Ecologic studies have reported that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is associated with cancer, but little evidence is available from prospective studies. We aimed to assess the association between an objective measure of ambient UVR exposure and risk of total and site-specific cancer in a large, regionally diverse cohort (450,934 white, non-Hispanic subjects (50-71 years old) in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study) after accounting for individual-level confounding risk factors. Estimated erythemal UVR exposure from satellite Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) data from NASA was linked to the U.S. Census Bureau 2000 census tract (centroid) of baseline residence for each subject. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple potential confounders to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for quartiles of UVR exposure. Restricted cubic splines examined non-linear relationships. Over 9 years of follow-up, UVR exposure was inversely associated with total cancer risk (N=75,917; highest vs. lowest quartile, HR=0.97 (0.95, 0.99), p-trend<0.001). In site-specific cancer analyses, UVR exposure was associated with increased melanoma risk (highest vs. lowest quartile, HR=1.22 (1.13, 1.32), p-trend<0.001) and decreased risk of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HR=0.82 (0.74, 0.92)) and colon (HR=0.88 (0.82, 0.96)), squamous cell lung (HR=0.86 (0.75, 0.98)), pleural (HR=0.57 (0.38, 0.84)), prostate (HR=0.91 (0.88, 0.95)), kidney (HR=0.83 (0.73, 0.94)), and bladder (HR=0.88 (0.81, 0.96)) cancers (all p-trend<0.05). We also found non-linear associations for some cancer sites, including the thyroid and pancreas. Our results add to mounting evidence for the influential role of UVR exposure on cancer.
Ultraviolet radiation; cancer; vitamin D; prospective
To clarify aspects of the association between physical activity and breast cancer, such as activity intensity required, and possible effect modification by factors such as menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use.
We prospectively examined physical activity in relation to breast cancer risk among 45,631 women participating in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort. Participants provided information at baseline regarding hours spent per week engaging in strenuous activity, walking/hiking for exercise, and walking at home or work. We estimated multivariable relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer using Cox regression.
We identified 864 incident invasive breast cancers. Greatest risk reduction was observed among women who reported walking/hiking for exercise 10 or more hours per week (RR, 0.57;95%CI, 0.34-0.95) compared with those reporting no walking/hiking. The association between walking/hiking for exercise and breast cancer was modified by MHT use (p for interaction=0.039). Postmenopausal women who never used MHT had reduced risks of breast cancer associated with physical activity whereas no relation was observed among ever users of MHT.
Our study suggests moderate intensity physical activity, such as walking, may protect against breast cancer. Further, the relation between physical activity and breast cancer may be modified by MHT use.
breast cancer; physical activity; cohort studies; hormones
There are no observational studies or controlled trials of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and circulating α-tocopherol (vitamin E) for prevention of ALS. This study addresses that gap.
The study population comprised 29,127 Finnish male smokers, aged 50–69 years, who participated in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, which is both a prospective cohort and a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of α-tocopherol (50 mg/day) and β-carotene (20 mg/day). Serum α-tocopherol and β-carotene was assayed at baseline (1985–1988). Follow-up (median 16.7 years) continued through 2004. ALS cases were identified through the national Hospital Discharge Register with diagnostic verification by hospital records and death certificates.
During 407,260 person-years of follow-up, 50 men were identified with ALS. For men with serum α-tocopherol concentration above the median (≥11.6 mg/l), the age-adjusted relative risk (RR) compared to α-tocopherol below the median, was 0.56 (95% confidence interval= 0.32–0.99), p=0.046. The RR among α-tocopherol supplement recipients was 0.75 (95% CI=0.32–1.79), p=0.52. Neither serum β-carotene level nor β-carotene supplementation was associated with ALS.
The results are consistent with a hypothesized protective effect of α-tocopherol on ALS risk. However, pooled analyses of cohorts with serum and controlled trials are needed to clarify the role of α-tocopherol in ALS risk.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; vitamin E; cohort studies; risk factors in epidemiology
Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that ultraviolet radiation (UV) may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), but few, if any, have assessed multiple indicators of ambient and personal UV exposure. Using the U.S. Radiologic Technologists study, we examined the association between NHL and self-reported time outdoors in summer, as well as average year-round and seasonal ambient exposures based on satellite estimates for different age periods, and sun susceptibility in participants who had responded to two questionnaires (1994-1998, 2003-2005) and who were cancer-free as of the earlier questionnaire. Using unconditional logistic regression, we estimated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for 64,103 participants with 137 NHL cases. Self-reported time outdoors in summer was unrelated to risk. Lower risk was somewhat related to higher average year-round and winter ambient exposure for the period closest in time, and prior to, diagnosis (ages 20-39). Relative to 1.0 for the lowest quartile of average year-round ambient UV, the estimated OR for successively higher quartiles was 0.68 (0.42-1.10); 0.82 (0.52-1.29); and 0.64(0.40-1.03), p-trend = 0.06), for this age period. The lower NHL risk associated with higher year-round average and winter ambient UV provides modest additional support for a protective relationship between UV and NHL.
