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author:("frets, P B")
1.  Bilateral Carpus Valgus with Cranial Bowing of the Distal Radius in a Foal 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1986;27(6):242-244.
Bilateral carpus valgus with concomitant outward rotation and cranial bowing of the distal radii was diagnosed in a crossbred foal. The foal was not lame on admission and showed no radiographic evidence of carpal bone abnormalities. Surgery was limited to the most severely affected leg, and consisted of a combination of growth promotion (periosteal transection and stripping) and temporary physeal retardation (transphyseal bridging) procedures. Correction of the valgus deformity was nearly complete in the operated limb and substantial improvement was observed in the cranial bowing and outward rotation in both limbs, five months postoperatively.
PMCID: PMC1680257  PMID: 17422668
Horse; angular limb deformity; surgery; carpus valgus
2.  Radial-intermediate Carpal Bone Fusion in a Horse 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1985;26(6):177-180.
The radial carpal and intermediate carpal bones were found to be fused in a four year old Quarterhorse stallion having a subtle forelimb lameness. Clinical examination, diagnostic local anesthesia, radiography and arthroscopy were used to arrive at the diagnosis. A cause could not be established, although perinatal deformation of cartilagenous carpal bone templates is suspected. A similar case of carpal bone fusion was found among carpi collected for an anatomical study, indicating this condition may be more common than expected. Clinicians should carefully evaluate the flexed lateral view of the carpus for proximal movement of the intermediate and ulnar carpal bones in young horses presented for carpal lameness. The significance of this condition will remain uncertain until its incidence and relationship to lameness are better defined.
PMCID: PMC1680038  PMID: 17422538
Equine; carpus; carpal bones; osseous fusion; carpal anomaly; osteochondrosis
3.  Subluxation of the Carpus in Thirteen Horses 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1984;25(8):311-314.
The records of 13 horses of various breeds with subluxation of the radiocarpal, intercarpal or carpometacarpal joint, or combinations of these were reviewed. Subluxation was most common at the carpometacarpal joint (n = 10) and concomitant fractures of individual carpal bones or metacarpus II and IV were seen (n = 12).
Treatment comprised of immobilization in a full leg plaster cast for from four to 18 weeks. Three animals were euthanized, two because of cast complications and one because of a request by the owner. The remaining ten were saved to function as breeding animals.
PMCID: PMC1790629  PMID: 17422436
Subluxation; carpus; horse
4.  Attempts at Surgical Correction of Unusual Colonic Fistulae in the Horse 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1983;24(7):222-223.
Two incidents of penetrating wounds into the abdominal cavity of horses are presented. In both events these had resulted in penetraton of the intestinal tract. Both animals had received only minimal veterinary attention in the acute stage and had survived with the formation of intestinal fistulae.
Attempts at surgical repair resulted in failure in one animal and in closure of the fistula in the second with some subsequent cosmetic defect.
PMCID: PMC1790342  PMID: 17422280
5.  Esophageal Ectasia in a Quarterhorse Colt 
A one month old Quarterhorse colt was presented after a week history of bilateral nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty. The cervical esophagus was greatly dilated, tortuous and filled with diluted milk. A nasogastric tube could not be passed beyond the base of the heart. An aspiration pneumonia was found at postmortem examination and the esophageal segment from the pharynx to the base of the heart was dilated, thin-walled, had degenerative muscular changes, and a reduction in size and number of ganglion cells of the myenteric plexus. Muscular hypertrophy of the terminal esophagus had reduced its lumen size. Some similarities and disparities of this condition to achalasia of man and megaesophagus of dogs are discussed.
PMCID: PMC1790254  PMID: 17422222
6.  Fistula Between the Guttural Pouches and the Dorsal Pharyngeal Recess as a Sequela to Guttural Pouch Mycosis in the Horse 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1982;23(4):117-118.
An unusual case of a two year old gelding with severe unilateral epistaxis due to guttural pouch mycosis is reported. The lesion had spread to involve the dorso-medial aspects of the right guttural pouch and had formed a fistula between the dorsal pharyngeal recess and both the left and right guttural pouches. The diagnosis, surgical treatment and postoperative management are described.
PMCID: PMC1790149  PMID: 17422126
7.  Equine Respiratory Disease on the Western Canadian Racetracks 
The serological results from this study clearly show that both equine influenza and equine rhinopneumonitis viruses were present during spring and autumn epidemics of respiratory disease on Western Canadian racetracks. Approximately 11% of the horses showed significant convalescent titres to influenza while 9% showed significant convalescent titres for equine viral pneumonitis. It was noted in our study a positive vaccination history corresponded with a reduction in the severity of the respiratory infection.
PMCID: PMC1789489  PMID: 436108
11.  Fractured ulna in the horse. 
PMCID: PMC1696028  PMID: 4688878
12.  Incomplete nasomaxillary dysplasia in a foal. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1997;38(7):445-447.
