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1.  Reproducibility of a novel computed-tomography based measurement of renal papillary density in the Framingham Heart Study 
BMC Research Notes  2015;8:811.
Background
Renal papillary calcification is a compelling candidate risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and nephrolithiasis. Renal papillary density (RPD), as assessed by computed tomography (CT), is a potential marker for calcification that has not been well studied. We developed a protocol to measure RPD using CT scans and assessed its reproducibility in participants from the Framingham Heart Study.
Methods
We assessed RPD of right kidneys from a single abdominal CT slice in 100 representative participants from the Framingham Heart Study (47 % female, mean age 59.9 years) using a novel protocol. We selected the kidney slice with the most open sinus space and assessed RPD using the average of three 20 mm2 ellipses from upper, middle and lower papillary regions. Two different readers performed RPD measurements and the first reader repeated all measurements to determine both intra- and inter-reader reproducibility, respectively.
Results
Of 100 total individuals included in the replication dataset, six were excluded for poor scan quality. Average RPD across all individuals was 48.7 ± 4.7 (range 38.7–61.7) Hounsfield Units (HU). The intra- and inter-reader correlation coefficients were 0.86 and 0.79, respectively. Bland–Altman analysis suggested no systematic bias between the different reads.
Conclusion
Measuring RPD is practical and reproducible using MDCT scans from a small sample of a community-based cohort.
doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1784-6
PMCID: PMC4688991  PMID: 26695484
Chronic kidney disease; Computed tomography; Renal papillary density
2.  Polygenic overlap between kidney function and large artery atherosclerotic stroke 
Background and Purpose
Epidemiological studies show strong associations between kidney dysfunction and risk of ischaemic stroke, the mechanisms of which are incompletely understood. We investigated whether these associations may reflect shared heritability due to a common polygenic basis and whether this differed for ischaemic stroke subtypes.
Methods
Polygenic models were derived using GWAS meta-analysis results for three kidney traits: estimated glomerular filtration rate using serum creatinine (eGFRcrea: N=73,998), eGFR using cystatin C (eGFRcys: N=22,937) and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR: N=31,580). For each, SNPs passing ten P-value thresholds were used to form profile scores in 4,561 ischaemic stroke cases and 7,094 controls from the UK, Germany and Australia. Scores were tested for association with ischaemic stroke and its three aetiological subtypes: large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), cardioembolism (CE) and small vessel disease (SVD).
Results
Polygenic scores correlating with higher eGFRcrea were associated with reduced risk of LAA, with five scores reaching P<0.05 (peak P=0.004) and all showing the epidemiologically expected direction of effect. A similar pattern was observed for polygenic scores reflecting higher UACR, of which three associated with LAA (peak P=0.01) and all showed the expected directional association. One UACR-based score also associated with SVD (P=0.03). The global pattern of results was unlikely to have occurred by chance (P=0.02).
Conclusions
This study suggests possible polygenic correlation between renal dysfunction and ischaemic stroke. The shared genetic components may be specific to stroke subtypes, particularly large artery atherosclerotic stroke. Further study of the genetic relationships between these disorders appears merited.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006609
PMCID: PMC4245455  PMID: 25352485
stroke; kidney; genetic epidemiology
3.  Genetic Evidence for a Normal-Weight “Metabolically Obese” Phenotype Linking Insulin Resistance, Hypertension, Coronary Artery Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2014;63(12):4369-4377.
The mechanisms that predispose to hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in individuals of normal weight are poorly understood. In contrast, in monogenic primary lipodystrophy—a reduction in subcutaneous adipose tissue—it is clear that it is adipose dysfunction that causes severe insulin resistance (IR), hypertension, CAD, and T2D. We aimed to test the hypothesis that common alleles associated with IR also influence the wider clinical and biochemical profile of monogenic IR. We selected 19 common genetic variants associated with fasting insulin–based measures of IR. We used hierarchical clustering and results from genome-wide association studies of eight nondisease outcomes of monogenic IR to group these variants. We analyzed genetic risk scores against disease outcomes, including 12,171 T2D cases, 40,365 CAD cases, and 69,828 individuals with blood pressure measurements. Hierarchical clustering identified 11 variants associated with a metabolic profile consistent with a common, subtle form of lipodystrophy. A genetic risk score consisting of these 11 IR risk alleles was associated with higher triglycerides (β = 0.018; P = 4 × 10−29), lower HDL cholesterol (β = −0.020; P = 7 × 10−37), greater hepatic steatosis (β = 0.021; P = 3 × 10−4), higher alanine transaminase (β = 0.002; P = 3 × 10−5), lower sex-hormone-binding globulin (β = −0.010; P = 9 × 10−13), and lower adiponectin (β = −0.015; P = 2 × 10−26). The same risk alleles were associated with lower BMI (per-allele β = −0.008; P = 7 × 10−8) and increased visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (β = −0.015; P = 6 × 10−7). Individuals carrying ≥17 fasting insulin–raising alleles (5.5% population) were slimmer (0.30 kg/m2) but at increased risk of T2D (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; per-allele P = 5 × 10−13), CAD (OR 1.12; per-allele P = 1 × 10−5), and increased blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 1.21 mmHg [per-allele P = 2 × 10−5] and 0.67 mmHg [per-allele P = 2 × 10−4], respectively) compared with individuals carrying ≤9 risk alleles (5.5% population). Our results provide genetic evidence for a link between the three diseases of the “metabolic syndrome” and point to reduced subcutaneous adiposity as a central mechanism.
doi:10.2337/db14-0318
PMCID: PMC4392920  PMID: 25048195
4.  Longitudinal association of dairy consumption with the changes in blood pressure and the risk of incident hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study 
The British Journal of Nutrition  2015;114(11):1887-1899.
We aimed to examine the longitudinal association of dairy consumption with the changes in blood pressure (BP) and the risk of incident hypertension (HTN) among adults. This study included 2636 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort members who participated in the 5th through 8th examinations (1991–2008) and were free of HTN at their first examination during the follow-up. Data collected at each examination included dietary intake (by a validated FFQ), BP (following standardised procedures) and anti-hypertensive medication use (by physician-elicited self-report). HTN was defined as systolic BP (SBP)≥140 mmHg, or diastolic BP (DBP)≥90 mmHg or anti-hypertensive medication use. We used repeated-measure and discrete-time hazard regressions to examine the associations of dairy consumption with the annualised BP change (n 2075) and incident HTN (n 2340; cases=1026), respectively. Covariates included demographic, lifestyle, overall diet quality, metabolic factors and medication use. Greater intakes of total dairy foods, total low-fat/fat-free dairy foods, low-fat/skimmed milk and yoghurt were associated with smaller annualised increments in SBP and a lower risk of projected HTN incidence. However, with the exception of total dairy foods and yoghurt, these inverse associations with HTN risk were attenuated as the follow-up time increased. For yoghurt, each additional serving was associated with 6 (95 % CI 1, 10) % reduced risk of incident HTN. Total dairy and total low-fat/fat-free dairy intakes were found to be inversely related to changes in DBP. Dairy consumption, as part of a nutritious and energy-balanced diet pattern, may benefit BP control and prevent or delay the onset of HTN.