Vitamin D has been hypothesized to protect against cancer. We followed 16,819 participants in NHANES III from 1988 through 2006, expanding upon an earlier NHANES III study (1988–2000). Using Cox proportional hazard regression models, we examined risk related to baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) for total cancer mortality, in both sexes, and by racial/ethnic groups, as well as for site-specific cancers. Because serum was collected in the south in cooler months and the north in warmer months, we examined associations by collection season (“summer/higher latitude” and “winter/lower latitude”). We identified 884 cancer deaths during 225,212 person-years. Overall cancer mortality risks were unrelated to baseline 25(OH)D status in both season/latitude groups, and in non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican-Americans. In men, risks were elevated at higher levels (e.g., for ≥100 nmol/L, RR=1.85 (95% CI=1.02–3.35) compared to <37.5 nmol/L). Athough risks were unrelated to 25(OH)D in all women combined, risks significantly decreased with increasing 25(OH)D in the summer/higher latitude group (for ≥100 nmol/L, RR= 0.52 (95% CI=0.25–1.15) compared to <37.5 nmol/L, P-trend=0.03, based on continuous values). We also observed a suggestion of an inverse association with colorectal cancer mortality(P-trend=0.09) and a positive association with lung cancer mortality among males (P-trend=0.03). Our results do not support a the hypothesis that 25(OH)D is associated with reduced cancer mortality. Although cancer mortality in females was inversely associated with 25(OH)D in the summer/higher latitude group, cancer mortality at some sites was increased among men with higher 25(OH)D. These findings argue for caution before increasing 25(OH)D levels to prevent cancer.
vitamin D; neoplasms mortality; risk factors; cohort studies; male; female; seasons
A reanalysis of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trial found a significant interaction between supplementation with vitamin D/calcium and estrogen therapy and the risk of colorectal cancer risk, with reduced risks from supplementation limited to the placebo arms of the estrogen trials. To explore whether the vitamin D effects are modified by estrogen therapy, we report a largely cross-sectional, analysis of the association between sun exposure, which is an important vitamin D source, and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women in the U.S. Radiologic Technologists study. Among 21,695 participants, there were a total of 108 cases. Sun exposure was based on time outdoors and on ambient ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure based on residence linked to erythemal exposures derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database. Although there was no relationship between outdoor time or ambient UV measure and colorectal cancer risk in current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users, in never/past HRT users, there was an inverse association with higher ambient UV exposure, RR for highest vs. lowest tertile=0.40; 95% CI 017, 0.93; p for trend = 0.04. Non-significant lower risks were also associated with higher levels of outdoor time (≥3.5 hours/week) in never/past HRT users. The interaction between both indicators of sun exposure and HRT and CRC risk was not significant. These data, although exploratory, are consistent with evidence from the WHI suggesting a decrease in colorectal cancer risk may be associated with vitamin D exposure among postmenopausal women who are not taking HRT, but not among current HRT users.
The incidence of thyroid cancer has been rapidly increasing in the United States, but few risk factors have been established. The authors prospectively examined the associations of self-reported medical history, anthropometric factors, and behavioral factors with thyroid cancer risk among 90,713 US radiologic technologists (69,506 women and 21,207 men) followed from 1983 through 2006. Incident thyroid cancers in 242 women and 40 men were reported. Elevated risks were observed for women with benign thyroid conditions (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.73, 3.20), benign breast disease (HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.26), asthma (HR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.83), and body mass index ≥35.0 versus 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (HR = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.94; P-trend = 0.04). Current smoking was inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk (HR = 0.54). No clear associations emerged for reproductive factors, other medical conditions, alcohol intake, or physical activity. Despite few thyroid cancers in men, men with benign thyroid conditions had a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR = 4.65, 95% CI: 1.62, 13.34), and results for other risk factors were similar to those for women. Consistent with prior studies, obesity and benign thyroid conditions increased and current smoking decreased the risk of thyroid cancer. The novel findings for benign breast disease and asthma warrant further investigation.
