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1.  Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Rats Rendered Follicle-Deplete by an Ovotoxic Chemical Correlates with Changes in Follicle-Stimulating Hormone and Inhibin A 
Calcified Tissue International  2012;90(3):239-249.
Bone loss during perimenopause, an estrogen-sufficient period, correlates with elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and decreased inhibins A and B. Utilizing a recently described ovotoxin-induced animal model of perimenopause characterized by a prolonged estrogen-replete period of elevated FSH, we examined longitudinal changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and their association with FSH. Additionally, serum inhibin levels were assessed to determine whether elevated FSH occurred secondary to decreased ovarian inhibin production and, if so, whether inhibins also correlated with BMD. BMD of the distal femur was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) over 19 months in Sprague-Dawley rats treated at 1 month with vehicle or 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 80 or 160 mg/kg daily). Serum FSH, inhibins A and B, and 17-ß estradiol (E2) were assayed and estrus cyclicity was assessed. VCD caused dose-dependent increases in FSH that exceeded values occurring with natural senescence, hastening the onset and prolonging the duration of persistent estrus, an acyclic but E2-replete period. VCD decreased serum inhibins A and B, which were inversely correlated with FSH (r2 = 0.30 and 0.12, respectively). In VCD rats, significant decreases in BMD (5–13%) occurred during periods of increased FSH and decreased inhibins, while BMD was unchanged in controls. In skeletally mature rats, FSH (r2 = 0.13) and inhibin A (r2 = 0.15) correlated with BMD, while inhibin B and E2 did not. Thus, for the first time, both the hormonal milieu of perimenopause and the association of dynamic perimenopausal changes in FSH and inhibin A with decreased BMD have been reproduced in an animal model.
PMCID: PMC3288225  PMID: 22249524
4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide; Follicle-stimulating hormone; Inhibin; Bone; Estradiol; Osteoporosis; Perimenopause
2.  Synovium as a source of increased amino-terminal parathyroid hormone-related protein expression in rheumatoid arthritis. A possible role for locally produced parathyroid hormone-related protein in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;101(7):1362-1371.
Proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1), mediate the joint destruction that characterizes rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies have shown that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a member of the cascade of proinflammatory cytokines induced in parenchymal organs during lethal endotoxemia. To test the hypothesis that NH2-terminal PTHrP, a potent bone resorbing agent, could also be a member of the synovial cascade of tissue-destructive cytokines whose expression is induced in RA, PTHrP expression was examined in synovium and synoviocytes obtained from patients with RA and osteoarthritis (OA). PTHrP production, as determined by measurement of immunoreactive PTHrP(1-86) in tissue explant supernatants, was increased 10-fold in RA versus OA synovial tissue. Synovial lining cells and fibroblast-like cells within the pannus expressed both PTHrP and the PTH/PTHrP receptor, findings that were confirmed by in vitro studies of cultured synoviocytes. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta stimulated PTHrP expression in synoviocytes, while dexamethasone and interferon-gamma, agents with some therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of RA, inhibited PTHrP release. Treatment of synoviocytes with PTHrP(1-34) stimulated IL-6 secretion. These results suggest that proinflammatory cytokine-stimulated production of NH2-terminal PTHrP by synovial tissue directly invading cartilage and bone in RA may mediate joint destruction through direct effects on cartilage or bone, or, indirectly, via the induction of mediators of bone resorption in the tumor-like synovium.
PMCID: PMC508713  PMID: 9525978
3.  Parathyroid hormone-related protein is induced during lethal endotoxemia and contributes to endotoxin-induced mortality in rodents. 
Molecular Medicine  1996;2(2):204-210.
BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a ubiquitous and highly conserved vasoactive peptide whose role and regulation in normal physiology remain an enigma. Recently, we demonstrated that low-dose endotoxin (LPS) induces intrasplenic, but not systemic, levels of PTHrP; and that tumor necrosis factor, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is the major mediator of this effect. We have therefore hypothesized that, with higher, lethal doses of endotoxin, PTHrP could be induced in multiple tissues to such a degree that it could contribute to the lethality of septic shock. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Northern blot analysis was used to measure PTHrP mRNA levels in vital organs of rats after administration of a near lethal dose (5 mg/250 g) of LPS (or vehicle alone). Plasma levels of PTHrP were also measured by immunoradiometric assay. The ability of the immunoglobulin fraction of two different PTHrP(1-34) antisera to protect from LPS-induced lethality was also studied in mice using survival analysis. RESULTS: In response to a near-lethal dose of endotoxin, PTHrP mRNA levels increased acutely in every vital organ examined (spleen, lung, heart, kidney, and liver). Circulating levels of PTHrP also increased, peaking 2 hr after administration of high-dose endotoxin. Passive immunization of mice with anti-PTHrP(1-34) antibody 6 hr prior to administration of a lethal dose of LPS protected mice from endotoxin-induced death (p < 0.00005). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PTHrP belongs to the cascade of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced during lethal endotoxemia that is responsible for the toxic effects of LPS.
PMCID: PMC2230122  PMID: 8726463
4.  Role for circulating lipoproteins in protection from endotoxin toxicity. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(5):2041-2046.
Previous studies have shown that endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS])-induced death can be prevented by preincubating LPS with lipoproteins in vitro or by infusing large quantities of lipids into animals prior to LPS administration. In the present study we determined whether physiological levels of lipids also provide protection. Serum lipid levels were decreased by two different mechanisms: administration of 4-aminopyrolo-(3,4-D)pyrimide, which prevents the hepatic secretion of lipoproteins, and administration of pharmacological doses of estradiol, which increases the number of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors, leading to increased lipoprotein clearance. In both hypolipidemic models, LPS-induced mortality is markedly increased compared with that of controls with normal serum lipid levels. In both hypolipidemic models, administration of exogenous lipoproteins, which increase levels of serum lipids into the physiological range, reduces the increased mortality to levels similar to that seen in normal animals. In normal lipidemic animals, 63% of 125I-LPS in plasma is associated with lipoproteins, where it would not be capable of stimulating cytokine production. In contrast, in hypolipidemic animals, very little LPS (12 to 17%) is associated with lipoproteins. Rather, more LPS is in the lipoprotein-free plasma compartment, where it could exert biological effects. In both hypolipidemic models, LPS produces a greater increase in serum tumor necrosis factor levels than it does in controls (three- to fivefold increase), and administration of exogenous lipoproteins prevents this increase. Cytokines, in particular tumor necrosis factor, are responsible for most of the toxic effects of LPS. These data provide evidence that physiological levels of serum lipids protect animals from LPS toxicity. Thus, lipoproteins, in addition to playing a role in lipid transport, may have protective functions. Moreover, as part of the immune response, cytokine-induced increases in serum lipid levels may play a role in host defense by decreasing the toxicities of biological and chemical agents.
PMCID: PMC173262  PMID: 7729918
5.  Endotoxin increases parathyroid hormone-related protein mRNA levels in mouse spleen. Mediation by tumor necrosis factor. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1993;92(5):2546-2552.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) causes hypercalcemia in malignancy. However, the role and regulation of PTHrP in normal physiology is just beginning to be explored. PTHrP is found in the spleen and has several other features common to cytokines. Since endotoxin (LPS) causes many of its effects indirectly by inducing cytokines, studies were undertaken to determine whether LPS might also induce splenic PTHrP expression. LPS (100 ng/mouse) increased splenic PTHrP mRNA levels 3.6-fold in C3H/OuJ mice. This effect was maximal at 2 h and returned to baseline by 4 h. PTHrP peptide levels also increased 3.3-fold in splenic extracts in response to LPS (1 microgram/mouse). Murine TNF-alpha and human IL-1 beta, cytokines that mediate many of the effects of LPS, also increased splenic PTHrP mRNA levels. LPS-resistant C3H/HeJ mice, which produce minimal amounts of TNF and IL-1 in response to LPS, were resistant to LPS induction of splenic PTHrP mRNA, while TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta readily increased PTHrP mRNA levels in C3H/HeJ mice. Anti-TNF antibody blocked LPS induction of splenic PTHrP mRNA in C3H/OuJ mice by 68%, indicating that TNF is a mediator of the LPS induction of PTHrP levels. In contrast, an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was ineffective. The increase in PTHrP in the spleen during the immune response suggests that PTHrP may play an important role in immune modulation, perhaps by mediating changes in lymphocyte proliferation and/or function.
PMCID: PMC288441  PMID: 8227368

Results 1-5 (5)