doi:10.1017/S0007114515003578
PMCID: PMC4635606  PMID: 26395861
Dairy intake; Blood pressure; Hypertension; Milk products; Yoghurt
5.  Genome-wide association study of kidney function decline in individuals of European descent 
Gorski, Mathias | Tin, Adrienne | Garnaas, Maija | McMahon, Gearoid M. | Chu, Audrey Y. | Tayo, Bamidele O. | Pattaro, Cristian | Teumer, Alexander | Chasman, Daniel I. | Chalmers, John | Hamet, Pavel | Tremblay, Johanne | Woodward, Marc | Aspelund, Thor | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Harris, Tammara B. | Launer, Lenore J. | Smith, Albert V. | Mitchell, Braxton D. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Coresh, Josef | Li, Man | Freudenberger, Paul | Hofer, Edith | Schmidt, Helena | Schmidt, Reinhold | Holliday, Elizabeth G. | Mitchell, Paul | Wang, Jie Jin | de Boer, Ian H. | Li, Guo | Siscovick, David S. | Kutalik, Zoltan | Corre, Tanguy | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gérard | Gupta, Jayanta | Kanetsky, Peter A. | Hwang, Shih-Jen | Olden, Matthias | Yang, Qiong | de Andrade, Mariza | Atkinson, Elizabeth J. | Kardia, Sharon L.R. | Turner, Stephen T. | Stafford, Jeanette M. | Ding, Jingzhong | Liu, Yongmei | Barlassina, Cristina | Cusi, Daniele | Salvi, Erika | Staessen, Jan A | Ridker, Paul M | Grallert, Harald | Meisinger, Christa | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Krämer, Bernhard K. | Kramer, Holly | Rosas, Sylvia E. | Nolte, Ilja M. | Penninx, Brenda W. | Snieder, Harold | Del Greco, Fabiola | Franke, Andre | Nöthlings, Ute | Lieb, Wolfgang | Bakker, Stephan J.L. | Gansevoort, Ron T. | van der Harst, Pim | Dehghan, Abbas | Franco, Oscar H. | Hofman, Albert | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Sedaghat, Sanaz | Uitterlinden, André G. | Coassin, Stefan | Haun, Margot | Kollerits, Barbara | Kronenberg, Florian | Paulweber, Bernhard | Aumann, Nicole | Endlich, Karlhans | Pietzner, Mike | Völker, Uwe | Rettig, Rainer | Chouraki, Vincent | Helmer, Catherine | Lambert, Jean-Charles | Metzger, Marie | Stengel, Benedicte | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Raitakari, Olli | Johnson, Andrew | Parsa, Afshin | Bochud, Murielle | Heid, Iris M. | Goessling, Wolfram | Köttgen, Anna | Kao, H. Linda | Fox, Caroline S. | Böger, Carsten A.
Kidney international  2014;87(5):1017-1029.
Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci associated with cross-sectional eGFR, but a systematic genetic analysis of kidney function decline over time is missing. Here we conducted a GWAS meta-analysis among 63,558 participants of European descent, initially from 16 cohorts with serial kidney function measurements within the CKDGen Consortium, followed by independent replication among additional participants from 13 cohorts. In stage 1 GWAS meta-analysis, SNPs at MEOX2, GALNT11, IL1RAP, NPPA, HPCAL1 and CDH23 showed the strongest associations for at least one trait, in addition to the known UMOD locus which showed genome-wide significance with an annual change in eGFR. In stage 2 meta-analysis, the significant association at UMOD was replicated. Associations at GALNT11 with Rapid Decline (annual eGFRdecline of 3ml/min/1.73m2 or more), and CDH23 with eGFR change among those with CKD showed significant suggestive evidence of replication. Combined stage 1 and 2 meta-analyses showed significance for UMOD, GALNT11 and CDH23. Morpholino knockdowns of galnt11 and cdh23 in zebrafish embryos each had signs of severe edema 72 hours after gentamicin treatment compared to controls, but no gross morphological renal abnormalities before gentamicin administration. Thus, our results suggest a role in the deterioration of kidney function for the loci GALNT11 and CDH23, and show that the UMOD locus is significantly associated with kidney function decline.
doi:10.1038/ki.2014.361
PMCID: PMC4425568  PMID: 25493955
chronic kidney disease; kidney development
7.  Multi-ethnic fine-mapping of 14 central adiposity loci 
Human Molecular Genetics  2014;23(17):4738-4744.
The Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium identified 14 loci in European Ancestry (EA) individuals associated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) adjusted for body mass index. These loci are wide and narrowing the signals remains necessary. Twelve of 14 loci identified in GIANT EA samples retained strong associations with WHR in our joint EA/individuals of African Ancestry (AA) analysis (log-Bayes factor >6.1). Trans-ethnic analyses at five loci (TBX15-WARS2, LYPLAL1, ADAMTS9, LY86 and ITPR2-SSPN) substantially narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants, some of which are in regions that have evidence of regulatory activity. By leveraging varying linkage disequilibrium structures across different populations, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with strong signals and narrower credible sets from trans-ethnic meta-analysis of central obesity provide more precise localizations of potential functional variants and suggest a possible regulatory role. Meta-analysis results for WHR were obtained from 77 167 EA participants from GIANT and 23 564 AA participants from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium. For fine mapping we interrogated SNPs within ±250 kb flanking regions of 14 previously reported index SNPs from loci discovered in EA populations by performing trans-ethnic meta-analysis of results from the EA and AA meta-analyses. We applied a Bayesian approach that leverages allelic heterogeneity across populations to combine meta-analysis results and aids in fine-mapping shared variants at these locations. We annotated variants using information from the ENCODE Consortium and Roadmap Epigenomics Project to prioritize variants for possible functionality.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddu183
PMCID: PMC4119415  PMID: 24760767
8.  Baseline Levels, and Changes Over Time in Body Mass Index and Fasting Insulin, and Their Relationship to Change in Metabolic Trait Clustering 
Abstract
Background: Multiple abnormal metabolic traits are found together or “cluster” within individuals more often than is predicted by chance. The individual and combined role of adiposity and insulin resistance (IR) on metabolic trait clustering is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that change in trait clustering is a function of both baseline level and change in these measures.
Methods: In 2616 nondiabetic Framingham Offspring Study participants, body mass index (BMI) and fasting insulin were related to a within-person 7-year change in a trait score of 0–4 Adult Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome traits (hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia).
Results: At baseline assessment, mean trait score was 1.4 traits, and 7-year mean (SEM) change in trait score was +0.25 (0.02) traits, P<0.0001. In models with BMI predictors only, for every quintile difference in baseline BMI, the 7-year trait score increase was 0.14 traits, and for every quintile increase in BMI during 7-year follow-up, the trait score increased by 0.3 traits. Baseline level and change in fasting insulin were similarly related to trait score change. In models adjusted for age–sex–baseline cluster score, 7-year change in trait score was significantly related to both a 1-quintile difference in baseline BMI (0.07 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits), and to both a 1-quintile 7-year increase in BMI (0.21 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits).
