The development and progress in synthetic biology has been remarkable. Although still in its infancy, synthetic biology has achieved much during the past decade. Improvements in genetic circuit design have increased the potential for clinical applicability of synthetic biology research. What began as simple transcriptional gene switches has rapidly developed into a variety of complex regulatory circuits based on the transcriptional, translational and post-translational regulation. Instead of compounds with potential pharmacologic side effects, the inducer molecules now used are metabolites of the human body and even members of native cell signaling pathways. In this review, we address recent progress in mammalian synthetic biology circuit design and focus on how novel designs push synthetic biology toward clinical implementation. Groundbreaking research on the implementation of optogenetics and intercellular communications is addressed, as particularly optogenetics provides unprecedented opportunities for clinical application. Along with an increase in synthetic network complexity, multicellular systems are now being used to provide a platform for next-generation circuit design.
gene circuits; mammalian designer devices; synthetic biology
Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic control devices, gene circuits and networks that can reprogram mammalian cells in a trigger-inducible manner. Prokaryotic helix-turn-helix motifs have become the standard resource to design synthetic mammalian transcription factors that tune chimeric promoters in a small molecule-responsive manner. We have identified a family of Actinomycetes transcriptional repressor proteins showing a tandem TetR-family signature and have used a synthetic biology-inspired approach to reveal the potential control dynamics of these bi-partite regulators. Daisy-chain assembly of well-characterized prokaryotic repressor proteins such as TetR, ScbR, TtgR or VanR and fusion to either the Herpes simplex transactivation domain VP16 or the Krueppel-associated box domain (KRAB) of the human kox-1 gene resulted in synthetic bi- and even tri-partite mammalian transcription factors that could reversibly program their individual chimeric or hybrid promoters for trigger-adjustable transgene expression using tetracycline (TET), γ-butyrolactones, phloretin and vanillic acid. Detailed characterization of the bi-partite ScbR-TetR-VP16 (ST-TA) transcription factor revealed independent control of TET- and γ-butyrolactone-responsive promoters at high and double-pole double-throw (DPDT) relay switch qualities at low intracellular concentrations. Similar to electromagnetically operated mechanical DPDT relay switches that control two electric circuits by a fully isolated low-power signal, TET programs ST-TA to progressively switch from TetR-specific promoter-driven expression of transgene one to ScbR-specific promoter-driven transcription of transgene two while ST-TA flips back to exclusive transgene 1 expression in the absence of the trigger antibiotic. We suggest that natural repressors and activators with tandem TetR-family signatures may also provide independent as well as DPDT-mediated control of two sets of transgenes in bacteria, and that their synthetic transcription-factor analogs may enable the design of compact therapeutic gene circuits for gene and cell-based therapies.
Ethionamide (ETH) is a second-line drug for the treatment of tuberculosis. As a prodrug, ETH has to be activated by EthA. ethA is controlled by its repressor EthR. 2-Phenylethyl-butyrate (2-PEB) inhibits EthR binding, enhances expression of EthA, and thereby enhances the growth-inhibitory effects of ethionamide, isoxyl, and thiacetazone in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with resistance to ETH due to inhA promoter mutations but not ethA mutations.
Trigger-inducible transcription-control devices that reversibly fine-tune transgene expression in response to molecular cues have significantly advanced the rational reprogramming of mammalian cells. When designed for use in future gene- and cell-based therapies the trigger molecules have to be carefully chosen in order to provide maximum specificity, minimal side-effects and optimal pharmacokinetics in a mammalian organism. Capitalizing on control components that enable Caulobacter crescentus to metabolize vanillic acid originating from lignin degradation that occurs in its oligotrophic freshwater habitat, we have designed synthetic devices that specifically adjust transgene expression in mammalian cells when exposed to vanillic acid. Even in mice transgene expression was robust, precise and tunable in response to vanillic acid. As a licensed food additive that is regularly consumed by humans via flavoured convenience food and specific fresh vegetable and fruits, vanillic acid can be considered as a safe trigger molecule that could be used for diet-controlled transgene expression in future gene- and cell-based therapies.
