Aims or Purpose
To determine the rate of retinal tears (RTs) after posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in patients on systemic anticoagulants.
In all, 260 eyes of 260 patients with an acute PVD and VH were followed for evidence of an RT or detachment. Patients were divided into those taking systemic anticoagulants and those not taking anticoagulants.
A total of 137 patients (53%) were taking anticoagulants, 123 (47%) were not. Overall, 72% of patients not taking any anticoagulant had evidence of an RT, whereas 46% of patients taking an anticoagulant had an RT (P-value 0.0002). Also, 37% of patients not taking an anticoagulant had a retinal detachment (RD), whereas 23% of patients taking any anticoagulant had an RD (P-value 0.01).
In patients with an acute PVD and VH using anticoagulants, RTs and RDs were common. Anticoagulation status may be an important contributing factor in predicting the incidence of an RT or detachment.
retinal tears; vitreous hemorrhage; posterior vitreous detachment
The cholinergic input from the lateral dorsal tegmental area (LDTg) modulates the dopamine cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and plays an important role in cocaine taking. Specific pharmacological agents that block or stimulate muscarinic receptors in the LDTg change acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the VTA. Furthermore, manipulations of cholinergic input in the VTA can change cocaine taking. In the current study, the ACh output from the LDTg was attenuated by treatment with the selective muscarinic type 2 (M2) autoreceptor agonist oxotremorine sesquifumarate (OxoSQ). We hypothesized that OxoSQ would reduce the motivation of rats to self-administer both natural and drug rewards. Animals were tested on progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement for food pellets and cocaine. On test days, animals on food and on cocaine schedules were bilaterally microinjected prior to the test. Rats received either LDTg OxoSQ infusions or LDTg artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) infusions in a within-subjects design. In addition, infusions were delivered into a dorsal brain area above LDTg as an anatomical control region. OxoSQ microinjection in the LDTg, compared to aCSF, significantly reduced both the number of self-administered pellets and cocaine infusions during the initial half of the session; this reduction was dose-dependent. OxoSQ microinjections into the area just dorsal of the LDTg had no significant effect on self-administration of food pellets or cocaine. Animals were also tested in locomotor activity chambers for motor effects following the above microinjections. Locomotor activity was mildly increased by OxoSQ microinjection into the LDTg during the initial half of the session. Overall, these data suggest that LDTg cholinergic neurons play an important role in modifying the reinforcing value of natural and drug rewards. These effects cannot be attributed to significant alterations of locomotor behavior and are likely accomplished through LDTg muscarinic autoreceptors.
cocaine; addiction; acetylcholine; muscarinic; self-administration; motivation
In the mammalian retina, besides the conventional rod–cone system, a melanopsin-associated photoreceptive system exists that conveys photic information for accessory visual functions such as pupillary light reflex and circadian photo-entrainment1–7. On ablation of the melanopsin gene, retinal ganglion cells that normally express melanopsin are no longer intrinsically photosensitive8. Furthermore, pupil reflex8, light-induced phase delays of the circadian clock9,10 and period lengthening of the circadian rhythm in constant light9,10 are all partially impaired. Here, we investigated whether additional photoreceptive systems participate in these responses. Using mice lacking rods and cones, we measured the action spectrum for phase-shifting the circadian rhythm of locomotor behaviour. This spectrum matches that for the pupillary light reflex in mice of the same genotype11, and that for the intrinsic photosensitivity of the melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells7. We have also generated mice lacking melanopsin coupled with disabled rod and cone photo-transduction mechanisms. These animals have an intact retina but fail to show any significant pupil reflex, to entrain to light/dark cycles, and to show any masking response to light. Thus, the rod–cone and melanopsin systems together seem to provide all of the photic input for these accessory visual functions.