Conclusions: Change in metabolic trait clustering was significantly associated with baseline levels and changes in both BMI and fasting insulin, highlighting the importance of both obesity and IR in the clustering of metabolic traits.
doi:10.1089/met.2013.0148
PMCID: PMC4209491  PMID: 25007010
9.  New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution 
Shungin, Dmitry | Winkler, Thomas W | Croteau-Chonka, Damien C | Ferreira, Teresa | Locke, Adam E | Mägi, Reedik | Strawbridge, Rona J | Pers, Tune H | Fischer, Krista | Justice, Anne E | Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie | Wu, Joseph M.W. | Buchkovich, Martin L | Heard-Costa, Nancy L | Roman, Tamara S | Drong, Alexander W | Song, Ci | Gustafsson, Stefan | Day, Felix R | Esko, Tonu | Fall, Tove | Kutalik, Zoltán | Luan, Jian’an | Randall, Joshua C | Scherag, André | Vedantam, Sailaja | Wood, Andrew R | Chen, Jin | Fehrmann, Rudolf | Karjalainen, Juha | Kahali, Bratati | Liu, Ching-Ti | Schmidt, Ellen M | Absher, Devin | Amin, Najaf | Anderson, Denise | Beekman, Marian | Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L | Buyske, Steven | Demirkan, Ayse | Ehret, Georg B | Feitosa, Mary F | Goel, Anuj | Jackson, Anne U | Johnson, Toby | Kleber, Marcus E | Kristiansson, Kati | Mangino, Massimo | Leach, Irene Mateo | Medina-Gomez, Carolina | Palmer, Cameron D | Pasko, Dorota | Pechlivanis, Sonali | Peters, Marjolein J | Prokopenko, Inga | Stančáková, Alena | Sung, Yun Ju | Tanaka, Toshiko | Teumer, Alexander | Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V | Yengo, Loïc | Zhang, Weihua | Albrecht, Eva | Ärnlöv, Johan | Arscott, Gillian M | Bandinelli, Stefania | Barrett, Amy | Bellis, Claire | Bennett, Amanda J | Berne, Christian | Blüher, Matthias | Böhringer, Stefan | Bonnet, Fabrice | Böttcher, Yvonne | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Carba, Delia B | Caspersen, Ida H | Clarke, Robert | Daw, E Warwick | Deelen, Joris | Deelman, Ewa | Delgado, Graciela | Doney, Alex SF | Eklund, Niina | Erdos, Michael R | Estrada, Karol | Eury, Elodie | Friedrich, Nele | Garcia, Melissa E | Giedraitis, Vilmantas | Gigante, Bruna | Go, Alan S | Golay, Alain | Grallert, Harald | Grammer, Tanja B | Gräßler, Jürgen | Grewal, Jagvir | Groves, Christopher J | Haller, Toomas | Hallmans, Goran | Hartman, Catharina A | Hassinen, Maija | Hayward, Caroline | Heikkilä, Kauko | Herzig, Karl-Heinz | Helmer, Quinta | Hillege, Hans L | Holmen, Oddgeir | Hunt, Steven C | Isaacs, Aaron | Ittermann, Till | James, Alan L | Johansson, Ingegerd | Juliusdottir, Thorhildur | Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota | Kinnunen, Leena | Koenig, Wolfgang | Kooner, Ishminder K | Kratzer, Wolfgang | Lamina, Claudia | Leander, Karin | Lee, Nanette R | Lichtner, Peter | Lind, Lars | Lindström, Jaana | Lobbens, Stéphane | Lorentzon, Mattias | Mach, François | Magnusson, Patrik KE | Mahajan, Anubha | McArdle, Wendy L | Menni, Cristina | Merger, Sigrun | Mihailov, Evelin | Milani, Lili | Mills, Rebecca | Moayyeri, Alireza | Monda, Keri L | Mooijaart, Simon P | Mühleisen, Thomas W | Mulas, Antonella | Müller, Gabriele | Müller-Nurasyid, Martina | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Nalls, Michael A | Narisu, Narisu | Glorioso, Nicola | Nolte, Ilja M | Olden, Matthias | Rayner, Nigel W | Renstrom, Frida | Ried, Janina S | Robertson, Neil R | Rose, Lynda M | Sanna, Serena | Scharnagl, Hubert | Scholtens, Salome | Sennblad, Bengt | Seufferlein, Thomas | Sitlani, Colleen M | Smith, Albert Vernon | Stirrups, Kathleen | Stringham, Heather M | Sundström, Johan | Swertz, Morris A | Swift, Amy J | Syvänen, Ann-Christine | Tayo, Bamidele O | Thorand, Barbara | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Tomaschitz, Andreas | Troffa, Chiara | van Oort, Floor VA | Verweij, Niek | Vonk, Judith M | Waite, Lindsay L | Wennauer, Roman | Wilsgaard, Tom | Wojczynski, Mary K | Wong, Andrew | Zhang, Qunyuan | Zhao, Jing Hua | Brennan, Eoin P. | Choi, Murim | Eriksson, Per | Folkersen, Lasse | Franco-Cereceda, Anders | Gharavi, Ali G | Hedman, Åsa K | Hivert, Marie-France | Huang, Jinyan | Kanoni, Stavroula | Karpe, Fredrik | Keildson, Sarah | Kiryluk, Krzysztof | Liang, Liming | Lifton, Richard P | Ma, Baoshan | McKnight, Amy J | McPherson, Ruth | Metspalu, Andres | Min, Josine L | Moffatt, Miriam F | Montgomery, Grant W | Murabito, Joanne M | Nicholson, George | Nyholt, Dale R | Olsson, Christian | Perry, John RB | Reinmaa, Eva | Salem, Rany M | Sandholm, Niina | Schadt, Eric E | Scott, Robert A | Stolk, Lisette | Vallejo, Edgar E. | Westra, Harm-Jan | Zondervan, Krina T | Amouyel, Philippe | Arveiler, Dominique | Bakker, Stephan JL | Beilby, John | Bergman, Richard N | Blangero, John | Brown, Morris J | Burnier, Michel | Campbell, Harry | Chakravarti, Aravinda | Chines, Peter S | Claudi-Boehm, Simone | Collins, Francis S | Crawford, Dana C | Danesh, John | de Faire, Ulf | de Geus, Eco JC | Dörr, Marcus | Erbel, Raimund | Eriksson, Johan G | Farrall, Martin | Ferrannini, Ele | Ferrières, Jean | Forouhi, Nita G | Forrester, Terrence | Franco, Oscar H | Gansevoort, Ron T | Gieger, Christian | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Haiman, Christopher A | Harris, Tamara B | Hattersley, Andrew T | Heliövaara, Markku | Hicks, Andrew A | Hingorani, Aroon D | Hoffmann, Wolfgang | Hofman, Albert | Homuth, Georg | Humphries, Steve E | Hyppönen, Elina | Illig, Thomas | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Johansen, Berit | Jousilahti, Pekka | Jula, Antti M | Kaprio, Jaakko | Kee, Frank | Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M | Kooner, Jaspal S | Kooperberg, Charles | Kovacs, Peter | Kraja, Aldi T | Kumari, Meena | Kuulasmaa, Kari | Kuusisto, Johanna | Lakka, Timo A | Langenberg, Claudia | Le Marchand, Loic | Lehtimäki, Terho | Lyssenko, Valeriya | Männistö, Satu | Marette, André | Matise, Tara C | McKenzie, Colin A | McKnight, Barbara | Musk, Arthur W | Möhlenkamp, Stefan | Morris, Andrew D | Nelis, Mari | Ohlsson, Claes | Oldehinkel, Albertine J | Ong, Ken K | Palmer, Lyle J | Penninx, Brenda W | Peters, Annette | Pramstaller, Peter P | Raitakari, Olli T | Rankinen, Tuomo | Rao, DC | Rice, Treva K | Ridker, Paul M | Ritchie, Marylyn D. | Rudan, Igor | Salomaa, Veikko | Samani, Nilesh J | Saramies, Jouko | Sarzynski, Mark A | Schwarz, Peter EH | Shuldiner, Alan R | Staessen, Jan A | Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur | Stolk, Ronald P | Strauch, Konstantin | Tönjes, Anke | Tremblay, Angelo | Tremoli, Elena | Vohl, Marie-Claude | Völker, Uwe | Vollenweider, Peter | Wilson, James F | Witteman, Jacqueline C | Adair, Linda S | Bochud, Murielle | Boehm, Bernhard O | Bornstein, Stefan R | Bouchard, Claude | Cauchi, Stéphane | Caulfield, Mark J | Chambers, John C | Chasman, Daniel I | Cooper, Richard S | Dedoussis, George | Ferrucci, Luigi | Froguel, Philippe | Grabe, Hans-Jörgen | Hamsten, Anders | Hui, Jennie | Hveem, Kristian | Jöckel, Karl-Heinz | Kivimaki, Mika | Kuh, Diana | Laakso, Markku | Liu, Yongmei | März, Winfried | Munroe, Patricia B | Njølstad, Inger | Oostra, Ben A | Palmer, Colin NA | Pedersen, Nancy L | Perola, Markus | Pérusse, Louis | Peters, Ulrike | Power, Chris | Quertermous, Thomas | Rauramaa, Rainer | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Saaristo, Timo E | Saleheen, Danish | Sinisalo, Juha | Slagboom, P Eline | Snieder, Harold | Spector, Tim D | Stefansson, Kari | Stumvoll, Michael | Tuomilehto, Jaakko | Uitterlinden, André G | Uusitupa, Matti | van der Harst, Pim | Veronesi, Giovanni | Walker, Mark | Wareham, Nicholas J | Watkins, Hugh | Wichmann, H-Erich | Abecasis, Goncalo R | Assimes, Themistocles L | Berndt, Sonja I | Boehnke, Michael | Borecki, Ingrid B | Deloukas, Panos | Franke, Lude | Frayling, Timothy M | Groop, Leif C | Hunter, David J. | Kaplan, Robert C | O’Connell, Jeffrey R | Qi, Lu | Schlessinger, David | Strachan, David P | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Willer, Cristen J | Visscher, Peter M | Yang, Jian | Hirschhorn, Joel N | Zillikens, M Carola | McCarthy, Mark I | Speliotes, Elizabeth K | North, Kari E | Fox, Caroline S | Barroso, Inês | Franks, Paul W | Ingelsson, Erik | Heid, Iris M | Loos, Ruth JF | Cupples, L Adrienne | Morris, Andrew P | Lindgren, Cecilia M | Mohlke, Karen L
Nature  2015;518(7538):187-196.
Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, we conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of waist and hip circumference-related traits in up to 224,459 individuals. We identified 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI) and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P<5×10−8). Twenty of the 49 WHRadjBMI loci showed significant sexual dimorphism, 19 of which displayed a stronger effect in women. The identified loci were enriched for genes expressed in adipose tissue and for putative regulatory elements in adipocytes. Pathway analyses implicated adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation, and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
doi:10.1038/nature14132
PMCID: PMC4338562  PMID: 25673412
10.  Sequence Variation in TMEM18 in Association with Body Mass Index: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study 
Background
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for body mass index (BMI) previously identified a locus near TMEM18. We conducted targeted sequencing of this region to investigate the role of common, low frequency, and rare variation influencing BMI.
Methods and Results
We sequenced TMEM18 and regions downstream of TMEM18 on chromosome 2 in 3976 individuals of European ancestry from three community-based cohorts (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities, Cardiovascular Health Study and Framingham Heart Study), including 200 adults selected for high BMI. We examined the association between BMI and variants identified in the region from nucleotide position 586,432 to 677,539 (hg18). Rare variants (MAF <1%) were analyzed using a burden test and the Sequence Kernel of Association Test (SKAT). Results from the three cohort studies were meta-analyzed. We estimate that mean BMI is 0.43 kg/m2 higher for each copy of the G allele of SNP rs7596758 (MAF=29%, p=3.46 × 10−4) using a Bonferroni threshold of p <4.6 × 10−4). Analyses conditional on previous GWAS SNPs associated with BMI in the region led to attenuation of this signal and uncovered another independent (r2<0.2), statistically significant association, rs186019316 (p=2.11 × 10−4). Both rs186019316 and rs7596758 or proxies are located in transcription factor binding regions. No significant association with rare variants was found in either the exons of TMEM18 or the 3’ GWAS region.
Conclusions
Targeted sequencing around TMEM18 identified two novel BMI variants with possible regulatory function.
doi:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.13.000067
PMCID: PMC4135723  PMID: 24951660
body mass index; genetic association; targeted resequencing; TMEM18
11.  Novel species interactions: American black bears respond to Pacific herring spawn 
BMC Ecology  2015;15:14.
Background
In addition to the decline and extinction of the world’s species, the decline and eventual loss of species interactions is one of the major consequences of the biodiversity crisis. On the Pacific coast of North America, diminished runs of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) drive numerous marine–terrestrial interactions, many of which have been intensively studied, but marine–terrestrial interactions driven by other species remain relatively unknown. Bears (Ursus spp.) are major vectors of salmon into terrestrial ecosystems, but their participation in other cross-ecosystem interactions is similarly poorly described. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii), a migratory forage fish in coastal marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean and the dominant forage fish in British Columbia (BC), spawn in nearshore subtidal and intertidal zones. Spawn resources (eggs, milt, and spawning adults) at these events are available to coastal predators and scavengers, including terrestrial species. In this study, we investigated the interaction between American black bears (Ursus americanus) and Pacific herring at spawn events in Quatsino Sound, BC, Canada.