Aptamers binding proteins or small molecules have been shown to be versatile and powerful building blocks for the construction of artificial genetic switches. In this study, we present a novel aptamer-based construct regulating the Tet Off system in a tetracycline-independent manner thus achieving control of transgene expression. For this purpose, a TetR protein-inhibiting aptamer was engineered for use in mammalian cells, enabling the RNA-responsive control of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator (tTA). By rationally attaching the theophylline aptamer as a sensor, the inhibitory TetR aptamer and thus tTA activity became dependent on the ligand of the sensor aptamer. Addition of the small molecule theophylline resulted in enhanced binding to the corresponding protein in vitro and in inhibition of reporter gene expression in mammalian cell lines. By using aptamers as adaptors in order to control protein activity by a predetermined small molecule, we present a simple and straightforward approach for future applications in the field of Chemical Biology. Moreover, aptamer-based control of the widely used Tet system introduces a new layer of regulation thereby facilitating the construction of more complex gene networks.
Gene expression circuitries, which enable cells to detect precise levels within a morphogen concentration gradient, have a pivotal impact on biological processes such as embryonic pattern formation, paracrine and autocrine signalling, and cellular migration. We present the rational synthesis of a synthetic genetic circuit exhibiting band-pass detection characteristics. The components, involving multiply linked mammalian trans-activator and -repressor control systems, were selected and fine-tuned to enable the detection of ‘low-threshold’ morphogen (tetracycline) concentrations, in which target gene expression was triggered, and a ‘high-threshold’ concentration, in which expression was muted. In silico predictions and supporting experimental findings indicated that the key criterion for functional band-pass detection was the matching of componentry that enabled sufficient separation of the low and high threshold points. Using the circuitry together with a fluorescence-encoded target gene, mammalian cells were genetically engineered to be capable of forming a band-like pattern of differentiation in response to a tetracycline chemical gradient. Synthetic gene networks designed to emulate naturally occurring gene behaviours provide not only insight into biological processes, but may also foster progress in future tissue engineering, gene therapy and biosensing applications.
Circadian clocks have long been known to be essential for the maintenance of physiological and behavioral processes in a variety of organisms ranging from plants to humans. Dysfunctions that subvert gene expression of oscillatory circadian-clock components may result in severe pathologies, including tumors and metabolic disorders. While the underlying molecular mechanisms and dynamics of complex gene behavior are not fully understood, synthetic approaches have provided substantial insight into the operation of complex control circuits, including that of oscillatory networks. Using iterative cycles of mathematical model-guided design and experimental analyses, we have developed a novel low-frequency mammalian oscillator. It incorporates intronically encoded siRNA-based silencing of the tetracycline-dependent transactivator to enable the autonomous and robust expression of a fluorescent transgene with periods of 26 h, a circadian clock-like oscillatory behavior. Using fluorescence-based time-lapse microscopy of engineered CHO-K1 cells, we profiled expression dynamics of a destabilized yellow fluorescent protein variant in single cells and real time. The novel oscillator design may enable further insights into the system dynamics of natural periodic processes as well as into siRNA-mediated transcription silencing. It may foster advances in design, analysis and application of complex synthetic systems in future gene therapy initiatives.
Selection of mammalian high-producer cell lines remains a major challenge for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes encode the major component of the ribosome but many rRNA gene copies are not transcribed – due to epigenetic silencing by the nucleolar remodelling complex (NoRC) , which may limit the cell's full production capacity. Here we show that the knockdown of TIP5, a subunit of NoRC, decreases the number of silent rRNA genes, upregulates rRNA transcription, enhances ribosome synthesis and increases production of recombinant proteins. However, general enhancement of rRNA transcription rate did not stimulate protein synthesis. Our data demonstrates that the number of transcriptionally competent rRNA genes limits efficient ribosome synthesis. Epigenetic engineering of ribosomal RNA genes offers new possibilities for improving biopharmaceutical manufacturing and provides novel insights into the complex regulatory network which governs the translation machinery in normal cellular processes as well as in pathological conditions like cancer.