The etiological agent most commonly associated with bacillary dysentery is Shigella. As part of its mandate, the Bacteriology and Enteric Disease Program of Health Canada identifies and serotypes unusual isolates of Shigella received from provincial laboratories of public health. In this report, six unusual isolates from three provinces were analyzed biochemically and serologically using slide and tube agglutinations and molecularly using standard pulsed-filed gel electrophoresis (PFGE), PCR, and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. All six isolates were identical. PFGE analysis grouped these strains; biochemically, they were mannitol negative and consistent with the profile of Shigella. Serologically, these strains produced weak reactions in Shigella dysenteriae serovars 4 and 16 and Escherichia coli O159 and O173 antisera. Molecular serotyping by PCR-RFLP of the rfb gene produced an S. dysenteriae serovar 2/E. coli O112ac pattern. They were positive by PCR for ipaH and ial enteroinvasive genes but negative for all other genes tested. Antiserum was prepared from one of the isolates and tested against Shigella and E. coli reference strains as well as the other isolates. The antiserum reacted with the five remaining isolates and showed cross-reactivity with S. dysenteriae serovars 1, 4, and 16; Shigella flexneri type 3; and E. coli O118, O159, O168, O172, and O173 antigens. Absorbing the sera with E. coli O159 and S. dysenteriae serovar 4 antigen removed all cross-reactions and only slightly reduced the homologous titer. Based on biochemical, molecular, and complete serological analysis, we propose that these six isolates represent a new provisional serovar of S. dysenteriae, type strain BEDP 02-5104.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Testing for faecal occult blood has become an accepted technique of non-invasive screening for colorectal neoplasia but lack of sensitivity remains a problem. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of faecal calprotectin and faecal occult blood in patients with colorectal cancer and colonic polyps.
METHODS—Faecal calprotectin and occult blood were assessed in 62 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 233 patients referred for colonoscopy. The range of normality for faecal calprotectin (0.5-10.5 mg/l) was determined from 96 healthy subjects.
RESULTS—Median faecal calprotectin concentration in the 62 patients with colorectal carcinoma (101 mg/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) 57-133) differed significantly from normal (2.3 mg/l, 95% CI 1.6-5.0) with 90% of patients having elevated levels (normal <10 mg/l) whereas only 36/62 (58%) had positive faecal occult bloods. There was no significant difference in faecal calprotectin levels when considering location or Dukes' staging of tumour. Percentage positivity of faecal occult bloods was significantly higher for Dukes' stage C and D cancers compared with Dukes' A and B. In the colonoscopy group, 29 patients with adenomatous polyps were detected in whom the median faecal calprotectin was 12 mg/l (95% CI 2.9-32). Sensitivity for detection of adenomatous polyps was 55% using the calprotectin method and 10% using faecal occult blood testing. The overall sensitivity and specificity of calprotectin for colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps as a combined group was 79% and 72%, respectively, compared with a sensitivity and specificity of faecal occult blood of 43% and 92%.
CONCLUSIONS—Faecal calprotectin is a simple and sensitive non-invasive marker of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps. It is more sensitive than faecal occult blood tests for detection of colorectal neoplasia at the cost of a somewhat lower specificity.
Keywords: colorectal cancer; faecal occult blood testing; calprotectin
A circadian clock has no survival value unless biological time is adjusted (entrained) to local time and, for most organisms, the profound changes in the light environment provide the local time signal (zeitgeber). Over 24 h, the amount of light, its spectral composition and its direction change in a systematic way. In theory, all of these features could be used for entrainment, but each would be subject to considerable variation or 'noise'. Despite this high degree of environmental noise, entrained organisms show remarkable precision in their daily activities. Thus, the photosensory task of entrainment is likely to be very complex, but fundamentally similar for all organisms. To test this hypothesis we compare the photoreceptors that mediate entrainment in both flies and mice, and assess their degree of convergence. Although superficially different, both organisms use specialized (employing novel photopigments) and complex (using multiple photopigments) photoreceptor mechanisms. We conclude that this multiplicity of photic inputs, in highly divergent organisms, must relate to the complex sensory task of using light as a zeitgeber.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Assessing the presence and degree of intestinal inflammation objectively, simply, and reliably is a significant problem in gastroenterology. We assessed faecal excretion of calprotectin, a stable neutrophil specific marker, as an index of intestinal inflammation and its potential use as a screening test to discriminate between patients with Crohn's disease and those with irritable bowel syndrome.