Results
Using remote cameras to monitor bear activity (1,467 camera days, 29 sites, years 2010–2012) in supratidal and intertidal zones and a machine learning approach, we determined that the quantity of Pacific herring eggs in supratidal and intertidal zones was a leading predictor of black bear activity, with bears positively responding to increasing herring egg masses. Other important predictors included day of the year and Talitrid amphipod (Traskorchestia spp.) mass. A complementary analysis of black bear scats indicated that Pacific herring egg mass was the highest ranked predictor of egg consumption by bears. Pacific herring eggs constituted a substantial yet variable component of the early springtime diet of black bears in Quatsino Sound (frequency of occurrence 0–34%; estimated dietary content 0–63%). Other major dietary items included graminoids (grasses and sedges), Phaeophyta (brown algae), Zosteraceae (seagrasses), and Talitrid amphipods.
Conclusion
This research represents the first scientific evidence of a cross-ecosystem interaction between Pacific herring and American black bears. Our findings also expand knowledge of the ecological roles of both species. Combined, evidence of anthropogenic constraints on both black bears and Pacific herring suggests that bear-herring interactions were potentially stronger and more widespread in the past.
doi:10.1186/s12898-015-0045-9
PMCID: PMC4445564  PMID: 26013706
Species interactions; Clupea pallasii; Ursus americanus; Intertidal zone; Forage fish; Pacific Ocean; Spawn
13.  Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2011 Update 
Circulation  2010;123(4):e18-e209.
Summary
Each year, the American Heart Association (AHA), in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and other government agencies, brings together the most up-to-date statistics on heart disease, stroke, other vascular diseases, and their risk factors and presents them in its Heart Disease and Stroke Statistical Update. The Statistical Update is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, healthcare policy makers, media professionals, the lay public, and many others who seek the best national data available on disease morbidity and mortality and the risks, quality of care, medical procedures and operations, and costs associated with the management of these diseases in a single document. Indeed, since 1999, the Statistical Update has been cited more than 8700 times in the literature (including citations of all annual versions). In 2009 alone, the various Statistical Updates were cited ≈1600 times (data from ISI Web of Science). In recent years, the Statistical Update has undergone some major changes with the addition of new chapters and major updates across multiple areas. For this year’s edition, the Statistics Committee, which produces the document for the AHA, updated all of the current chapters with the most recent nationally representative data and inclusion of relevant articles from the literature over the past year and added a new chapter detailing how family history and genetics play a role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Also, the 2011 Statistical Update is a major source for monitoring both cardiovascular health and disease in the population, with a focus on progress toward achievement of the AHA’s 2020 Impact Goals. Below are a few highlights from this year’s Update.
Death Rates From CVD Have Declined, Yet the Burden of Disease Remains High
The 2007 overall death rate from CVD (International Classification of Diseases 10, I00–I99) was 251.2 per 100 000. The rates were 294.0 per 100 000 for white males, 405.9 per 100 000 for black males, 205.7 per 100 000 for white females, and 286.1 per 100 000 for black females. From 1997 to 2007, the death rate from CVD declined 27.8%. Mortality data for 2007 show that CVD (I00–I99; Q20–Q28) accounted for 33.6% (813 804) of all 2 243 712 deaths in 2007, or 1 of every 2.9 deaths in the United States.
On the basis of 2007 mortality rate data, more than 2200 Americans die of CVD each day, an average of 1 death every 39 seconds. More than 150 000 Americans killed by CVD (I00–I99) in 2007 were <65 years of age. In 2007, nearly 33% of deaths due to CVD occurred before the age of 75 years, which is well before the average life expectancy of 77.9 years.
Coronary heart disease caused ≈1 of every 6 deaths in the United States in 2007. Coronary heart disease mortality in 2007 was 406 351. Each year, an estimated 785 000 Americans will have a new coronary attack, and ≈470 000 will have a recurrent attack. It is estimated that an additional 195 000 silent first myocardial infarctions occur each year. Approximately every 25 seconds, an American will have a coronary event, and approximately every minute, someone will die of one.
Each year, ≈795 000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. Approximately 610 000 of these are first attacks, and 185 000 are recurrent attacks. Mortality data from 2007 indicate that stroke accounted for ≈1 of every 18 deaths in the United States. On average, every 40 seconds, someone in the United States has a stroke. From 1997 to 2007, the stroke death rate fell 44.8%, and the actual number of stroke deaths declined 14.7%.
In 2007, 1 in 9 death certificates (277 193 deaths) in the United States mentioned heart failure.
Prevalence and Control of Traditional Risk Factors Remains an Issue for Many Americans
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008 indicate that 33.5% of US adults ≥20 years of age have hypertension (Table 7-1). This amounts to an estimated 76 400 000 US adults with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is nearly equal between men and women. African American adults have among the highest rates of hypertension in the world, at 44%. Among hypertensive adults, ≈80% are aware of their condition, 71% are using antihypertensive medication, and only 48% of those aware that they have hypertension have their condition controlled.
Despite 4 decades of progress, in 2008, among Americans ≥18 years of age, 23.1% of men and 18.3% of women continued to be cigarette smokers. In 2009, 19.5% of students in grades 9 through 12 reported current tobacco use. The percentage of the nonsmoking population with detectable serum cotinine (indicating exposure to secondhand smoke) was 46.4% in 1999 to 2004, with declines occurring, and was highest for those 4 to 11 years of age (60.5%) and those 12 to 19 years of age (55.4%).
An estimated 33 600 000 adults ≥20 years of age have total serum cholesterol levels ≥240 mg/dL, with a prevalence of 15.0% (Table 13-1).
In 2008, an estimated 18 300 000 Americans had diagnosed diabetes mellitus, representing 8.0% of the adult population. An additional 7 100 000 had undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, and 36.8% had prediabetes, with abnormal fasting glucose levels. African Americans, Mexican Americans, Hispanic/Latino individuals, and other ethnic minorities bear a strikingly disproportionate burden of diabetes mellitus in the United States (Table 16-1).
The 2011 Update Expands Data Coverage of the Obesity Epidemic and Its Antecedents and Consequences
The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults (≥20 years of age) is 149 300 000, which represents 67.3% of this group in 2008. Fully 33.7% of US adults are obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). Men and women of all race/ethnic groups in the population are affected by the epidemic of overweight and obesity (Table 15-1).
Among children 2 to 19 years of age, 31.9% are overweight and obese (which represents 23 500 000 children), and 16.3% are obese (12 000 000 children). Mexican American boys and girls and African American girls are disproportionately affected. Over the past 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity in children 6 to 11 years of age has increased from ≈4% to more than 20%.
Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) is associated with marked excess mortality in the US population. Even more notable is the excess morbidity associated with overweight and obesity in terms of risk factor development and incidence of diabetes mellitus, CVD end points (including coronary heart disease, stroke, and heart failure), and numerous other health conditions, including asthma, cancer, degenerative joint disease, and many others.
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing dramatically over time, in parallel with the increases in prevalence of overweight and obesity.