body mass index; hormones; motor activity; prospective studies; reproduction; smoking; thyroid diseases; thyroid neoplasms
Low vitamin D status is common globally and is associated with multiple disease outcomes. Understanding the correlates of vitamin D status will help guide clinical practice, research, and interpretation of studies. Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations measured in a single laboratory were examined in 4,723 cancer-free men and women from 10 cohorts participating in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers, which covers a worldwide geographic area. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were examined in relation to 25(OH)D using stepwise linear regression and polytomous logistic regression. The prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 25 nmol/L ranged from 3% to 36% across cohorts, and the prevalence of 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L ranged from 29% to 82%. Seasonal differences in circulating 25(OH)D were most marked among whites from northern latitudes. Statistically significant positive correlates of 25(OH)D included male sex, summer blood draw, vigorous physical activity, vitamin D intake, fish intake, multivitamin use, and calcium supplement use. Significant inverse correlates were body mass index, winter and spring blood draw, history of diabetes, sedentary behavior, smoking, and black race/ethnicity. Correlates varied somewhat within season, race/ethnicity, and sex. These findings help identify persons at risk for low vitamin D status for both clinical and research purposes.
body mass index; cohort studies; diet; dietary supplements; ethnic groups; exercise; seasons; vitamin D
The Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers (VDPP), a consortium of 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States, Finland, and China, was formed to examine the associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and the risk of rarer cancers. Cases (total n = 5,491) included incident primary endometrial (n = 830), kidney (n = 775), ovarian (n = 516), pancreatic (n = 952), and upper gastrointestinal tract (n = 1,065) cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1,353) diagnosed in the participating cohorts. At least 1 control was matched to each case on age, date of blood collection (1974–2006), sex, and race/ethnicity (n = 6,714). Covariate data were obtained from each cohort in a standardized manner. The majority of the serum or plasma samples were assayed in a central laboratory using a direct, competitive chemiluminescence immunoassay on the DiaSorin LIAISON platform (DiaSorin, Inc., Stillwater, Minnesota). Masked quality control samples included serum standards from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. Conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted using clinically defined cutpoints, with 50–<75 nmol/L as the reference category. Meta-analyses were also conducted using inverse-variance weights in random-effects models. This consortium approach permits estimation of the association between 25(OH)D and several rarer cancers with high accuracy and precision across a wide range of 25(OH)D concentrations.
case-control studies; cohort studies; methods; neoplasms; prospective studies; vitamin D
Case-control studies generally suggesting an inverse association between sun exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) have led to speculation that vitamin D may protect against lymphomagenesis. To examine this hypothesis, the authors conducted a pooled investigation of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and subsequent NHL risk within 10 cohorts participating in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers. The authors analyzed measurements from 1,353 cases and 1,778 controls using conditional logistic regression and other methods to estimate the association of 25(OH)D with NHL. No clear evidence of association between categories of 25(OH)D concentration and NHL was observed overall (Ptrend = 0.68) or by sex (men, Ptrend = 0.50; women, Ptrend = 0.16). Findings for other measures (continuous log(25(OH)D), categories of 25(OH)D using sex-/cohort-/season-specific quartiles as cutpoints, categories of season-adjusted residuals of predicted 25(OH)D using quartiles as cutpoints) were generally null, although some measures of increasing 25(OH)D were suggestive of an increased risk for women. Results from stratified analyses and investigations of histologic subtypes of NHL were also null. These findings do not support the hypothesis that elevated circulating 25(OH)D concentration is associated with a reduced risk of NHL. Future research investigating the biologic basis for the sunlight–NHL association should consider alternative mechanisms, such as immunologic effects.
