the group, 16S rRNA gene data and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, T. thermarum significantly differs from other Thermotoga species regarding its iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, as it contains only a minimal set of the necessary proteins. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,039,943 bp long chromosome with its 2,015 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
anaerobic; motile; thermophilic; chemoorganotrophic; solfataric spring; outer sheath-like structure; Thermotogaceae; GEBA
Wenxinia marina Ying et al. 2007 is the type species of the genus Wenxinia, a representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from oilfield sediments of the South China Sea. This family was shown to harbor the most abundant bacteria especially from coastal and polar waters, but was also found in microbial mats, sediments and attached to different kind of surfaces.
Here we describe the features of W. marina strain HY34T together with the genome sequence and annotation of strain DSM 24838T and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 4,181,754 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,047 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. The genome of W. marina DSM 24838T was sequenced as part of the activities of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project funded by the DoE and the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
aerobic; heterotrophic; rod-shaped; quorum sensing; autoinducer; prophage-like structures; Roseobacter group; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria
Roseibacterium elongatum Suzuki et al. 2006 is a pink-pigmented and bacteriochlorophyll a-producing representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Representatives of the marine ‘Roseobacter group’ were found to be abundant in the ocean and play an important role in global and biogeochemical processes. In the present study we describe the features of R. elongatum strain OCh 323T together with its genome sequence and annotation. The 3,555,102 bp long genome consists of one circular chromosome with no extrachromosomal elements and is one of the smallest known Roseobacter genomes. It contains 3,540 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. Genome analysis revealed the presence of a photosynthetic gene cluster, which putatively enables a photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Gene sequences associated with quorum sensing, motility, surface attachment, and thiosulfate and carbon monoxide oxidation could be detected. The genome was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
bacteriochlorophyll a; aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis; quorum sensing; Roseobacter group; Roseibacterium; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria
Phaeobacter gallaeciensis CIP 105210T (= DSM 26640T = BS107T) is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter gallaeciensis. The genus Phaeobacter belongs to the marine Roseobacter group (Rhodobacteraceae, Alphaproteobacteria). Phaeobacter species are effective colonizers of marine surfaces, including frequent associations with eukaryotes. Strain BS107T was isolated from a rearing of the scallop Pecten maximus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, comprising eight circular replicons with a total of 4,448 genes. In addition to a high number of extrachromosomal replicons, the genome contains six genomic island and three putative prophage regions, as well as a hybrid between a plasmid and a circular phage. Phylogenomic analyses confirm previous results, which indicated that the originally reported P. gallaeciensis type-strain deposit DSM 17395 belongs to P. inhibens and that CIP 105210T (= DSM 26640T) is the sole genome-sequenced representative of P. gallaeciensis.
Alphaproteobacteria; Roseobacter group; Plasmid wealth; Replication systems; Sister species; Phaeobacter inhibens
Rubellimicrobium mesophilum Dastager et al. 2008 is a mesophilic and light reddish-pigmented representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Representatives of the Roseobacter group play an important role in the marine biogeochemical cycles and were found in a broad variety of marine environments associated with algal blooms, different kinds of sediments, and surfaces of invertebrates and vertebrates. Roseobacters were shown to be widely distributed, especially within the total bacterial community found in coastal waters, as well as in mixed water layers of the open ocean. Here we describe the features of R. mesophilum strain MSL-20T together with its genome sequence and annotation generated from a culture of DSM 19309T. The 4,927,676 bp genome sequence consists of one chromosome and probably one extrachromosomal element. It contains 5,082 protein-coding genes and 56 RNA genes. As previously reported, the G+C content is significantly different from the actual genome sequence-based G+C content and as the type strain tests positively for oxidase, the species description is emended accordingly. The genome was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
Irregular rod-shaped; motile; aerobic; stenohaline; chemoorganotroph; Roseobacter group; Roseobacter group; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria
Salipiger mucosus Martínez-Cànovas et al. 2004 is the type species of the genus Salipiger, a moderately halophilic and exopolysaccharide-producing representative of the Roseobacter lineage within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Members of this family were shown to be the most abundant bacteria especially in coastal and polar waters, but were also found in microbial mats and sediments. Here we describe the features of the S. mucosus strain DSM 16094T together with its genome sequence and annotation. The 5,689,389-bp genome sequence consists of one chromosome and several extrachromosomal elements. It contains 5,650 protein-coding genes and 95 RNA genes. The genome of S. mucosus DSM 16094T was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
