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1.  Etiology of Hyperparathyroidism and Bone Disease during Chronic Hemodialysis. III. EVALUATION OF PARATHYROID SUPPRESSIBILITY 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1973;52(1):173-180.
Parathyroid function was assessed by calcium infusions (4-8 h) in 16 patients with chronic renal insufficiency being treated by long-term hemodialysis. The concentrations of two immunoreactive species of parathyroid hormone in plasma (iPTH-9, mol wt 9500; iPTH-7, mol wt 7000) were estimated by radioimmunoassays utilizing two relatively specific antisera. Control values of the smaller species, iPTH-7, were uniformly high, whereas values of iPTH-9 were normal in 12 of 19 studies. Response of iPTH-7 to calcium infusions was variable, with significant decreases occurring only five times in 27 infusions. Concentrations of iPTH-9, however, decreased during every calcium infusion. In contrast to these acute responses, five of six patients studied during periods of dialysis against both low (< 6 mg/100 ml) and high (7-8 mg/100 ml) calcium concentrations in the dialyzate showed a decrease in values of iPTH-7 during the period of dialysis against the higher calcium concentration. It is concluded that plasma concentrations of iPTH-9 reflect primarily the moment-to-moment secretory status of the parathyroid glands, while concentrations of iPTH-7 reflect more closely chronic parathyroid functional status. It is further concluded that the failure of iPTH-7 to decrease during induced hypercalcemia should not be equated with autonomy of parathyroid gland function.
PMCID: PMC302239  PMID: 4734166
2.  Etiology of hyperparathyroidism and bone disease during chronic hemodialysis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1971;50(3):599-605.
Plasma concentration of immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (IPTH) was measured in 18 patients who had been on a hemodialysis program for longer than 6 months. A negative correlation was found between the predialysis plasma concentration of IPTH and the mean concentration of calcium in the dialysate previously used: plasma concentrations of IPTH were higher in patients dialyzed against a calcium concentration between 4.9 and 5.6 mg/100 ml than in patients dialyzed against a calcium concentration of 6.0 mg/100 ml or more. Plasma concentrations of IPTH also were higher in patients with bone disease than in patients without bone disease. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between predialysis plasma concentrations of IPTH and calcium, and between mean predialysis concentration of IPTH and phosphate. To obviate the possibility that individual differences in susceptibility could have accounted for the observed effects of plasma phosphate and of dialysate calcium, a 2 × 2 factorial study was conducted in seven of these patients to examine the independent effects of perturbation of each of these factors. It was observed that plasma concentration of IPTH was lowest with the combination of high dialysate calcium and low plasma phosphate, highest with the combination of low dialysate calcium and high plasma phosphate, and intermediate with the two other combinations. It is concluded that both dialysate calcium and plasma phosphate are important determinants of parathyroid function in these patients.
PMCID: PMC291968  PMID: 5545122
3.  Etiology of hyperparathyroidism and bone disease during chronic hemodialysis 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1971;50(3):592-598.
The present study was prompted by the observation that, in patients with chronic renal failure being followed at this center, renal osteodystrophy developed almost exclusively in those who were treated by chronic hemodialysis at home rather than in our center. A systematic comparison was made between the 10 patients with roentgenographic evidence of the bone disease and 18 patients without demonstrable bone disease. The two groups were similar in age, sex, nature of renal disease, and duration of dialysis. The mean duration of kidney disease was almost 2 yr longer in the patients without bone disease than in those with bone disease. Other significant differences related to where the hemodialysis was performed and to the calcium concentration in the dialysate (6.0-7.4 mg/100 ml in the hospital and 4.9-5.6 mg/100 ml at home). If the unknown factors related to where the dialysis was performed were of no consequence, the major factor contributing to the production of bone disease observed in these patients was the use of a dialysate with a calcium concentration less than 5.7 mg/100 ml.
PMCID: PMC291967  PMID: 5101783

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