On the basis of NHANES 2003–2006 data, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of major cardiovascular risk factors related to overweight/obesity and insulin resistance, is 34% (35.1% among men and 32.6% among women).
The proportion of youth (≤18 years of age) who report engaging in no regular physical activity is high, and the proportion increases with age. In 2007, among adolescents in grades 9 through 12, 29.9% of girls and 17.0% of boys reported that they had not engaged in 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, defined as any activity that increased heart rate or breathing rate, even once in the previous 7 days, despite recommendations that children engage in such activity ≥5 days per week.
Thirty-six percent of adults reported engaging in no vigorous activity (activity that causes heavy sweating and a large increase in breathing or heart rate).
Data from NHANES indicate that between 1971 and 2004, average total energy consumption among US adults increased by 22% in women (from 1542 to 1886 kcal/d) and by 10% in men (from 2450 to 2693 kcal/d; see Chart 19-1).
The increases in calories consumed during this time period are attributable primarily to greater average carbohydrate intake, in particular, of starches, refined grains, and sugars. Other specific changes related to increased caloric intake in the United States include larger portion sizes, greater food quantity and calories per meal, and increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks, commercially prepared (especially fast food) meals, and higher energy-density foods.
The 2011 Update Provides Critical Data Regarding Cardiovascular Quality of Care, Procedure Utilization, and Costs
In light of the current national focus on healthcare utilization, costs, and quality, it is critical to monitor and understand the magnitude of healthcare delivery and costs, as well as the quality of healthcare delivery, related to CVDs. The Update provides these critical data in several sections.
Quality-of-Care Metrics for CVDs
Chapter 20 reviews many metrics related to the quality of care delivered to patients with CVDs, as well as healthcare disparities. In particular, quality data are available from the AHA’s “Get With The Guidelines” programs for coronary artery disease and heart failure and the American Stroke Association/ AHA’s “Get With the Guidelines” program for acute stroke. Similar data from the Veterans Healthcare Administration, national Medicare and Medicaid data and National Cardiovascular Data Registry Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network - “Get With The Guidelines” Registry data are also reviewed. These data show impressive adherence with guideline recommendations for many, but not all, metrics of quality of care for these hospitalized patients. Data are also reviewed on screening for cardiovascular risk factor levels and control.
Cardiovascular Procedure Utilization and Costs
Chapter 21 provides data on trends and current usage of cardiovascular surgical and invasive procedures. For example, the total number of inpatient cardiovascular operations and procedures increased 27%, from 5 382 000 in 1997 to 6 846 000 in 2007 (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute computation based on National Center for Health Statistics annual data).
Chapter 22 reviews current estimates of direct and indirect healthcare costs related to CVDs, stroke, and related conditions using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. The total direct and indirect cost of CVD and stroke in the United States for 2007 is estimated to be $286 billion. This figure includes health expenditures (direct costs, which include the cost of physicians and other professionals, hospital services, prescribed medications, home health care, and other medical durables) and lost productivity resulting from mortality (indirect costs). By comparison, in 2008, the estimated cost of all cancer and benign neoplasms was $228 billion ($93 billion in direct costs, $19 billion in morbidity indirect costs, and $116 billion in mortality indirect costs). CVD costs more than any other diagnostic group.
The AHA, through its Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current data available in the Statistics Update. The 2007 mortality data have been released. More information can be found at the National Center for Health Statistics Web site, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr58/nvsr58_01.pdf.
Finally, it must be noted that this annual Statistical Update is the product of an entire year’s worth of effort by dedicated professionals, volunteer physicians and scientists, and outstanding AHA staff members, without whom publication of this valuable resource would be impossible. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. Véronique L. Roger, MD, MPH, FAHAMelanie B. Turner, MPHOn behalf of the American Heart Association Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Writing Group
Note: Population data used in the compilation of NHANES prevalence estimates is for the latest year of the NHANES survey being used. Extrapolations for NHANES prevalence estimates are based on the census resident population for 2008 because this is the most recent year of NHANES data used in the Statistical Update.
doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182009701
PMCID: PMC4418670  PMID: 21160056
AHA Statistical Update; cardiovascular diseases; epidemiology; risk factors; statistics; stroke
14.  Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations 
Yoneyama, Sachiko | Guo, Yiran | Lanktree, Matthew B. | Barnes, Michael R. | Elbers, Clara C. | Karczewski, Konrad J | Padmanabhan, Sandosh | Bauer, Florianne | Baumert, Jens | Beitelshees, Amber | Berenson, Gerald S. | Boer, Jolanda M.A. | Burke, Gregory | Cade, Brian | Chen, Wei | Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M. | Gaunt, Tom R. | Gieger, Christian | Gong, Yan | Gorski, Mathias | Heard-Costa, Nancy | Johnson, Toby | Lamonte, Michael J. | Mcdonough, Caitrin | Monda, Keri L. | Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte | Nelson, Christopher P. | O'Connell, Jeffrey R. | Ordovas, Jose | Peter, Inga | Peters, Annette | Shaffer, Jonathan | Shen, Haiqinq | Smith, Erin | Speilotes, Liz | Thomas, Fridtjof | Thorand, Barbara | Monique Verschuren, W. M. | Anand, Sonia S. | Dominiczak, Anna | Davidson, Karina W. | Hegele, Robert A. | Heid, Iris | Hofker, Marten H. | Huggins, Gordon S. | Illig, Thomas | Johnson, Julie A. | Kirkland, Susan | König, Wolfgang | Langaee, Taimour Y. | Mccaffery, Jeanne | Melander, Olle | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Munroe, Patricia | Murray, Sarah S. | Papanicolaou, George | Redline, Susan | Reilly, Muredach | Samani, Nilesh J. | Schork, Nicholas J. | Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T. | Shimbo, Daichi | Shuldiner, Alan R. | Tobin, Martin D. | Wijmenga, Cisca | Yusuf, Salim | Hakonarson, Hakon | Lange, Leslie A. | Demerath, Ellen W | Fox, Caroline S. | North, Kari E | Reiner, Alex P. | Keating, Brendan | Taylor, Kira C.
Human Molecular Genetics  2013;23(9):2498-2510.
Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to date. We assessed the association between SNPs and BMI-adjusted WC and WHR and unadjusted WC in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent from 22 cohorts collaborating with the NHLBI's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) project. The study population consisted of women and men aged 20–80 years. Study participants were genotyped using the ITMAT/Broad/CARE array, which includes ∼50 000 cosmopolitan tagged SNPs across ∼2100 cardiovascular-related genes. Each trait was modeled as a function of age, study site and principal components to control for population stratification, and we conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis. No new loci for WC were observed. For WHR analyses, three novel loci were significantly associated (P < 2.4 × 10−6). Previously unreported rs2811337-G near TMCC1 was associated with increased WHR (β ± SE, 0.048 ± 0.008, P = 7.7 × 10−9) as was rs7302703-G in HOXC10 (β = 0.044 ± 0.008, P = 2.9 × 10−7) and rs936108-C in PEMT (β = 0.035 ± 0.007, P = 1.9 × 10−6). Sex-stratified analyses revealed two additional novel signals among females only, rs12076073-A in SHC1 (β = 0.10 ± 0.02, P = 1.9 × 10−6) and rs1037575-A in ATBDB4 (β = 0.046 ± 0.01, P = 2.2 × 10−6), supporting an already established sexual dimorphism of central adiposity-related genetic variants. Functional analysis using ENCODE and eQTL databases revealed that several of these loci are in regulatory regions or regions with differential expression in adipose tissue.
doi:10.1093/hmg/ddt626
PMCID: PMC3988452  PMID: 24345515
15.  Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Prevalence of the Metabolically Abnormal Phenotype in the Framingham Heart Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2014;22(5):E157-E163.