Electric signal processing has evolved to manage rapid information transfer in neuronal networks and muscular contraction in multicellular organisms and controls the most sophisticated man-built devices. Using a synthetic biology approach to assemble electronic parts with genetic control units engineered into mammalian cells, we designed an electric power-adjustable transcription control circuit able to integrate the intensity of a direct current over time, to translate the amplitude or frequency of an alternating current into an adjustable genetic readout or to modulate the beating frequency of primary heart cells. Successful miniaturization of the electro-genetic devices may pave the way for the design of novel hybrid electro-genetic implants assembled from electronic and genetic parts.
Applications of conditional gene expression, whether for therapeutic or basic research purposes, are increasingly requiring mammalian gene control systems that exhibit far tighter control properties. While numerous approaches have been used to improve the widely used Tet-regulatory system, many applications, particularly with respect to the engineering of synthetic gene networks, will require a broader range of tightly performing gene control systems. Here, a generically applicable approach is described that utilizes intronically encoded siRNA on the relevant transregulator construct, and siRNA sequence-specific tags on the reporter construct, to minimize basal gene activity in the off-state of a range of common gene control systems. To demonstrate tight control of residual expression the approach was successfully used to conditionally express the toxic proteins RipDD and Linamarase. The intronic siRNA concept was also extended to create a new generation of compact, single-vector, autoinducible siRNA vectors. Finally, using improved regulation systems a mammalian epigenetic toggle switch was engineered that exhibited superior in vitro and in vivo induction characteristics in mice compared to the equivalent non-intronic system.
Adjustable gene expression is crucial in a number of applications such as de- or transdifferentiation of cell phenotypes, tissue engineering, various production processes as well as gene-therapy initiatives. Viral vectors, based on the Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) type 2, have emerged as one of the most promising types of vectors for therapeutic applications due to excellent transduction efficiencies of a broad variety of dividing and mitotically inert cell types and due to their unique safety features.
We designed recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors for the regulated expression of transgenes in different configurations. We integrated the macrolide-responsive E.REX systems (EON and EOFF) into rAAV backbones and investigated the delivery and expression of intracellular as well as secreted transgenes for binary set-ups and for self- and auto-regulated one-vector configurations. Extensive quantitative analysis of an array of vectors revealed a high level of adjustability as well as tight transgene regulation with low levels of leaky expression, both crucial for therapeutical applications. We tested the performance of the different vectors in selected biotechnologically and therapeutically relevant cell types (CHO-K1, HT-1080, NHDF, MCF-7). Moreover, we investigated key characteristics of the systems, such as reversibility and adjustability to the regulating agent, to determine promising candidates for in vivo studies. To validate the functionality of delivery and regulation we performed in vivo studies by injecting particles, coding for compact self-regulated expression units, into mice and adjusting transgene expression.
Capitalizing on established safety features and a track record of high transduction efficiencies of mammalian cells, adeno- associated virus type 2 were successfully engineered to provide new powerful tools for macrolide-adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells as well as in mice.