aerobic; chemoheterotrophic; rod-shaped; photosynthesis; extrachromosomal elements; OmniLog phenotyping; Roseobacter clade; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria
Methanoplanus limicola Wildgruber et al. 1984 is a mesophilic methanogen that was isolated from a swamp composed of drilling waste near Naples, Italy, shortly after the Archaea were recognized as a separate domain of life. Methanoplanus is the type genus in the family Methanoplanaceae, a taxon that felt into disuse since modern 16S rRNA gene sequences-based taxonomy was established. Methanoplanus is now placed within the Methanomicrobiaceae, a family that is so far poorly characterized at the genome level. The only other type strain of the genus with a sequenced genome, Methanoplanus petrolearius SEBR 4847T, turned out to be misclassified and required reclassification to Methanolacinia. Both, Methanoplanus and Methanolacinia, needed taxonomic emendations due to a significant deviation of the G+C content of their genomes from previously published (pre-genome-sequence era) values. Until now genome sequences were published for only four of the 33 species with validly published names in the Methanomicrobiaceae. Here we describe the features of M. limicola, together with the improved-high-quality draft genome sequence and annotation of the type strain, M3T. The 3,200,946 bp long chromosome (permanent draft sequence) with its 3,064 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
anaerobic; motile; mesophilic; methanogen; swamp; improved-high-quality draft; Methanomicrobiaceae; GEBA
Leisingera nanhaiensis DSM 24252T is a Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped marine Alphaproteobacterium, isolated from sandy marine sediments. Here we present the non-contiguous genome sequence and annotation together with a summary of the organism's phenotypic features. The 4,948,550 bp long genome with its 4,832 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and six extrachromosomal elements with lengths of 236 kb, 92 kb, 61 kb, 58 kb, 56 kb, and 35 kb, respectively. The analysis of the genome showed that DSM 24252T possesses all genes necessary for dissimilatory nitrite reduction, and the strain was shown to be facultatively anaerobic, a deviation from the original description that calls for an emendation of the species. Also present in the genome are genes coding for a putative prophage, for gene-transfer agents and for the utilization of methylated amines. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that L. nanhaiensis might not belong to the genus Leisingera.
Marine; motile; facultative anaerobe; methylated compounds; Rhodobacteraceae; Roseobacter clade
Strain T5T is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter inhibens Martens et al. 2006, a secondary metabolite producing bacterium affiliated to the Roseobacter clade. Strain T5T was isolated from a water sample taken at the German Wadden Sea, southern North Sea. Here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium with a special focus on the secondary metabolism and compare it with the genomes of the Phaeobacter inhibens strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10), selected because of the close phylogenetic relationship based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these three strains. The genome of strain T5T comprises 4,130,897 bp with 3.923 protein-coding genes and shows high similarities in genetic and genomic characteristics compared to P. inhibens DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Besides the chromosome, strain T5T possesses four plasmids, three of which show a high similarity to the plasmids of the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Analysis of the fourth plasmid suggested horizontal gene transfer. Most of the genes on this plasmid are not present in the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10) including a nitrous oxide reductase, which allows strain T5T a facultative anaerobic lifestyle. The G+C content was calculated from the genome sequence and differs significantly from the previously published value, thus warranting an emendation of the species description.
Anaerobic; motile; rod-shaped; tropodithietic acid; secondary metabolites; Rhodobacterales; Rhodobacteraceae
Leisingera methylohalidivorans Schaefer et al. 2002 emend. Vandecandelaere et al. 2008 is the type species of the genus Leisingera. The genus belongs to the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacteraceae, Alphaproteobacteria), a widely distributed lineage in marine environments. Leisingera and particularly L. methylohalidivorans strain MB2T is of special interest due to its methylotrophy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. The 4,650,996 bp long genome with its 4,515 protein-coding and 81 RNA genes consists of three replicons, a single chromosome and two extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 221 kb and 285 kb.
Methylotrophy; methyl halides; extrachromosomal elements; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhodobacteraceae; Roseobacter clade; aerobe
TF-218T is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter daeponensis Yoon et al. 2007, a facultatively anaerobic Phaeobacter species isolated from tidal flats. Here we describe the draft genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium together with previously unreported aspects of its phenotype. We analyzed the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its anaerobic lifestyle, which have also been described for its closest relative Phaeobacter caeruleus. The 4,642,596 bp long genome of strain TF-218T contains 4,310 protein-coding genes and 78 RNA genes including four rRNA operons and consists of five replicons: one chromosome and four extrachromosomal elements with sizes of 276 kb, 174 kb, 117 kb and 90 kb. Genome analysis showed that TF-218T possesses all of the genes for indigoidine biosynthesis, and on specific media the strain showed a blue pigmentation. We also found genes for dissimilatory nitrate reduction, gene-transfer agents, NRPS/ PKS genes and signaling systems homologous to the LuxR/I system.