calcifediol; calcitrol; case-control studies; cohort studies; 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2; lymphoma, non-Hodgkin; prospective studies; vitamin D
Studies indicate that higher sun exposure, especially in the recent past, is associated with reduced risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Ultraviolet radiation-derived vitamin D may be protective against lymphomagenesis. We examined the relationship between pre-diagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and lymphoid cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort (1985–2002) of 29,133 Finnish male smokers (ages 50 to 69). We identified 270 incident lymphoid cancer cases and matched them individually with 538 controls by birth-year and month of fasting blood draw at baseline. In conditional logistic regression models for 10nmol/L increments or tertile comparisons, serum 25(OH)D was not associated with the risk of overall lymphoid cancers, NHL (N = 208), or multiple myeloma (N = 41). Odds ratios (OR) for NHL for higher tertiles were 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.50, 1.14) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.53, 1.26). The 25(OH)D-NHL association, however, differed by follow-up duration at diagnosis. Cases diagnosed less than 7 years from the baseline showed an inverse association (OR for highest versus lowest tertile = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.83; p for trend = 0.01), but not later diagnoses (OR = 1.52; 95% CI: 0.82, 2.80; p for trend = 0.17). The inverse association found for close exposure to diagnosis was not confounded by other risk factors for lymphoma or correlates of 25(OH)D. Although our findings suggest that circulating 25(OH)D is not likely associated with overall lymphoid cancer, they indicate a potentially protective effect on short-term risk of NHL.
25-hydroxyvitamin D; diet; lymphoid neoplasms; nested case-control studies; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; vitamin D
Few studies have evaluated the reliability of lifetime sun exposure estimated from inquiring about the number of hours people spent outdoors in a given period on a typical weekday or weekend day (the time-based approach). Some investigations have suggested that women have a particularly difficult task in estimating time outdoors in adulthood due to their family and occupational roles. We hypothesized that people might gain additional memory cues and estimate lifetime hours spent outdoors more reliably if asked about time spent outdoors according to specific activities (an activity-based approach). Using self-administered, mailed questionnaires, test-retest responses to time-based and to activity-based approaches were evaluated in 124 volunteer U.S. radiologic technologist participants: 64 females and 60 males 48 to 80 years of age. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to evaluate the test-retest reliability of average numbers of hours spent outdoors in summer estimated for each approach. We tested the differences between the two ICCs, corresponding to each approach, using a t-test with the variance of the difference estimated by the Jackknife method. During childhood and adolescence, the two approaches gave similar ICCs for average numbers of hours spent outdoors in summer. By contrast, compared with the time-based approach, the activity-based approach showed significantly higher ICCs during adult ages (0.69 vs. 0.43, P=0.003) and over the lifetime (0.69 vs. 0.52, P=0.05); the higher ICCs for the activity-based questionnaire were primarily derived from the results for females. Research is needed to further improve the activity-based questionnaire approach for long-term sun exposure assessment.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation; epidemiologic methods; gender; sun exposure; occupational cohort
In order to prospectively investigate physical activity at varying intensities and sedentary behavior in relation to colorectal cancer.
We considered 488,720 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who were aged 50–71 years at baseline in 1995–1996. Through 31 December, 2003, we identified 3,240 and 1,482 colorectal cancers among men and women, respectively. We estimated multivariable relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of colorectal cancer using Cox regression.
Engaging in exercise/sports five or more times per week compared to never or rarely exercising was associated with a reduced risk of colon cancer among men (p=0.001; RR=0.79, 95% CI=0.68–0.91) and a suggestive decrease in risk among women (p=0.376; RR=0.85, 95% CI=0.70–1.04). Engaging in exercise/sports was also associated with a decreased risk of rectal cancer in men (P=0.074; RR comparing extreme categories=0.76, 95% CI=0.61–0.94). In men, we observed inverse relations of both low intensity (p=0.017; RR=0.81, 95% CI=0.65–1.00 for ≥7 h/week) and moderate to vigorous intensity activity (p=0.037; RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.67–0.99 for =7 h/week) to colon cancer risk. In contrast, sedentary behavior (time spent watching television/videos) was positively associated with colon cancer (p<0.001; RR=1.61, 95% CI=1.14–2.27 for ≥9 h/day) among men. Similar, but less pronounced relations were observed in women.
Engaging in physical activity of any intensity is associated with reductions in colon and rectal cancer risk. Conversely, time spent sedentary is associated with increased colon cancer risk.