For optimal compatibility with biopharmaceutical manufacturing and gene therapy, heterologous transgene control systems must be responsive to side-effect-free physiologic inducer molecules. The arginine-inducible interaction of the ArgR repressor and the ArgR-specific ARG box, which synchronize arginine import and synthesis in the intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae, was engineered for arginine-regulated transgene (ART) expression in mammalian cells. A synthetic arginine-responsive transactivator (ARG), consisting of ArgR fused to the Herpes simplex VP16 transactivation domain, reversibly adjusted transgene transcription of chimeric ARG box-containing mammalian minimal promoters (PART) in an arginine-inducible manner. Arginine-controlled transgene expression showed rapid induction kinetics in a variety of mammalian cell lines and was adjustable and reversible at concentrations which were compatible with host cell physiology. ART variants containing different transactivation domains, variable spacing between ARG box and minimal promoter and several tandem ARG boxes showed modified regulation performance tailored for specific expression scenarios and cell types. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for ART-inducible expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) exhibited adjustable serum phosphatase levels after treatment with different arginine doses. Using a physiologic inducer, such as the amino acid l-arginine, to control heterologous transgenes in a seamless manner which is devoid of noticeable metabolic interference will foster novel opportunities for precise expression dosing in future gene therapy scenarios as well as the manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein pharmaceuticals.
Although adjustable transgene expression systems are considered essential for future therapeutic and biopharmaceutical manufacturing applications, the currently available transcription control modalities all require side-effect-prone inducers such as immunosupressants, hormones and antibiotics for fine-tuning. We have designed a novel mammalian transcription-control system, which is reversibly fine-tuned by non-toxic vitamin H (also referred to as biotin). Ligation of vitamin H, by engineered Escherichia coli biotin ligase (BirA), to a synthetic biotinylation signal fused to the tetracycline-dependent transactivator (tTA), enables heterodimerization of tTA to a streptavidin-linked transrepressor domain (KRAB), thereby abolishing tTA-mediated transactivation of specific target promoters. As heterodimerization of tTA to KRAB is ultimately conditional upon the presence of vitamin H, the system is vitamin H responsive. Transgenic Chinese hamster ovary cells, engineered for vitamin H-responsive gene expression, showed high-level, adjustable and reversible production of a human model glycoprotein in bench-scale culture systems, bioreactor-based biopharmaceutical manufacturing scenarios, and after implantation into mice. The vitamin H-responsive expression systems showed unique band pass filter-like regulation features characterized by high-level expression at low (0–2 nM biotin), maximum repression at intermediate (100–1000 nM biotin), and high-level expression at increased (>100 000 nM biotin) biotin concentrations. Sequential ON-to-OFF-to-ON, ON-to-OFF and OFF-to-ON expression profiles with graded expression transitions can all be achieved by simply increasing the level of a single inducer molecule without exchanging the culture medium. These novel expression characteristics mediated by an FDA-licensed inducer may foster advances in therapeutic cell engineering and manufacturing of difficult-to-produce protein therapeutics.
The straightforward production and dose-controlled administration of protein therapeutics remain major challenges for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing and gene therapy communities. Transgenes linked to HIV-1-derived vpr and pol-based protease cleavage (PC) sequences were co-produced as chimeric fusion proteins in a lentivirus production setting, encapsidated and processed to fusion peptide-free native protein in pseudotyped lentivirions for intracellular delivery and therapeutic action in target cells. Devoid of viral genome sequences, protein-transducing nanoparticles (PTNs) enabled transient and dose-dependent delivery of therapeutic proteins at functional quantities into a variety of mammalian cells in the absence of host chromosome modifications. PTNs delivering Manihot esculenta linamarase into rodent or human, tumor cell lines and spheroids mediated hydrolysis of the innocuous natural prodrug linamarin to cyanide and resulted in efficient cell killing. Following linamarin injection into nude mice, linamarase-transducing nanoparticles impacted solid tumor development through the bystander effect of cyanide.