Atresia of the nasal punctum is the most common congenital anomaly for the equine nasolacrimal system. Nasomaxillary dysplasia has not been previously documented in foals, is of unknown etiology, and appears to be a rare condition. Conjunctivomaxillary sinostomy was successful in resolving the epiphora.
PMCID: PMC1576745  PMID: 9220136
13.  Comparison of herniorrhaphy versus clamping of umbilical hernias in horses: a retrospective study of 93 cases (1982-1994). 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1996;37(5):295-298.
Many uncomplicated umbilical hernias have been managed successfully in foals by the application of a hernia clamp. Isolated reports of complications following clamp application have led some authors to suggest that it is an unsuitable method of treatment. Little information has been published comparing the complication rates associated with the use of hernia clamps and herniorrhaphy in the treatment of umbilical hernias. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the characteristics of clinical cases of umbilical hernia and to compare the complication rates following these 2 treatment approaches. Information was collected from records or from owners to identify the occurrence of complications and owner satisfaction following treatment. Of 93 cases, 10 complicated and 18 uncomplicated hernias were treated by herniorrhaphy, 40 uncomplicated hernias were treated by clamping, 1 originally uncomplicated hernia was treated by both techniques, and 24 cases were untreated. Nineteen percent of uncomplicated hernias treated by herniorrhaphy, and 19% of those clamped developed minor complications. This study demonstrates that although minor complications may be associated with either technique, they generally do not result in significant morbidity.
PMCID: PMC1576383  PMID: 8705974
14.  Comparison of 2 techniques for regional antibiotic delivery to the equine forelimb: intraosseous perfusion vs. intravenous perfusion. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  2001;42(8):617-622.
The purpose of this study was to compare the synovial fluid concentrations and pharmacokinetics of amikacin in the equine limb distal to the carpus following intraosseous and intravenous regional perfusion. The front limbs of 6 horses were randomly assigned to either intraosseous or intravenous perfusion. A tourniquet was placed distal to each carpus and the limb perfused with 500 mg of amikacin. Systemic blood samples and synovial fluid samples were collected over 70 min from the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint, metacarpophalangeal joint, and digital flexor sheath. The tourniquet was removed following the 30 min sample collection. The mean peak amikacin concentration for the DIP joint was significantly higher with intravenous perfusion. There were no significant differences in time to peak concentration or elimination half-life between methods at each synovial structure. Each technique produced mean peak concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 times that of recommended peak serum concentrations for therapeutic efficacy.
PMCID: PMC1476572  PMID: 11519271
15.  An evaluation of chemical arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint in the horse by using monoiodoacetate. 
The use of monoiodoacetate (MIA) for arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIJ) and the effect of exercise on the degree of fusion were investigated. Eight horses received 3 injections (Weeks 0, 3, 6) of MIA (2 mL; 60 mg/mL) into the right or left front PIJ. Peri-operatively, the horses received phenylbutazone, butorphanol, and abaxial sesamoidean nerve blocks to relieve pain. During the study, the horses were monitored for general health, lameness, and swelling around the injection area. Radiographs were taken biweekly to evaluate bony fusion. Horses were randomly divided into non-exercised and exercised groups. Exercise consisted of 20 minutes of trotting on a treadmill (4 m/s), 3 days per week for 13 weeks. The horses were euthanized at 24 weeks. Slab sections of the PIJ were evaluated grossly and radiographically for bony fusion. Histologic examinations were performed to evaluate articular cartilage. Three horses were excluded from the study after developing soft tissue necrosis around the injection site, septic arthritis, and necrotic tendinitis. The remaining horses remained healthy, developed a grade 1 to 4 lameness with minimal to severe swelling in the PIJ region. All 5 horses showed radiographic evidence of bony fusion, however, no fusion was present when injected joints were examined on postmortem examination. Histologic examination revealed thinning of the cartilage, diffuse necrosis of chondrocytes, with the calcified zone intact. Subjectively, exercise did not influence the degree of cartilage destruction. Based on this study, chemical arthrodesis cannot be advocated in clinical cases because of the high complication rate and lack of bony fusion.
PMCID: PMC1189620  PMID: 11041498
16.  Osteochondritis dessicans and subchondral cystic lesions in draft horses: a retrospective study. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1998;39(10):627-633.
