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author:("broberg, K")
1.  Graded associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, fatness, and blood pressure in children and adolescents 
Objective
To measure the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and sum of skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure in children and adolescents participating in the European youth heart study.
Methods
The participants were 4072 children and adolescents (aged 9 and 15) from Denmark, Portugal, Estonia, and Norway. Cardiorespiratory fitness was indirectly determined using a maximal ergometer cycle test. The sum of four skinfolds, waist circumference, and blood pressure were assessed with a standardised protocol. Linear regression analysis was used to test the graded relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and the dependent variables adjusted for pubertal stage, sex, and country.
Results
A significant curvilinear graded relation was found between cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference and sum of skinfolds (partial r2 for cardiorespiratory fitness was 0.09–0.26 for the different sexes and age groups). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also showed a curvilinear relation with cardiorespiratory fitness, and fitness explained 2% of the variance in systolic blood pressure. The difference in systolic blood pressure between the least and most fit was 6 mm Hg.
Conclusion
A curvilinear graded relation was found between cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference, sum of skinfolds, and systolic blood pressure. The greatest difference in these health variables was observed between low and moderate fitness levels.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.016113
PMCID: PMC2491946  PMID: 16371486
cardiorespiratory fitness; fatness; anthropometry; blood pressure; children
2.  Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6–7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study 
British Journal of Sports Medicine  2005;39(10):725-730.
Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6–7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables.
Methods: V·O2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from preschool classes in two suburban communities in Copenhagen, during a progressive treadmill exercise. Habitual physical activity was measured with accelerometers.
Results: Boys had higher V·O2MAX both in absolute values (1.19 (0.18) v 1.06 (0.16) litres/min (+11%), p<0.001) and relative to body weight (48.5 (6.0) v 44.8 (5.6) ml/kg/min (+8%); p<0.001) than girls. The difference in V·O2MAX between boys and girls decreased to +2% when expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM). Absolute V·O2MAX was related to LBM, body mass, and stature (all p<0.001). Boys were more physically active than girls (mean counts +9.4%, p<0.001), and even when boys and girls with the same V·O2MAX were compared, boys were more active. The difference in physical activity between the sexes was higher when sustained activity of higher intensity was compared.
Conclusions: V·O2MAX is higher in boys than girls (+11%), even when related to body mass (+8%) and LBM (+2%). Most of the difference in V·O2MAX relative to body mass was explained by the larger percentage body fat in girls. When boys and girls with the same V·O2MAX were compared, boys engaged in more minutes of exercise of at least moderate intensity.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.015230
PMCID: PMC1725036  PMID: 16183768
3.  A controlled study of eight months of physical training and reduction of blood pressure in children: the Odense schoolchild study. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;303(6804):682-685.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effect of physical training on physical fitness and blood pressure in children aged 9-11 years. DESIGN--Prospective randomised controlled intervention study of a sample of children drawn from a population survey of coronary risk factors in children. SETTING--Odense, Denmark. SUBJECTS--69 children with mean blood pressure greater than or equal to 95th centile (hypertensive group) and 68 with mean blood pressure less than 95th centile (normotensive group), randomly selected from a population of 1369 children. INTERVENTION--67 children were randomised to receive three extra lessons a week of an ordinary school physical education programme for eight months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Physical fitness assessed by calculation of maximum oxygen uptake and blood pressure recorded by one unblinded observer. RESULTS--After three months neither blood pressure nor physical fitness had changed significantly. After adjustment for values in weight, height, heart rate, and the variable in question before training physical fitness rose significantly at the end of eight months' training, by 3.7 mlO2/kg/min (95% confidence interval 2.2 to 5.3) in the normotensive training subgroup and by 2.1 mlO2/kg/min (0.1 to 4.2) in the hypertensive training subgroup compared with that in the controls. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures in the training subgroups fell significantly by 6.5 mm Hg (3.2 to 9.9) and 4.1 mm Hg (1.7 to 6.6) respectively in the normotensive group and by 4.9 mm Hg (0.7 to 9.2) and 3.8 mm Hg (0.9 to 6.6) respectively in the hypertensive group. CONCLUSIONS--Physical training lowers blood pressure and improves physical fitness in children and might have implications for an important non-pharmacological approach to primary prevention of essential hypertension.
PMCID: PMC1670972  PMID: 1912915

Results 1-3 (3)