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1.  Patient-Specific Method of Generating Parametric Maps of Patlak Ki without Blood Sampling or Metabolite Correction: A Feasibility Study 
Currently, kinetic analyses using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experience very limited use despite their potential for improving quantitative accuracy in several clinical and research applications. For targeted volume applications, such as radiation treatment planning, treatment monitoring, and cerebral metabolic studies, the key to implementation of these methods is the determination of an arterial input function, which can include time-consuming analysis of blood samples for metabolite correction. Targeted kinetic applications would become practical for the clinic if blood sampling and metabolite correction could be avoided. To this end, we developed a novel method (Patlak-P) of generating parametric maps that is identical to Patlak Ki (within a global scalar multiple) but does not require the determination of the arterial input function or metabolite correction. In this initial study, we show that Patlak-P (a) mimics Patlak Ki images in terms of visual assessment and target-to-background (TB) ratios of regions of elevated uptake, (b) has higher visual contrast and (generally) better image quality than SUV, and (c) may have an important role in improving radiotherapy planning, therapy monitoring, and neurometabolism studies.
doi:10.1155/2011/185083
PMCID: PMC3168784  PMID: 21912742
2.  Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals 
Physics in medicine and biology  2008;53(9):2233-2252.
Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution recovery techniques (i.e. modeling the finite collimator spatial resolution in iterative reconstruction algorithms) can significantly reduce the partial volume errors.
doi:10.1088/0031-9155/53/9/002
PMCID: PMC2871254  PMID: 18401059
3.  Biodistributions of 177Lu- and 111In- labeled 7E11 Antibodies to Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Xenograft Model of Prostate Cancer and Potential Use of 111In-7E11 as a Pretherapeutic Agent for 177Lu-7E11 Radioimmunotherapy 
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed in many prostate cancers, and can be targeted with radiolabeled antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of this disease. To serve as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent, a kinetically inert conjugate is desired to maximize tumor uptake and tumor radiation dose with minimal nonspecific exposure to bone marrow and other major organs. In this study, we assessed the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the 7E11 monoclonal antibody (MAb) radiolabeled with the lutetium-177 (177Lu) - tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugate system (177Lu-7E11) versus those of the 7E11 MAb radiolabeled with the indium-111 (111In) – glycyl-tyrosyl-(N,-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-lysine hydrochloride (DTPA) conjugate system (111In-7E11, also known as ProstaScint®), to determine the feasibility of using 111In-7E11 as a pretherapeutic agent for 177Lu-7E11 radioimmunotherapy. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies of 177Lu-7E11 in LNCaP xenograft mice were performed at 2, 8, 12, 24, 72, and 168 hours after radiopharmaceutical administration. For 111In-7E11, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies were performed at 8, 24, and 72 hours. Parallel studies of 177Lu-7E11 in nontumor bearing mice at 8, 24, and 72 hours postinjection served as controls. Gamma scintigraphy was performed, followed by autoradiography and tissue counting to demonstrate and quantify the distributions of radioconjugated MAb in the tumor and normal tissues. Both 177Lu- and 111In- 7E11 conjugates demonstrated an early blood pool phase in which uptake was dominated by the blood, lung, spleen and liver, followed by uptake and retention of the radiolabeled antibody in the tumor which was most prominent at 24 h. Total accumulation of radioconjugated MAb in tumor at 24 h was greater in the case of 177Lu-7E11 in comparison to that of 111In-7E11. Continued accumulation in tumor was observed for the entire time course studied for both 177Lu-7E11 and 111In-7E11. The liver was the only major organ demonstrating a significant difference in accumulation between the two conjugates. In conclusion, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies of 177Lu-7E11 in LNCaP xenograft mouse models support its potential application as a radioimmunotherapeutic agent targeting prostate cancer, and the distribution and tumor uptake of 111In-7E11 appear to be similar to those of 177Lu-7E11, supporting its use as a pretherapeutic tool to assess the potential accumulation of 177Lu-7E11 radioimmunotherapeutic at sites of prostate cancer. However, the different accumulation patterns of the 111In and 177 Lu immunoconjugates in liver will likely prevent the use of 111In-7E11 as a true dosimetry tool for 177Lu-7E11 radioimmunotherapy.