Colon cancer; Rectal cancer; Physical activity; Cohort studies
The study aim was to determine the risk of cataract among radiologic technologists with respect to occupational and nonoccupational exposures to ionizing radiation and to personal characteristics. A prospective cohort of 35,705 cataract-free US radiologic technologists aged 24–44 years was followed for nearly 20 years (1983–2004) by using two follow-up questionnaires. During the study period, 2,382 cataracts and 647 cataract extractions were reported. Cigarette smoking for ≥5 pack-years; body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2; and history of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or arthritis at baseline were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with increased risk of cataract. In multivariate models, self-report of ≥3 x-rays to the face/neck was associated with a hazard ratio of cataract of 1.25 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.47). For workers in the highest category (mean, 60 mGy) versus lowest category (mean, 5 mGy) of occupational dose to the lens of the eye, the adjusted hazard ratio of cataract was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.40). Findings challenge the National Council on Radiation Protection and International Commission on Radiological Protection assumptions that the lowest cumulative ionizing radiation dose to the lens of the eye that can produce a progressive cataract is approximately 2 Gy, and they support the hypothesis that the lowest cataractogenic dose in humans is substantially less than previously thought.
cataract; radiation; technology, radiologic; x-rays
With the exponential increase in minimally invasive fluoroscopically guided interventional radiologic procedures, concern has increased about the health effects on staff and patients of radiation exposure from these procedures. There has been no systematic epidemiologic investigation to quantify serious disease risks or mortality. To quantify all-cause, circulatory system disease and cancer mortality risks in U.S. radiologic technologists who work with interventional radiographic procedures, we evaluated mortality risks in a nationwide cohort of 88,766 U.S. radiologic technologists (77% female) who completed a self-administered questionnaire during 1994–998 and were followed through 31 December 2003. We obtained information on work experience, types of procedures (including fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures), and protective measures plus medical, family cancer history, lifestyle, and reproductive information. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Between completion of the questionnaire and the end of follow-up, there were 3,581 deaths, including 1,209 from malignancies and 979 from circulatory system diseases. Compared to radiologic technologists who never or rarely performed or assisted with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures, all-cause mortality risks were not increased among those working on such procedures daily. Similarly, there was no increased risk of mortality resulting from all circulatory system diseases combined, all cancers combined, or female breast cancer among technologists who daily performed or assisted with fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures. Based on small numbers of deaths (n=151), there were non-significant excesses (40%–0%) in mortality from cerebrovascular disease among technologists ever working with these procedures. The absence of significantly elevated mortality risks in radiologic technologists reporting the highest frequency of interventional radiography procedures must be interpreted cautiously in light of the small number of deaths during the relatively short follow-up. The present study cannot rule out increased risks of cerebrovascular disease, specific cancers, and diseases with low case-fatality rates or a long latency period preceding death.
Radiologic technologists; Interventional radiography; Occupational radiation exposure; Mortality
Hypovitaminosis D may be associated with diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease (CHD). However because studies examining associations of all three chronic conditions with circulating 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D are limited. We examined these associations in the US. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial (n=2,465).
Research Design and Methods
Caucasian PLCO participants selected as controls in previous nested case-control studies of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were included in this analysis. Diabetes, CHD and hypertension prevalence, risk factors for these conditions, and intake of vitamin D and calcium were collected from a base-line questionnaire.
Serum levels of 25(OH)D were low (<50 nmol/L) in 29% and very low (<37 nmol/L) in 11% of subjects. The prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and CHD were 7%, 30% and 10%, respectively. After adjustment for confounding by gender, geographical location, educational level, smoking history, body mass index(BMI), physical activity, total dietary energy and vitamin D and Ca intake, only diabetes was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D and 1,25 (OH)2D levels. Caucasians who had 25(OH)D ≥80 nmol/L were half as likely to have diabetes [odds ratio (OR) =0.5 (95% CI=0.3-0.9)] compared to those who had 25(OH)D < 37 nmol/L. Those in the highest quartile of 1,25(OH)2D (≥103 pmol/L) were less than half as likely to have diabetes [OR= 0.3 (95% CI=0.1-0.7)] than those in the lowest quartile (< 72 pmol/L).
The independent association of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D with diabetes prevalence in a large population is a new finding and thus these findings warrant confirmation in larger, prospective studies.
Diabetes; Vitamin D status; 25(OH)D; 1,25(OH)2D
To investigate whether the positive association of body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) with risk of pancreatic cancer is modified by age, sex, smoking status, physical activity, and history of diabetes.
In a pooled analysis of primary data of seven prospective cohorts including 458,070 men and 485,689 women, we identified 2,454 patients with incident pancreatic cancer during an average 6.9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used in data analysis.
In a random-effects meta-analysis, for every 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI, the summary relative risk (RR) was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99–1.13) for men and 1.12 (95% CI 1.05–1.19) for women. The aggregate analysis showed that compared with normal weight (BMI: 18.5 to <25), the adjusted RR was 1.13 (95% CI 1.03–1.23) for overweight (BMI: 25 to <30) and 1.19 (95% CI 1.05–1.35) for obesity class I (BMI: 30 to <35). Tests of interactions of BMI effects by other risk factors were not statistically significant. Every 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI was associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer among never and former smokers, but not among current smokers (P-interaction = 0.08).