Objective
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between usual sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and prevalence of abnormal metabolic health across body mass index (BMI) categories.
Design and Methods
The metabolic health of 6,842 non-diabetic adults was classified using cross-sectional data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (1998–2001) and Third Generation (2002–2005) cohorts. Adults were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese and, within these categories, metabolic health was defined based on five criteria – hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and insulin resistance. Individuals without metabolic abnormalities were considered metabolically healthy. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between categories of SSB consumption and risk of metabolic health after stratification by BMI.
Results
Comparing the highest category of SSB consumers (median of 7 SSB per week) to the lowest category (non-consumers), odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for metabolically abnormal phenotypes, compared to the metabolically normal, were 1.9 (1.1–3.4) among the obese, 2.0 (1.4–2.9) among the overweight, and 1.9 (1.4–2.6) among the normal weight individuals.
Conclusions
In this cross-sectional analysis, it is observed that, irrespective of weight status, consumers of SSB were more likely to display metabolic abnormalities compared to non-consumers in a dose-dependent manner.
doi:10.1002/oby.20724
PMCID: PMC4139414  PMID: 24550031
Obesity; metabolically healthy obese phenotype; sugar-sweetened beverages; chronic disease
17.  Sequence Kernel Association Test for Survival Traits 
Genetic epidemiology  2014;38(3):191-197.
Rare variant tests have been of great interest in testing genetic associations with diseases and disease-related quantitative traits in recent years. Among these tests, the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) is an omnibus test for effects of rare genetic variants, in a linear or logistic regression framework. It is often described as a variance component test treating the genotypic effects as random. When the linear kernel is used, its test statistic can be expressed as a weighted sum of single-marker score test statistics. In this paper, we extend the test to survival phenotypes in a Cox regression framework. Because of the anticonservative small-sample performance of the score test in a Cox model, we substitute signed square-root likelihood ratio statistics for the score statistics, and confirm that the small-sample control of type I error is greatly improved. This test can also be applied in meta-analysis. We show in our simulation studies that this test has superior statistical power except in a few specific scenarios, as compared to burden tests in a Cox model. We also present results in an application to time-to-obesity using genotypes from Framingham Heart Study SNP Health Association Resource.
doi:10.1002/gepi.21791
PMCID: PMC4158946  PMID: 24464521
Cox proportional hazard model; likelihood ratio test; rare variant analysis; variance component test
18.  Chronic Kidney Disease Defined by Cystatin C Predicts Mobility Disability and Changes in Gait Speed: The Framingham Offspring Study 
Background.
As creatinine-based estimates of renal function are inaccurate in older adults, an alternative is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys) based on cystatin C. We examined the prospective association between chronic kidney disease (CKDcys) as determined by eGFRcys with the primary outcome of incident mobility disability and the secondary outcome of change in gait speed.
Methods.
Framingham Offspring Study participants older than 60 years and free of mobility disability at baseline (1998–2001) were eligible. Baseline CKDcys was defined as eGFRcys less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. At follow-up (2005–2008), the outcomes of mobility disability, defined as self-reported inability to walk 1/2 mile and/or climb a flight of stairs, and gait speed were measured. Logistic and linear regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, C reactive protein, and physical activity.
Results.
Of 1,226 participants, 230 (19%) had CKDcys at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, 185 (15%) developed mobility disability. Of those with CKDcys, 60 (26%) developed mobility disability. Those with CKDcys had greater odds of mobility disability in the age- and sex-adjusted (odds ratio [OR] 1.91, 95% CI 1.32, 2.75) and fully adjusted (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.05, 2.31) models compared with those without CKDcys. In fully adjusted models, participants with CKDcys had greater gait speed declines than those without CKDcys (β = 0.07 [SE 0.02], p = .0022).
Conclusion.
CKDcys was associated with higher odds of incident mobility disability and greater decline in gait speed, highlighting the loss of physical independence in elders with CKD.
doi:10.1093/gerona/glt096
PMCID: PMC3976137  PMID: 23913929
Chronic kidney disease; Cystatin C; Disability; Gait speed.
19.  Differential Associations of Abdominal Visceral, Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors between African and European Americans 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2014;22(3):811-818.
Objective
To examine the relative association of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) with cardiometabolic risk factors between African and European Americans.
Methods
A cross-sectional study of 2,035 African Americans from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) and 3,170 European Americans from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) who underwent computed tomography assessment of VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was conducted. The FHS participants were weighted to match the age distribution of the JHS participants, and the metabolic risk factors were examined by study groups in relation to VAT.
Results
JHS participants had higher rates of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome than FHS participants (all P = 0.001). The associations were weaker in JHS women for VAT with blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-C, and total cholesterol (Pinteraction = 0.03-0.001) than FHS women. In contrast, JHS men had stronger associations for VAT with high triglycerides, low HDL, and metabolic syndrome (all Pinteraction = 0.001) compared to FHS men. Similar associations and gender patterns existed for SAT with most metabolic risk factors.
Conclusions
The relative association between VAT and cardiometabolic risk factors is weaker in JHS women compared to FHS women, whereas stronger associations with triglycerides and HDL were observed in JHS men.
doi:10.1002/oby.20307
PMCID: PMC4215565  PMID: 23408700
20.  Moderate‐to‐Vigorous Physical Activity With Accelerometry is Associated With Visceral Adipose Tissue in Adults 
Background
We examined the relation between objectively measured physical activity with accelerometry and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community‐based sample.
Methods and Results
We evaluated 1249 participants of the Framingham Third Generation and Omni II cohorts (mean age 51.7 years, 47% women) who underwent assessment of moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with accelerometry over 5 to 7 days, and multi‐detector computed tomography for measurement of SAT and VAT volume; fat attenuation was estimated by SAT and VAT hounsfield units (HU). In women, higher levels of MVPA were associated with decreased SAT (P<0.0001) and VAT volume (P<0.0001). The average decrement in VAT per 30 minute/day increase in MVPA was −453 cm3 (95% CI −574, −331). The association was attenuated but persisted upon adjustment for BMI (−122 cm3, P=0.002). Higher levels of MVPA were associated with higher SAT HU (all P≤0.01), a marker of fat quality, even after adjustment for SAT volume. Similar findings were observed in men but the magnitude of the association was less. Sedentary time was not associated with SAT or VAT volume or quality in men or women.