METHODS—The validity of faecal calprotectin as a marker of intestinal inflammation was assessed in 22 patients with Crohn's disease (35 studies) by comparing faecal excretions and concentrations using four day faecal excretion of 111indium white cells. A cross sectional study assessed the sensitivity of faecal calprotectin concentration for the detection of established Crohn's disease (n=116). A prospective study assessed the value of faecal calprotectin in discriminating between patients with Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome in 220 patients referred to a gastroenterology clinic.
RESULTS—Four day faecal excretion of 111indium (median 8.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7-17%; normal <1.0%) correlated significantly (p<0.0001) with daily (median ranged from 39 to 47 mg; normal <3 mg; r=0.76-0.82) and four day faecal calprotectin excretion (median 101 mg; 95% CI 45-168 mg; normal <11 mg; r=0.80) and single stool calprotectin concentrations (median 118 mg/l; 95% CI 36-175 mg/l; normal <10 mg/l; r=0.70) in patients with Crohn's disease. The cross sectional study showed a sensitivity of 96% for calprotectin in discriminating between normal subjects (2 mg/l; 95% CI 2-3 mg/l) and those with Crohn's disease (91 mg/l; 95% CI 59-105 mg/l). With a cut off point of 30 mg/l faecal calprotectin has 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating between active Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
CONCLUSION—The calprotectin method may be a useful adjuvant for discriminating between patients with Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn's disease; intestinal inflammation; irritable bowel syndrome
BACKGROUND—The diagnosis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced enteropathy is difficult, requiring enteroscopy or the use of four day faecal excretion of 111In labelled white cells.
AIMS—To assess faecal calprotectin (a non-degraded neutrophil cytosolic protein) as a method for diagnosing NSAID enteropathy.
METHODS—Single stool faecal calprotectin concentrations were compared with the four day faecal excretion of 111In labelled white cells in 47 patients taking NSAIDs. The prevalence and severity of NSAID enteropathy was assessed using this method in 312 patients (192 with rheumatoid arthritis, 65 with osteoarthritis, 55 with other conditions) taking 18 different NSAIDs.
RESULTS—The four day faecal excretion of 111In white cells correlated significantly with faecal calprotectin concentrations. In the group of 312 patients on NSAIDs faecal calprotectin concentrations were significantly higher than in controls, the prevalence of NSAID enteropathy being 44%. The prevalence and severity of NSAID enteropathy was independent of the particular type or dose of NSAID being taken or other patient variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Assay of faecal calprotectin provides a simple practical method for diagnosing NSAID enteropathy in man. Forty four per cent of patients receiving these drugs had NSAID induced enteropathy when assessed by this technique; 20% of these had comparable levels of inflammation to that previously reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Keywords: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; calprotectin; enteropathy
drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage by a non-prostaglandin
(PG) dependent "topical" action and by inhibiting cyclooxygenase.
Aims—To discriminate between these two effects by
studying some key pathophysiological steps in NSAID enteropathy
following administration of (R)- and
(S)-flurbiprofen, the racemic mixture, and an uncoupler, dinitrophenol.
Methods—The effects of dinitrophenol, racemic,
(R)-, and (S)-flurbiprofen on mitochondria
were assessed in vitro and on key pathophysiological features of small
intestinal damage in vivo (ultrastructure by electron microscopy,
mucosal prostanoid concentrations, intestinal permeability,
inflammation, and ulcer count) in rats.
Results—All the drugs uncoupled mitochondrial
oxidative phosphorylation in vitro, caused mitochondrial damage in
vivo, and increased intestinal permeability. Dinitrophenol and
(R)-flurbiprofen caused no significant decreases in
mucosal prostanoid concentrations (apart from a decrease in thromboxane
(TX) B2 concentrations following (R)-flurbiprofen) while racemic and (S)-
flurbiprofen reduced mucosal prostanoids significantly (PGE,
TXB2, and 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations by
73-95%). Intestinal inflammation was significantly greater following
administration of (S)-flurbiprofen and racemate than with
dinitrophenol and (R)-flurbiprofen. No small intestinal ulcers were found following dinitrophenol or
(R)-flurbiprofen while both racemic and
(S)-flurbiprofen caused numerous ulcers.
