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1.  High-Resolution Melting Analysis of the TPMT Gene: A Study in the Polish Population 
The thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene encoding thiopurine methyltransferase is a crucial enzyme in metabolism of thiopurine drugs: azathioprine and 6-mercoptopurine, which are used in the treatment of leukemia or inflammatory bowel diseases. Genetic polymorphism of the TPMT gene correlates with activity of this enzyme, individual reaction, and dosing of thiopurines. Thirty-one variants of the TPMT gene with low enzymatic activity have been described with three major alleles: TPMT*2 (c.238G>C), *3A (c.460 G>A, c.719A>G), and *3C (c.719A>G), accounting for 80% to 95% of inherited TPMT deficiency in different populations in the world. The aim of the study was to establish a rapid and highly sensitive method of analysis for the complete coding sequence of the TPMT gene and to determine the spectrum and prevalence of the TPMT gene sequence variations in the Polish population. Recently, high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) has become a highly sensitive, automated, and economical technique for mutation screening or genotyping. We applied HRMA for the first time to TPMT gene scanning. In total, we analyzed 548 alleles of the Polish population. We found 11 different sequence variations, where two are novel changes: c.200T>C (p.P67S, TPMT*30) and c.595G>A (p.V199I, TPMT*31). Detection of these new rare alleles TPMT*30 and *31 in the Polish population suggests the need to analyze the whole TPMT gene and maybe also the extension of routinely used tests containing three major alleles, TPMT*2, *3A, and *3C. Identification of sequence variants using HRMA is highly sensitive and less time consuming compared to standard sequencing. We conclude that HRMA can be easy integrated into genetic testing of the TPMT gene in patients treated with thiopurines.
PMCID: PMC3552168  PMID: 23252704
2.  No association of TGFB1 L10P genotypes and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a multi-center cohort study 
The transforming growth factor β-1 gene (TGFB1) is a plausible candidate for breast cancer susceptibility. The L10P variant of TGFB1 is associated with higher circulating levels and secretion of TGF-β, and recent large-scale studies suggest strongly that this variant is associated with breast cancer risk in the general population.
To evaluate whether TGFB1 L10P also modifies the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a multi-center study of 3,442 BRCA1 and 2,095 BRCA2 mutation carriers.
We found no evidence of association between TGFB1 L10P and breast cancer risk in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The per-allele HR for the L10P variant was 1.01 (95%CI: 0.92–1.11) in BRCA1 carriers and 0.92 (95%CI: 0.81–1.04) in BRCA2 mutation carriers.
These results do not support the hypothesis that TGFB1 L10P genotypes modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.
PMCID: PMC2700286  PMID: 18523885
BRCA1; BRCA2; Risk modifiers; Hereditary cancer
3.  MYH Gene Status in Polish FAP Patients without APC Gene Mutations 
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) is an inheritable predisposition for the occurrence of numerous polyps in the large intestine. In about 50% of all patients, the occurrence of the disease is conditioned by heterozygotic mutations of the APC gene. Screening for genetic factors in persons without mutations in the APC gene led to the identification of homozygotic mutations of the MYH gene as the cause of the appearance of the polyposis form which is characterized by recessive heritability and a milder course than in the case of the classic form of the disease. The authors examined 90 persons from the DNA bank of patients with FAP from the Institute of Human Genetics of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań in whom no mutations in the APC gene were detected. Two of the most frequent mutations of the MYH gene (Y165C and G382D) were found to be heterozygous in 13% of patients and no other mutations in this gene coding sequence were observed. In the group with heterozygotic occurrence of the mutation in the MYH gene, the disease phenotype was not milder in comparison with the entire examined group and the mean age of the disease manifestation was even lower. This observation allows one to conclude that the employed methods of mutation screening were correct and, in the case of the examined group, the mutation ratio of the MYH gene does not precondition the occurrence of the disease, but it cannot be excluded that it may modify its phenotype. The obtained results indicate that the criteria applied during the process of FAP qualification are more rigorous than those applied in other countries.
PMCID: PMC3401920  PMID: 20223003
MYH; Familial Polyposis; Poland
4.  Successful Resection of a Re-Occurred Pulmonary Myosarcoma in a Patient with Turner Syndrome Mosaic 
Sarcoma  2002;6(4):141-143.
We describe a patient who underwent thoracic radiation therapy for biopsy-proven pulmonary spindle cell sarcoma in the left lower lobe, 15 months after birth. At the age of 37 she developed shoulder pain, fatigue, and progressive exertion dyspnoea. Chest X-ray revealed a pulmonary mass in the left lower lobe due to a cytology-proven malignant tumour.The patient underwent left pneumonectomy. Histology revealed a myosarcoma of the lung, similar to the previous sarcoma. Furthermore, the patient was diagnosed to have Turner syndrome mosaic and chromosomal analysis revealed a translocation t(1;13) in 3/50 metaphases. However a germline mutation of the p53 tumour suppressor gene was excluded. After 2 years of follow-up the patient is stable and there are no signs of recurrence of the tumour.We conclude a re-occurrence of this very rare malignant disorder of the lung after a 36-year interval in a patient with Turner syndrome mosaic. Following initial curative radiation therapy, with a remission over 36 years, lung resection was now successfully performed.
PMCID: PMC2395496  PMID: 18521351
5.  Mosaic chromosomal aberrations in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and other inflammatory joint diseases 
Arthritis Research  2001;3(5):319-330.
Chromosomal aberrations were comparatively assessed in nuclei extracted from synovial tissue, primary-culture (P-0) synovial cells, and early-passage synovial fibroblasts (SFB; 98% enrichment; P-1, P-4 [passage 1, passage 4]) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 21), osteoarthritis (OA; n = 24), and other rheumatic diseases. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and skin fibroblasts (FB) (P-1, P-4) from the same patients, as well as SFB from normal joints and patients with joint trauma (JT) (n = 4), were used as controls. Analyses proceeded by standard GTG-banding and interphase centromere fluorescence in situ hybridization. Structural chromosomal aberrations were observed in SFB (P-1 or P-4) from 4 of 21 RA patients (19%), with involvement of chromosome 1 [e.g. del(1)(q12)] in 3 of 4 cases. In 10 of the 21 RA cases (48%), polysomy 7 was observed in P-1 SFB. In addition, aneusomies of chromosomes 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 18, and Y were present. The percentage of polysomies was increased in P-4. Similar chromosomal aberrations were detected in SFB of OA and spondylarthropathy patients. No aberrations were detected in i) PBL or skin FB from the same patients (except for one OA patient with a karyotype 45,X[10]/46,XX[17] in PBL and variable polysomies in long-term culture skin FB); or ii) synovial tissue and/or P-1 SFB of normal joints or of patients with joint trauma. In conclusion, qualitatively comparable chromosomal aberrations were observed in synovial tissue and early-passage SFB of patients with RA, OA, and other inflammatory joint diseases. Thus, although of possible functional relevance for the pathologic role of SFB in RA, these alterations probably reflect a common response to chronic inflammatory stress in rheumatic diseases.
PMCID: PMC64845  PMID: 11549374
osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; spondylarthropathy; synovial fibroblasts; trisomy/polysomy 7

Results 1-5 (5)