We describe the design and detailed characterization of 6-hydroxy-nicotine (6HNic)-adjustable transgene expression (NICE) systems engineered for lentiviral transduction and in vivo modulation of angiogenic responses. Arthrobacter nicotinovorans pAO1 encodes a unique catabolic machinery on its plasmid pAO1, which enables this Gram-positive soil bacterium to use the tobacco alkaloid nicotine as the exclusive carbon source. The 6HNic-responsive repressor-operator (HdnoR-ONIC) interaction, controlling 6HNic oxidase production in A.nicotinovorans pAO1, was engineered for generic 6HNic-adjustable transgene expression in mammalian cells. HdnoR fused to different transactivation domains retained its ONIC-binding capacity in mammalian cells and reversibly adjusted transgene transcription from chimeric ONIC-containing promoters (PNIC; ONIC fused to a minimal eukaryotic promoter [Pmin]) in a 6HNic-responsive manner. The combination of transactivators containing various transactivation domains with promoters differing in the number of operator modules as well as in their relative inter-ONIC and/or ONIC-Pmin spacing revealed steric constraints influencing overall NICE regulation performance in mammalian cells. Mice implanted with microencapsulated cells engineered for NICE-controlled expression of the human glycoprotein secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) showed high SEAP serum levels in the absence of regulating 6HNic. 6HNic was unable to modulate SEAP expression, suggesting that this nicotine derivative exhibits control-incompatible pharmacokinetics in mice. However, chicken embryos transduced with HIV-1-derived self-inactivating lentiviral particles transgenic for NICE-adjustable expression of the human vascular endothelial growth factor 121 (VEGF121) showed graded 6HNic response following administration of different 6HNic concentrations. Owing to the clinically inert and highly water-soluble compound 6HNic, NICE-adjustable transgene control systems may become a welcome alternative to available drug-responsive homologs in basic research, therapeutic cell engineering and biopharmaceutical manufacturing.
Adjustable transgene expression is considered key for next-generation molecular interventions in gene therapy scenarios, therapeutic reprogramming of clinical cell phenotypes for tissue engineering and sophisticated gene-function analyses in the post-genomic era. We have designed a portfolio of latest generation self-inactivating human (HIV-derived) and non-human (EIAV-based) lentiviral expression vectors engineered for streptogramin-adjustable expression of reporter (AmySΔS, EYFP, SAMY, SEAP), differentiation-modulating (human C/EBP-α) and therapeutic (human VEGF) transgenes in a variety of rodent (CHO-K1, C2C12) and human cell lines (HT-1080, K-562), human and mouse primary cells (NHDF, PBMC, CD4+) as well as chicken embryos. Lentiviral design concepts include (i) binary systems harboring constitutive streptogramin-dependent transactivator (PIT) and PIT-responsive transgene expression units on separate lentivectors; (ii) streptogramin-responsive promoters (PPIR8) placed 5′ of desired transgenes; (iii) within modified enhancer-free 3′-long terminal repeats; and (iv) bidirectional autoregulated configurations providing streptogramin-responsive transgene expression in a lentiviral one-vector format. Rigorous quantitative analysis revealed HIV-based direct PPIR-transgene configurations to provide optimal regulation performance for (i) adjustable expression of intracellular and secreted product proteins, (ii) regulated differential differentiation of muscle precursor cell lines into adipocytes or osteoblasts and (iii) conditional vascularization fine-tuning in chicken embryos. Similar performance could be achieved by engineering streptogramin-responsive transgene expression into an autoregulated one-vector format. Powerful transduction systems equipped with adjustable transcription modulation options are expected to greatly advance sophisticated molecular interventions in clinically and/or biotechnologically relevant primary cells and cell lines.
CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) as well as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play essential roles in mammalian cell differentiation in shaping adipogenic and osteoblastic lineages in particular. Recent evidence suggested that adipocytes and osteoblasts share a common mesenchymal precursor cell phenotype. Yet, the molecular details underlying the decision of adipocyte versus osteoblast differentiation as well as the involvement of C/EBPs and BMPs remains elusive. We have engineered C2C12 cells for dual-regulated expression of human C/EBP-α and BMP-2 to enable independent transcription control of both differentiation factors using clinically licensed antibiotics of the streptogramin (pristinamycin) and tetracycline (tetracycline) classes. Differential as well as coordinated expression of C/EBP-α and BMP-2 revealed that (i) C/EBP-α may differentiate C2C12 myoblasts into adipocytes as well as osteoblasts, (ii) BMP-2 prevents myotube differentiation, (iii) is incompetent in differentiating C2C12 into osteoblasts and (iv) even decreases C/EBP-α’s osteoblast-specific differentiation potential but (v) cooperates with C/EBP-α on adipocyte differentiation, (vi) osteoblast formation occurs at low C/EBP-α levels while adipocyte-specific differentiation requires maximum C/EBP-α expression and that (vii) BMP-2 may bias the C/EBP-α-mediated adipocyte versus osteoblast differentiation switch towards fat cell formation. Dual-regulated expression technology enabled precise insight into combinatorial effects of two key differentiation factors involved in adipocyte/osteoblast lineage control which could be implemented in rational reprogramming of multipotent cells into desired cell phenotypes tailored for gene therapy and tissue engineering.
One of the major challenges in the post-genome era is the correlation between genes and function or phenotype. We have pioneered a strategy for screening of cDNA libraries, which is based on sequential combination of lentiviral and oncoretroviral expression systems and can be used to identify proliferation-modulating genes. Screening of a lentiviral expression library derived from adult human brain cDNA resulted in cloning of the potent proliferation-inducing determinant termed pi1 (proliferation inducer 1). Transduction experiments using GFP-expressing oncoretroviruses to target proliferation-competent cells suggested that overexpression of pi1 initiates proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Growth induction of HUVECs as well as Swiss3T3 fibroblasts was confirmed by Brd-uridine incorporation assays, which correlated increased DNA synthesis with expression of pi1. The identified pi1 cDNA is 297 bp long and encodes a 10 kDa polypeptide. Since deregulation of proliferation control accounts for a number of today’s untreatable human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, discovery of novel proliferation-modulating genes is essential for developing new strategies for gene therapy and tissue engineering.
Prokaryotic transcriptional regulatory elements have been adopted for controlled expression of cloned genes in mammalian cells and animals, the cornerstone for gene-function correlations, drug discovery, biopharmaceutical manufacturing as well as advanced gene therapy and tissue engineering. Many prokaryotes have evolved specific molecular communication systems known as quorum-sensing to coordinate population-wide responses to physiological and/or physicochemical signals. A generic bacterial quorum-sensing system is based on a diffusible signal molecule that prevents binding of a repressor to corresponding operator sites thus resulting in derepression of a target regulon. In Streptomyces, a family of butyrolactones and their corresponding receptor proteins, serve as quorum-sensing systems that control morphological development and antibiotic biosynthesis. Fusion of the Streptomyces coelicolor quorum-sensing receptor (ScbR) to a eukaryotic transactivation domain (VP16) created a mammalian transactivator (SCA) which binds and adjusts transcription from chimeric promoters containing an SCA-specific operator module (PSPA). Expression of erythropoietin or the human secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) by this quorum-sensor-regulated gene expression system (QuoRex) could be fine-tuned by non-toxic butyrolactones in a variety of mammalian cells including human primary and mouse embryonic stem cells. Following intraperitoneal implantation of microencapsulated Chinese hamster ovary cells transgenic for QuoRex-controlled SEAP expression into mice, the serum levels of this model glycoprotein could be adjusted to desired concentrations using different butyrolactone dosing regimes.