Conclusions
MVPA was associated with less VAT and SAT and better fat quality.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.114.001379
PMCID: PMC4392428  PMID: 25736442
accelerometry; physical activity; visceral adipose tissue
22.  The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study 
BMC Nephrology  2015;16:7.
Background
Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort.
Methods
We analyzed participants from the Framingham Heart Study (n = 2965, mean age 58 years, 53% female) who provided samples for plasma B12. Logistic regression models adjusted for covariates including homocysteine were constructed to test the association between B12 and prevalent albuminuria (UACR ≥17 mg/g [men] and ≥25 mg/g [women]) and reduced kidney function (defined as an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, RKF). Because of a significant interaction between B12 and homocysteine in the prevalent RKF model (p = 0.005), the model was stratified by the median homocysteine levels. Logistic regression models were constructed to test the association between B12 and incident albuminuria and RKF. The results were replicated in 4445 participants from NHANES 2003–2004.
Results
Baseline B12 levels ranged from 50-1690 pg/ml. Elevated B12 was associated with prevalent albuminuria (OR 1.44 per 1 SD increase, 95% CI 1.10-1.87) and RKF (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.30-2.60). However after stratifying by median homocysteine levels, this relationship remained only in the higher homocysteine stratum. There was no association between B12 and incident albuminuria (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.79 – 1.73) or RKF (OR 1.45, 95% CI 0.97 – 1.88). In the NHANES cohort, elevated B12 was associated with RKF after full covariate adjustment (OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.30-4.08). There was no association with albuminuria.
Conclusion
In participants with high baseline homocysteine levels, increased plasma B12 was associated with RKF.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-16-7
PMCID: PMC4361211  PMID: 25644490
Homocysteine; Albuminuria; Vitamin B12; Reduced kidney function
23.  Renal Artery Calcium, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Indices of Renal Function 
The American journal of cardiology  2013;113(1):10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.09.036.
Vascular calcium is well studied in the coronary and peripheral arteries although there is limited data focusing on calcium deposits specific to renal arteries. The associations between renal artery calcium (RAC), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and indices of renal function are unknown. We examined 2699 Framingham Heart Study participants who were part of a multidetector computed tomography substudy from 2008–2011. RAC was measured as a calcified plaque of >130 Hounsfield units and an area of >3 contiguous pixels. Detectable RAC was defined as an Agatston score >0. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Microalbuminuria was defined as ACR ≥17 mg/g for men and ≥25 mg/g for women. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between RAC, CVD risk factors, and renal function. The associations were secondarily adjusted for coronary artery calcium (CAC) that was used as a marker of non-renal systemic vascular calcium. The prevalence of RAC was 28.2%; this was similar in women (28.8%) and men (27.5%). Individuals with RAC had a higher odds of microalbuminuria (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22–2.61, p=0.003), hypertension (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.69–2.64, p<0.001) and diabetes (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.14–2.24, p=0.01) but not CKD (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.58–1.32). After adjustment for CAC, the association with microalbuminuria and hypertension persisted but the association with diabetes became non-significant. In conclusion, RAC is common and independently associated with microalbuminuria and hypertension after adjustment for non-renal vascular calcium. RAC may be uniquely associated with these markers of renal end-organ damage.
doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.09.036
PMCID: PMC3882167  PMID: 24210678
cardiovascular risk factors; microalbuminuria; renal artery calcium
24.  Relation of Hypothyroidism and Incident Atrial Fibrillation (from the Framingham Heart Study) 
American heart journal  2013;167(1):10.1016/j.ahj.2013.10.012.
Background
Hyperthyroidism has a well-described association with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relation of hypothyroidism to AF has had limited investigation. Hypothyroidism is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, subclinical cardiovascular disease and overt cardiovascular disease, all of which predispose to AF. We investigated 10-year incidence of AF in a community-dwelling cohort.
Methods
Among 6,653 Framingham heart Study participants, 5,069 participants, 52% woman, mean age 57±12, were eligible after excluding those with missing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), TSH <0.45 μU/L (hyperthyroid), TSH >19.9 μU/L or prevalent AF. TSH was categorized by range (≥0.45 to <4.5, 4.5 to <10.0, 10.0 to ≤19.9 μU/L) and by quartiles. We examined the associations between TSH and 10-year risk of AF using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards analysis.
Results
Over 10-year follow-up, we observed 277 cases of incident AF. A 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in TSH was not associated with increased risk of AF (hazard ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 1.14, p=0.83). In categorical analysis, employing TSH ≥0.45 to <4.5 μU/L as the referent (equivalent to euthyroid state), we found no significant association between hypothyroidism and 10-year AF risk. Comparing the highest (2.6
Conclusions
In conclusion, we did not identify a significant association between hypothyroidism and 10-year risk of incident AF in a community-based study.
doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2013.10.012
PMCID: PMC3868014  PMID: 24332151
Atrial fibrillation; hypothyroidism; risk factors; cohort study
Background
Carriers of the T allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs13038305 tend to have lower cystatin C levels and higher cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys). Adjusting for this genetic effect on cystatin C concentrations may improve GFR estimation, reclassify cases of CKD, and strengthen risk estimates for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality.
Study Design
Observational.
Setting & Population
Four population-based cohorts: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC), Cardiovascular Health (CHS), Framingham Heart (FHS), and Health, Aging, and Body Compostion (Health ABC) studies.
Predictors
We estimated the association of rs13038305 with eGFRcys and eGFRcr, and performed longitudinal analyses of the associations of eGFRcys with mortality and cardiovascular events following adjustment for rs13038305.
Outcomes
We assessed reclassification by genotype-adjusted eGFRcys across CKD categories: <45, 45–59, 60–89, and ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2. We compared mortality and CVD outcomes in those reclassified to a worse eGFRcys category with those unaffected. Results were combined using fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analysis.
Results
In 14,645 participants, each copy of the T allele of rs13038305 (frequency, 21%), was associated with 6.4% lower cystatin C concentration, 5.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher eGFRcys, and 36% [95% CI, 29%–41%] lower odds of CKD. Associations with CVD (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14–1.20) and mortality (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.19–1.24) per 10- ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFRcys were similar with or without rs13038305 adjustment. In total, 1134 participants (7.7%) were reclassified to a worse CKD category following rs13038305 adjustment, and rates of CVD and mortality were higher in individuals who were reclassified. However, the overall net reclassification index was not significant for either outcome, at 0.009 (95% CI, −0.003 to 0.022) for mortality and 0.014 (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.028) for CVD.
Limitations
rs13038305 only explains a small proportion of cystatin C variation.
Conclusions
Statistical adjustment can correct a genetic bias in GFR estimates based on cystatin C in carriers of the T allele of rs13038305 and result in changes in disease classification. However, on a population level, the effects on overall reclassification of CKD status are modest.
doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.06.015
PMCID: PMC3872167  PMID: 23932088
Cystatin C; chronic kidney disease; genetics; single nucleotide polymorphism; net reclassification improvement

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