Marine microbiology; facultative anaerobe; indigoidine; Rhodobacteraceae; Roseobacter clade
Frateuria aurantia (ex Kondô and Ameyama 1958) Swings et al. 1980 is a member of the bispecific genus Frateuria in the family Xanthomonadaceae, which is already heavily targeted for non-type strain genome sequencing. Strain Kondô 67T was initially (1958) identified as a member of ‘Acetobacter aurantius’, a name that was not considered for the approved list. Kondô 67T was therefore later designated as the type strain of the newly proposed acetogenic species Frateuria aurantia. The strain is of interest because of its triterpenoids (hopane family). F. aurantia Kondô 67T is the first member of the genus Frateura whose genome sequence has been deciphered, and here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,603,458-bp long chromosome with its 3,200 protein-coding and 88 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
strictly aerobic; motile; rod-shaped; acetogenic; mesophilic; ‘Acetobacter aurantius’; Xanthomonadaceae; GEBA
Thermanaerovibrio velox Zavarzina et al. 2000 is a member of the Synergistaceae, a family in the phylum Synergistetes that is already well-characterized at the genome level. Members of this phylum were described as Gram-negative staining anaerobic bacteria with a rod/vibrioid cell shape and possessing an atypical outer cell envelope. They inhabit a large variety of anaerobic environments including soil, oil wells, wastewater treatment plants and animal gastrointestinal tracts. They are also found to be linked to sites of human diseases such as cysts, abscesses, and areas of periodontal disease. The moderately thermophilic and organotrophic T. velox shares most of its morphologic and physiologic features with the closely related species, T. acidaminovorans. In addition to Su883T, the type strain of T. acidaminovorans, stain Z-9701T is the second type strain in the genus Thermanaerovibrio to have its genome sequence published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the non-contiguous genome sequence and annotation. The 1,880,838 bp long chromosome (non-contiguous finished sequence) with its 1,751 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic
obligate anaerobic; motile; curved rods; organotrophic; S0-reduction; cyanobacterial mat; Synergistaceae; Synergistetes; GEBA
Litoreibacter arenae Kim et al. 2012 is a member of the genomically well-characterized Rhodobacteraceae clade within the Roseobacter clade. Representatives of this clade are known to be metabolically versatile and involved in marine carbon-producing and biogeochemical processes. They form a physiologically heterogeneous group of Alphaproteobacteria and were mostly found in coastal or polar waters, especially in symbiosis with algae, in microbial mats, in sediments or together with invertebrates and vertebrates. Here we describe the features of L. arenae DSM 19593T, including novel aspects of its phenotype, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation. The 3,690,113 bp long genome consists of 17 scaffolds with 3,601 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes. This genome was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
marine; rod-shaped; sea sand; sediment; motile; strictly aerobic; mesophile; chemoorganotrophic; halophilic; virus-like structures; carbon monoxide utilization; sulfur oxidation; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria; Thalassobacter arenae
Saccharomonospora cyanea Runmao et al. 1988 is a member of the genus Saccharomonospora in the family Pseudonocardiaceae that is moderately well characterized at the genome level thus far. Members of the genus Saccharomonospora are of interest because they originate from diverse habitats, such as soil, leaf litter, manure, compost, surface of peat, moist, over-heated grain, and ocean sediment, where they probably play a role in the primary degradation of plant material by attacking hemicellulose. Species of the genus Saccharomonospora are usually Gram-positive, non-acid fast, and are classified among the actinomycetes. S. cyanea is characterized by a dark blue (= cyan blue) aerial mycelium. After S. viridis, S. azurea, and S. marina, S. cyanea is only the fourth member in the genus for which a completely sequenced (non-contiguous finished draft status) type strain genome will be published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence, and annotation. The 5,408,301 bp long chromosome with its 5,139 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE funded Community Sequencing Program (CSP) 2010 at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI).
draft genome; aerobic; chemoheterotrophic; Gram-positive; vegetative and aerial mycelia; spore-forming; non-motile; soil bacterium; Pseudonocardiaceae; CSP 2010
Leisingera aquimarina Vandecandelaere et al. 2008 is a member of the genomically well characterized Roseobacter clade within the family Rhodobacteraceae. Representatives of the marine Roseobacter clade are metabolically versatile and involved in carbon fixation and biogeochemical processes. They form a physiologically heterogeneous group, found predominantly in coastal or polar waters, especially in symbiosis with algae, in microbial mats, in sediments or associated with invertebrates. Here we describe the features of L. aquimarina DSM 24565T together with the permanent-draft genome sequence and annotation. The 5,344,253 bp long genome consists of one chromosome and an unusually high number of seven extrachromosomal elements and contains 5,129 protein-coding and 89 RNA genes. It was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2010 and of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
marine; biofilm; ovoid-shaped; halotolerant; heterotrophic; quorum sensing; plasmid; thiosulfate oxidation; carbon monoxide utilization; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria
Rubellimicrobium thermophilum Denner et al. 2006 is the type species of the genus Rubellimicrobium, a representative of the Roseobacter clade within the Rhodobacteraceae. Members of this clade were shown to be abundant especially in coastal and polar waters, but were also found in microbial mats and sediments. They are metabolically versatile and form a physiologically heterogeneous group within the Alphaproteobacteria. Strain C-Ivk-R2A-2T was isolated from colored deposits in a pulp dryer; however, its natural habitat is so far unknown. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the draft genome sequence and annotation and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 3,161,245 bp long genome contains 3,243 protein-coding and 45 RNA genes.