Advanced heterologous transcription control systems for adjusting desired transgene expression are essential for gene function assignments, drug discovery, manufacturing of difficult to produce protein pharmaceuticals and precise dosing of gene-based therapeutic interventions. Conversion of the Streptomyces albus heat shock response regulator (RheA) into an artificial eukaryotic transcription factor resulted in a vertebrate thermosensor (CTA; cold-inducible transactivator), which is able to adjust transcription initiation from chimeric target promoters (PCTA) in a low-temperature- inducible manner. Evaluation of the temperature-dependent CTA–PCTA interaction using a tailored ELISA-like cell-free assay correlated increased affinity of CTA for PCTA with temperature downshift. The temperature-inducible gene regulation (TIGR) system enabled tight repression in the chicken bursal B-cell line DT40 at 41°C as well as precise titration of model product proteins up to maximum expression at or below 37°C. Implantation of microencapsulated DT40 cells engineered for TIGR-controlled expression of the human vascular endothelial growth factor A (hVEGF121) provided low-temperature-induced VEGF-mediated vascularization in chicken embryos.
In recent years, lentiviral expression systems have gained an unmatched reputation among the gene therapy community for their ability to deliver therapeutic transgenes into a wide variety of difficult-to-transfect/transduce target tissues (brain, hematopoietic system, liver, lung, retina) without eliciting significant humoral immune responses. We have cloned a construction kit-like self-inactivating lentiviral expression vector family which is compatible to state-of-the-art packaging and pseudotyping technologies and contains, besides essential cis-acting lentiviral sequences, (i) unparalleled polylinkers with up to 29 unique sites for restriction endonucleases, many of which recognize 8 bp motifs, (ii) strong promoters derived from the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (PhCMV) or the human elongation factor 1α (PhEF1α), (iii) PhCMV– or PPGK– (phosphoglycerate kinase promoter) driven G418 resistance markers or fluorescent protein-based expression tracers and (iv) tricistronic expression cassettes for coordinated expression of up to three transgenes. In addition, we have designed a size-optimized series of highly modular lentiviral expression vectors (pLenti Module) which contain, besides the extensive central polylinker, unique restriction sites flanking any of the 5′U3, R-U5-ψ+-SD, cPPT-RRE-SA and 3′LTRΔU3 modules or placed within the 5′U3 (–78 bp) and 3′LTRΔU3 (8666 bp). pLentiModule enables straightforward cassette-type module swapping between lentiviral expression vector family members and facilitates the design of Tat-independent (replacement of 5′LTR by heterologous promoter elements), regulated and self-excisable proviruses (insertion of responsive operators or LoxP in the 3′LTRΔU3 element). We have validated our lentiviral expression vectors by transduction of a variety of insect, chicken, murine and human cell lines as well as adult rat cardiomyocytes, rat hippocampal slices and chicken embryos. The novel multi-purpose construction kit-like vector series described here is compatible with itself as well as many other (non-viral) mammalian expression vectors for straightforward exchange of key components (e.g. promoters, LTRs, resistance genes) and will assist the gene therapy and tissue engineering communities in developing lentiviral expression vectors tailored for optimal treatment of prominent human diseases.
We constructed a dual regulated expression vector cassette (pDuoRex)
whereby two heterologous genes can be independently regulated via
streptogramin- and tetracycline-responsive promoters. Two different
constructs containing growth-promoting and growth-inhibiting genes
were stably transfected in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)
cells that express the streptogramin- and tetracycline-dependent
transactivators in a dicistronic configuration. An optimally balanced
heterologous growth control scenario was achieved by reciprocal
expression of the growth-inhibiting human cyclin-dependent kinase
inhibitor p27Kip1 in sense (p27Kip1S) and
antisense (p27Kip1AS) orientation. Exclusive expression
of p27Kip1S resulted in complete G1-phase-specific
growth arrest, while expression of only p27Kip1AS showed
significantly increased proliferation compared to control cultures
(both antibiotics present), presumably by decreasing host cell p27Kip1 expression.