(R)-flurbiprofen show similarities in their actions to
uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in vitro, alter
mitochondrial morphology in vivo, increase intestinal permeability, and
cause mild inflammation without ulcers. Concurrent severe decreases in
mucosal prostanoids seem to be the driving force for the development of
severe inflammation and ulcers.
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; enteropathy; flurbiprofen
Dynamics of the Pasoh forest in Peninsular Malaysia were assessed by drawing a comparison with a forest in Panama, Central America, whose dynamics have been thoroughly described. Census plots of 50 ha were established at both sites using standard methods. Tree mortality at Pasoh over an eight-year interval was 1.46% yr(-1) for all stems > or = 10 mm diameter at breast height (dbh), and 1.48% yr(-1) for stems > or = 100 mm dbh. Comparable figures at the Barro Colorado Island site in Panama (BCI) were 2.55% and 2.03%. Growth and recruitment rates were likewise considerably higher at BCI than at Pasoh. For example, in all trees 500-700 mm in dbh, mean BCI growth over the period 1985-1995 was 6 mm yr(-1), whereas mean Pasoh growth was about 3.5 mm yr(-1). Examining growth and mortality rates for individual species showed that the difference between the forests can be attributed to a few light-demanding pioneer species at BCI, which have very high growth and mortality; Pasoh is essentially lacking this guild. The bulk of the species in the two forests are shade-tolerant and have very similar mortality, growth and recruitment. The Pasoh forest is more stable than BCI's in another way as well: few of its tree populations changed much over the eight-year census interval. In contrast, at BCI, over 10% of the species had populations increasing or decreasing at a rate of >0.05 yr(-1) compared to just 2% of the species at Pasoh). The faster species turnover at BCI can probably be attributed to severe droughts that have plagued the forest periodically over the past 30 years; Pasoh has not suffered such extreme events recently. The dearth of pioneer species at Pasoh is associated with low-nutrient soil and slow litter breakdown, but the exact mechanisms behind this association remain poorly understood.
The uterine tubes from 405 ewes, collected at an abattoir, were assessed grossly and microscopically for abnormalities that correlated with serological evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus. Gross lesions were found in 41 ewes and 86 had microscopic lesions. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of serum was used as an indication of exposure of individual ewes to C. abortus; 52 were found to be positive. Chi-squared analysis indicated no association between EIA-positive animals and lesions of the uterine tube.
Medicare is the largest health care program in the country, providing medical care to 38 million aged and disabled Americans. Concerns over rapid cost increases and the imminent insolvency of the Medicare Hospital Insurance trust fund led to enactment of sweeping Medicare legislation as part of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Preliminary estimates indicate that this legislation will result in program savings of $150 billion in the first five years and will postpone the depletion of the Hospital Insurance fund from the year 2001 until about 2010. While the Balanced Budget Act significantly reduces Hospital Insurance expenditure in the long range, serious deficits are still expected when the "baby boom" generation reaches retirement. The Medicare Supplementary Medical Insurance trust fund is automatically in financial balance, but policy makers remain concerned about continuing rapid cost increases. A new National Bipartisan Commission on the Future of Medicare will attempt to determine effective solutions to these long-range problems.
Cervical and uterine varices with thrombosis were observed at the necropsy of a virgin 16-year-old Peruvian Paso that had previous episodes of hemorrhage from the uterus. Practitioners and pathologists should be alert to the possibility of ruptured varices in mares with hemorrhage into the uterus or from the vulva.