doi:10.1007/s11307-008-0185-9
PMCID: PMC2841328  PMID: 19034582
prostate cancer; immunoscintigraphy; lutetium-177; indium-111; radioimmunotherapy; prostate-specific membrane antigen; bioluminescence imaging
4.  Iodine-131—Metaiodobenzylguanidine Double Infusion With Autologous Stem-Cell Rescue for Neuroblastoma: A New Approaches to Neuroblastoma Therapy Phase I Study 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(7):1020-1025.
Purpose
Iodine-131—metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG) provides targeted radiotherapy with more than 30% response rate in refractory neuroblastoma, but activity infused is limited by radiation safety and hematologic toxicity. The goal was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose of 131I-MIBG in two consecutive infusions at a 2-week interval, supported by autologous stem-cell rescue (ASCR) 2 weeks after the second dose.
Patients and Methods
The 131I-MIBG dose was escalated using a 3 + 3 phase I trial design, with levels calculated by cumulative red marrow radiation index (RMI) from both infusions. Using dosimetry, the second infusion was adjusted to achieve the target RMI, except at level 4, where the second infusion was capped at 21 mCi/kg.
Results
Twenty-one patients were enrolled onto the study at levels 1 to 4, with 18 patients assessable for toxicity and 20 patients assessable for response. Cumulative 131I-MIBG given to achieve the target RMI ranged from 22 to 50 mCi/kg, with cumulative RMI of 3.2 to 8.92 Gy. No patient had a dose-limiting toxicity. Reversible grade 3 nonhematologic toxicity occurred in six patients at level 4, establishing the recommended cumulative dose as 36 mCi/kg. The median time to absolute neutrophil count more than 500/μL after ASCR was 13 days (4 to 27 days) and to platelet independence was 17 days (6 to 47 days). Responses included two partial responses, eight mixed responses, three stable disease, and seven progressive disease. Responses by semiquantitative MIBG score occurred in eight patients, soft tissue responses occurred in five of 11 patients, but bone marrow responses occurred in only two of 13 patients.
Conclusion
The lack of toxicity with this approach allowed dramatic dose intensification of 131I-MIBG, with minimal toxicity and promising activity.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2007.15.7628
PMCID: PMC2738616  PMID: 19171714
5.  Development of an Optimized Activatable MMP-14 targeted SPECT Imaging Probe 
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry  2008;17(2):653-659.
Matrix Metalloproteinase-14 (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) is a membrane-associated protease implicated in a variety of tissue remodeling processes and a molecular hallmark of select metastatic cancers. The ability to detect MMP-14 in vivo would be useful in studying its role in pathologic processes and may potentially serve as a guide for the development of targeted molecular therapies. Four MMP-14 specific probes containing a positively charged cell penetrating peptide (CPP) d-arginine octamer (r8) linked with a MMP-14 peptide substrate and attenuating sequences with glutamate (8e, 4e) or glutamate-glycine (4eg and 4egg) repeating units were modeled using an AMBER force field method. The probe with 4egg attenuating sequence exhibited the highest CPP/attenuator interaction, predicting minimized cellular uptake until cleaved. The in vitro MMP-14-mediated cleavage studies using the human recombinant MMP-14 catalytic domain revealed an enhanced cleavage rate that directly correlated with the linearity of the embedded peptide substrate sequence. Successful cleavage and uptake of a technetium-99m labeled version of the optimal probe was demonstrated in MMP-14 transfected human breast cancer cells. Two- fold reduction of cellular uptake was found in the presence of a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor. The combination of computational chemistry, parallel synthesis and biochemical screening, therefore, shows promise as a set of tools for developing new radiolabeled probes that are sensitive to protease activity.
doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.11.078
PMCID: PMC2639212  PMID: 19109023
Cancer; MMP-14; Protease sensitive probe; SPECT imaging

Results 1-5 (5)