In a second system, a derivative of pDuoRex encoding streptogramin-responsive expression
of the growth-promoting SV40 small T antigen (sT) and tetracycline-regulated
expression of p27Kip1 was stably transfected into CHO
cells. Expression of sT alone resulted in an increase in cell proliferation,
but the expression of p27Kip1 failed to provide the expected
G1-specific growth arrest despite having demonstrated
expression of the protein. This illustrates the difficulty in balancing
the complex pathways underlying cell proliferation control through
the expression of two functionally distinct genes involved in those
pathways, and how a single-gene sense/antisense approach
using pDuoRex can overcome this barrier to complete metabolic engineering
Using multicistronic expression technology we generated a stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (MG12) expressing a model secreted heterologous glycoprotein, the secreted form of the human placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP), and bcl-2, best known as an apoptosis inhibitor, in a tetracycline-repressible dicistronic configuration. In batch cultivations in serum-containing medium, MG12 cells reached twice the final viable cell density when Bcl-2 was overexpressed (in the absence oftetracycline) compared to MG12 populations culturedunder tetracycline-containing conditions (bcl-2repressed). However, bcl-2-expressing MG12 cellsshowed no significant retardation of the decline phasecompared to batch cultures in which the dicistronicexpression unit was repressed.Genetic linkage of bcl-2 expression with the reporter protein SEAP in our multicistronic construct allowed online monitoring of Bcl-2 expression over an extended, multistage fixed-bed bioreactor cultivation. The cloned multicistronic expression unit proved to be stable over a 100 day bioreactor run. CHO MG12 cells in the fixed-bed reactor showed a drastic decrease in the release of DNA into the culture supernatant under conditions of reduced tetracycline (and hencederepressed SEAP and bcl-2 overexpression). This observation indicated enhanced robustness associated with bcl-2 overexpression, similar to recent findings for constitutive Bcl-2-overexpressing hybridoma cells under the same bioprocess conditions. These findings indicate, in these serum-containing CHO cell cultures, that overexpression of Bcl-2 results in desirable modifications in culture physiology.
apoptosis; Bcl-2; fixed-bed reactor; regulated gene expression
Contemporary basic research is rapidly revealing increasingly complex molecular regulatory networks which are often interconnected via key signal integrators. These connections among regulatory and catalytic networks often frustrate bioengineers as promising metabolic engineering strategies are bypassed by compensatory metabolic responses or cause unexpected, undesired outcomes such as apoptosis, product protein degradation or inappropriate post- translational modification. Therefore, for metabolic engineering to achieve greater success in mammalian cell culture processes and to become important for future applications such as gene therapy and tissue engineering, this technology must be enhanced to allow simultaneous, in cases conditional, reshaping of metabolic pathways to access difficult-to-attain cell states. Recent advances in this new territory of multigene metabolic engineering are intimately linked to the development of multicistronic expression technology which allows the simultaneous, and in some cases, regulated expression of several genes in mammalian cells. Here we review recent achievements in multicistronic expression technology in view of multigene metabolic engineering.
autoregulation; cell-cycle engineering; eukaryotic operon; IRES; multigene engineering; picornavirus; pTRIDENT; regulated expression
Based on internal ribosomal entry sites (IRES) of picornaviral origin we constructed a novel family of mammalian expression vectors. pQuattro vectors contain quattrocistronic artificial eukaryotic operons which link, in a single transcript, the simultaneous and coordinated as well as adjustable expression of up to three independent genes of interest to a terminal neomycin (neo) resistance marker. Due to the strict genetic linkage of the transgenes and the terminal selection marker, this genetic configuration enables, by the selection on neomycin, multigene metabolic engineering of mammalian cells in a single step (one-step metabolic engineering). Furthermore, selection on the terminal cistron of multicistronic expression units enforces cocistronic expression of all upstream encoded genes and maximises genetic integrity of the eukaryotic operon in stable mammalian cell lines, since clones harbouring damaged multicistronic expression units become neomycin-sensitive and are automatically counterselected (auto-selection). The modular set-up and the abundance of restriction sites in pQuattro vectors facilitate the movement of individual genes between multicistronic expression vectors and guarantees high compatibility with genetic elements of a wide variety of existing mammalian expression vectors.
CITE; EMCV; GFP; IRES; picornavirus