The present evidence suggests that a high BMI is an independent risk factor of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer; Body mass index; Pooled analysis; Prospective cohort; Effect modification
A high body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but the precise relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality remains uncertain.
We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for an association between BMI and all-cause mortality, adjusting for age, study, physical activity, alcohol consumption, education, and marital status in pooled data from 19 prospective studies encompassing 1.46 million white adults, 19 to 84 years of age (median, 58).
The median baseline BMI was 26.2. During a median follow-up period of 10 years (range, 5 to 28), 160,087 deaths were identified. Among healthy participants who never smoked, there was a J-shaped relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality. With a BMI of 22.5 to 24.9 as the reference category, hazard ratios among women were 1.47 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.33 to 1.62) for a BMI of 15.0 to 18.4; 1.14 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.22) for a BMI of 18.5 to 19.9; 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.04) for a BMI of 20.0 to 22.4; 1.13 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.17) for a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9; 1.44 (95% CI, 1.38 to 1.50) for a BMI of 30.0 to 34.9; 1.88 (95% CI, 1.77 to 2.00) for a BMI of 35.0 to 39.9; and 2.51 (95% CI, 2.30 to 2.73) for a BMI of 40.0 to 49.9. In general, the hazard ratios for the men were similar. Hazard ratios for a BMI below 20.0 were attenuated with longer-term follow-up.
In white adults, overweight and obesity (and possibly underweight) are associated with increased all-cause mortality. All-cause mortality is generally lowest with a BMI of 20.0 to 24.9.
Studies have examined the associations between cancers and circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], but little is known about the impact of different laboratory practices on 25(OH)D concentrations. We examined the potential impact of delayed blood centrifuging, choice of collection tube, and type of assay on 25(OH)D concentrations. Blood samples from 20 healthy volunteers underwent alternative laboratory procedures: four centrifuging times (2, 24, 72, and 96 h after blood draw); three types of collection tubes (red top serum tube, two different plasma anticoagulant tubes containing heparin or EDTA); and two types of assays (DiaSorin radioimmunoassay [RIA] and chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA/LIAISON®]). Log-transformed 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE) linear regression models. We found no difference in 25(OH)D concentrations by centrifuging times or type of assay. There was some indication of a difference in 25(OH)D concentrations by tube type in CLIA/LIAISON®-assayed samples, with concentrations in heparinized plasma (geometric mean, 16.1 ng ml−1) higher than those in serum (geometric mean, 15.3 ng ml−1) (p = 0.01), but the difference was significant only after substantial centrifuging delays (96 h). Our study suggests no necessity for requiring immediate processing of blood samples after collection or for the choice of a tube type or assay.
Vitamin D; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; Specimen handling; Time factors; Epidemiologic methods
Several common breast cancer genetic susceptibility variants have recently been identified. We aimed to determine how these variants combine with a subset of other known risk factors to influence breast cancer risk in white women of European ancestry using case-control studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
We evaluated two-way interactions between each of age at menarche, ever having had a live birth, number of live births, age at first birth and body mass index (BMI) and each of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (10q26-rs2981582 (FGFR2), 8q24-rs13281615, 11p15-rs3817198 (LSP1), 5q11-rs889312 (MAP3K1), 16q12-rs3803662 (TOX3), 2q35-rs13387042, 5p12-rs10941679 (MRPS30), 17q23-rs6504950 (COX11), 3p24-rs4973768 (SLC4A7), CASP8-rs17468277, TGFB1-rs1982073 and ESR1-rs3020314). Interactions were tested for by fitting logistic regression models including per-allele and linear trend main effects for SNPs and risk factors, respectively, and single-parameter interaction terms for linear departure from independent multiplicative effects.
These analyses were applied to data for up to 26,349 invasive breast cancer cases and up to 32,208 controls from 21 case-control studies. No statistical evidence of interaction was observed beyond that expected by chance. Analyses were repeated using data from 11 population-based studies, and results were very similar.
The relative risks for breast cancer associated with the common susceptibility variants identified to date do not appear to vary across women with different reproductive histories or body mass index (BMI). The assumption of multiplicative combined effects for these established genetic and other risk factors in risk prediction models appears justified.