rod-shaped; reddish-pigmented; thermophile; chemoheterotrophic; prophage-like structures; Rhodobacteraceae; Roseobacter clade; Alphaproteobacteria
Phaeobacter arcticus Zhang et al. 2008 belongs to the marine Roseobacter clade whose members are phylogenetically and physiologically diverse. In contrast to the type species of this genus, Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, which is well characterized, relatively little is known about the characteristics of P. arcticus. Here, we describe the features of this organism including the annotated high-quality draft genome sequence and highlight some particular traits. The 5,049,232 bp long genome with its 4,828 protein-coding and 81 RNA genes consists of one chromosome and five extrachromosomal elements. Prophage sequences identified via PHAST constitute nearly 5% of the bacterial chromosome and included a potential Mu-like phage as well as a gene-transfer agent (GTA). In addition, the genome of strain DSM 23566T encodes all of the genes necessary for assimilatory nitrate reduction. Phylogenetic analysis and intergenomic distances indicate that the classification of the species might need to be reconsidered.
aerobic; psychrophilic; motile; high-quality draft; prophage-like structures; extrachromosomal elements; assimilatory nitrate reduction; Alphaproteobacteria; Roseobacter clade
In 2009 Phaeobacter caeruleus was described as a novel species affiliated with the marine Roseobacter clade, which, in turn, belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria. The genus Phaeobacter is well known for members that produce various secondary metabolites. Here we report of putative quorum sensing systems, based on the finding of six N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthetases, and show that the blue color of P. caeruleus is probably due to the production of the secondary metabolite indigoidine. Therefore, P. caeruleus might have inhibitory effects on other bacteria. In this study the genome of the type strain DSM 24564T was sequenced, annotated and characterized. The 5,344,419 bp long genome with its seven plasmids contains 5,227 protein-coding genes (3,904 with a predicted function) and 108 RNA genes.
biofilm; motile; indigoidine; quorum sensing; siderophores; Rhodobacteraceae; Alphaproteobacteria
Biotechnological approaches using genetic modifications such as homologous gene overexpression can be used to decode gene functions under well-defined circumstances. However, only the recording of the resulting phenotypes allows inferences about the impact of the modification on the organisms’ evolutionary, ecological or economic performance. We here compare a potato wild-type cell line with two genetically engineered cell cultures homologously overexpressing Pathogenesis Related Protein 10a (pr-10a). A detailed analysis of the relative gene-expression patterns of pr-10a and its regulators sebf and pti4 over time provides insights into the molecular response of heterotrophic cells to distinct osmotic and salt-stress conditions. Furthermore, this system serves as an exemplar for the tracing of respiration kinetics as a faster and more sensitive alternative to the laborious and time-consuming recording of growth curves. The utility and characteristics of the resulting data type and the requirements for its appropriate analysis are figured out. It is demonstrated how this novel type of phenotypic information together with the gene-expression-data provides valuable insights into the effect of genetic modifications on the behaviour of cells on both the molecular and the macroscopic level.
pathogenesis related protein 10a; cell-respiration; TTC; Solanum tuberosum cv. Désirée
Leptonema illini Hovind-Hougen 1979 is the type species of the genus Leptonema, family Leptospiraceae, phylum Spirochaetes. Organisms of this family have a Gram-negative-like cell envelope consisting of a cytoplasmic membrane and an outer membrane. The peptidoglycan layer is associated with the cytoplasmic rather than the outer membrane. The two flagella of members of Leptospiraceae extend from the cytoplasmic membrane at the ends of the bacteria into the periplasmic space and are necessary for their motility. Here we describe the features of the L. illini type strain, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first genome sequence (finished at the level of Improved High Quality Draft) to be reported from of a member of the genus Leptonema and a representative of the third genus of the family Leptospiraceae for which complete or draft genome sequences are now available. The three scaffolds of the 4,522,760 bp draft genome sequence reported here, and its 4,230 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes are part of the Genomic
Gram-negative; flexible; motile; cytoplasmatic tubules; non-sporulating; axial flagella; aerobic; chemoorganotrophic; Leptospiraceae; GEBA