The clinical features, radiographic findings, treatment, and outcome in 51 draft horses with osteochondritis dessicans (OCD) or subchondral cystic lesions (SC) are reported. Clydesdale and Percheron were the most commonly affected breeds, and affected animals represented only 5% of the hospital population of draft horses. Horses were most frequently affected in the tibiotarsal joints and 73% (24 of 33 cases) of the horses with tibiotarsal effusion were affected bilaterally. Osteochondritis dessicans of the distal intermediate ridge was the most common lesion found in the tibiotarsal joint. The stifle was also frequently affected; 87% (13 of 15 cases) of horses with femoropatellar OCD only were lame, and lesions were most commonly located on the lateral trochlear ridge. Sixteen cases were managed conservatively, 30 received surgery, and 5 were euthanized. Lameness, effusion, or both clinical signs resolved in more than 50% of surgically treated cases, but clinical signs improved in 30% of conservatively-managed cases.
PMCID: PMC1539460  PMID: 9789673
17.  A case-control study of the congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome of foals. 
The Canadian Veterinary Journal  1996;37(6):349-358.
A case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for the congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome of foals. A questionnaire was used during personal interviews of foal owners and farm managers to collect information on animal signalment, farm environment, and mare management. Information on 39 foals with the congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome were compared with 39 control foals. Foals with the syndrome had a significantly (P < 0.0001) longer gestation (357.6 d) than control foals (338.9 d). Pregnant mares that were fed greenfeed, did not receive any supplemental mineral, left their "home farm" during gestation, or grazed irrigated pasture had 13.1 (P = 0.0068), 5.6 (P = 0.0472), 4.3 (P = 0.0076), and approximately 15.3 (P = 0.0245), respectively, greater odds of producing an affected foal than mares not experiencing these events. Greenfeed often contains high levels of nitrate (NO3-), which is known to impair thyroid gland function. In light of this, forage samples from participating farms were analyzed for nitrate levels. The odds of one or more congenitally hypothyroid and dysmature foals being born on a farm feeding forage with at least a trace of nitrate was 8.0 times greater (P = 0.0873) than the odds of the disease occurring on a farm that fed forage free of nitrate. Further, the odds of a mare producing an affected foal when fed forage containing at least a trace of nitrate were 5.9 times greater (P = 0.0007) than those of a mare fed nitrate free forage. This study suggests that congenital hypothyroidism and dysmaturity syndrome in foals may be the result of diets that contain nitrate or that are low in iodine being fed to pregnant mares.
PMCID: PMC1576403  PMID: 8689594
18.  Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities in western Canadian foals: reexamination of a previously described syndrome. 
A syndrome of neonatal foals characterized by hyperplasia of the thyroid gland and concurrent musculoskeletal deformities (TH-MSD) has been described in western Canada and may be increasing in incidence. In an attempt to improve recognition and understanding of this syndrome, 2946 records of equine abortuses, stillborns, and dead neonatal foals were examined to determine the laboratory involved, the year and month of submission, the breed and sex of the fetus or foal, the type of perinatal loss, the length of gestation, and whether or not the submission had evidence of a lesion of the thyroid gland, the musculoskeletal system, or other abnormal clinical or postmortem findings. One hundred and fifty-four (5.2%) records indicated the presence of an abnormal thyroid gland. Of these, 79 (2.7%) had additional lesions consistent with the TH-MSD syndrome described in the 1980s, while 75 (2.5%) were without these additional lesions. Comparisons among these two groups and a third group of fetuses and foals without lesions of the thyroids glands are described. The results confirm that the TH-MSD syndrome is a specific and unique disease with no breed or sex predilection. It is argued that there may be an "exposure-related" cause, and based on a review of similar disease syndromes of the horse, it is suggested that an examination of the feed is indicated in outbreaks of the TH-MSD syndrome.
PMCID: PMC1686238  PMID: 8044756
19.  Effects of lesion size and location on equine articular cartilage repair. 
The mechanisms and completeness of equine articular cartilage repair were studied in ten horses over a nine month period. Large (15 mm square) and small (5 mm square) full-thickness lesions were made in weight bearing and nonweight bearing areas of the radiocarpal, middle carpal and femoropatellar joints. The horses were euthanized in groups of two 1, 2.5, 4, 5 and 9 months later. Gross pathology, microradiography, and histopathology were used to evaluate qualitative aspects of articular repair. Computer assisted microdensitometry of safranin-O stained cartilage sections was used to quantitate cartilage matrix proteoglycan levels. Structural repair had occurred in most small defects at the end of nine months by a combination of matrix flow and extrinsic repair mechanisms. Elaboration of matrix proteoglycans was not complete at this time. Statistically better healing occurred in small weight bearing lesions, compared to large or nonweight bearing lesions. Synovial and perichondrial pannus interfered with healing of osteochondral defects that were adjacent to the cranial rim of the third carpal bone. Clinical and experimental experience suggests that these lesions are unlikely to heal, whereas similar lesions in the radiocarpal and femoropatellar joints had satisfactory outcomes. Observations made in this study support the use of early postoperative ambulation, passive flexion of operated joints, and recuperative periods of up to a year for large cartilage defects.
PMCID: PMC1255413  PMID: 3349393

Results 1-19 (19)