Ketorolac tromethamine, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic, was compared with flunixin and butorphanol for its analgesic efficacy and potential side effects after laparotomy or shoulder arthrotomy in dogs. Sixty-four dogs were randomly assigned to receive butorphanol 0.4 mg/kg body weight (BW) (n = 21), flunixin 1.0 mg/kg BW (n = 21), or ketorolac 0.5 mg/kg BW (n = 22), in a double blind fashion. The analgesic efficacy was rated from 1 to 4 (1 = inadequate, 4 = excellent) for each dog. The average scores after laparotomy were ketorolac, 3.4; flunixin, 2.7; and butorphanol, 1.6. After shoulder arthrotomy, the average scores were ketorolac, 3.5; flunixin, 3.0; and butorphanol, 1.4 (5/11 dogs). As butorphanol was unable to control pain after shoulder arthrotomy, oxymorphone, 0.05 mg/kg BW, replaced butorphanol in a subsequent group of dogs and had a score of 2.0 (6/11 dogs). Serum alanine aminotransferase and creatinine were significantly elevated above baseline at 24 hours postoperatively in dogs receiving flunixin. One dog in each group developed melena or hematochezia. One dog receiving ketorolac had histological evidence of gastric ulceration. We concluded that ketorolac is a good analgesic for postoperative pain in dogs.
We have identified a human Rho protein, RhoE, which has unusual structural and biochemical properties that suggest a novel mechanism of regulation. Within a region that is highly conserved among small GTPases, RhoE contains amino acid differences specifically at three positions that confer oncogenicity to Ras (12, 59, and 61). As predicted by these substitutions, which impair GTP hydrolysis in Ras, RhoE binds GTP but lacks intrinsic GTPase activity and is resistant to Rho-specific GTPase-activating proteins. Replacing all three positions in RhoE with conventional amino acids completely restores GTPase activity. In vivo, RhoE is found exclusively in the GTP-bound form, suggesting that unlike previously characterized small GTPases, RhoE may be normally maintained in an activated state. Thus, amino acid changes in Ras that are selected during tumorigenesis have evolved naturally in this Rho protein and have similar consequences for catalytic function. All previously described Rho family proteins are modified by geranylgeranylation, a lipid attachment required for proper membrane localization. In contrast, the carboxy-terminal sequence of RhoE predicts that, like Ras proteins, RhoE is normally farnesylated. Indeed, we have found that RhoE in farnesylated in vivo and that this modification is required for association with the plasma membrane and with an unidentified cellular structure that may play a role in adhesion. Thus, two unusual structural features of this novel Rho protein suggest a striking evolutionary divergence from the Rho family of GTPases.
The precision and accuracy of an indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique (Dinamap 8100) was assessed in 11 anesthetized Beagle dogs weighing 8 to 11.5 kg. Direct blood pressure measurements were made by catheterization of the lingual artery, and simultaneous indirect measurements were determined by placing a cuff over the median artery (midradial area). Blood pressure measurements at 2 different planes of anesthesia (light and deep) were recorded in triplicate. At a light plane of anesthesia, the Dinamap 8100 underestimated diastolic and mean arterial pressure, and at a deep anesthetic plane overestimated systolic pressure. The indirect technique had good repeatability of systolic pressures. Regression analysis for the 2 techniques showed excellent correlation (r = 0.93). The results indicate that the indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement technique provides a good estimate of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure in dogs weighing 8-11.5 kg.
OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationships among organizational culture, quality improvement processes and selected outcomes for a sample of up to 61 U. S. hospitals. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Primary data were collected from 61 U. S. hospitals (located primarily in the midwest and the west) on measures related to continuous quality improvement/total quality management (CQI/TQM), organizational culture, implementation approaches, and degree of quality improvement implementation based on the Baldrige Award criteria. These data were combined with independently collected data on perceived impact and objective measures of clinical efficiency (i.e., charges and length of stay) for six clinical conditions. STUDY DESIGN: The study involved cross-sectional examination of the named relationships. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Reliable and valid scales for the organizational culture and quality improvement implementation measures were developed based on responses from over 7,000 individuals across the 61 hospitals with an overall completion rate of 72 percent. Independent data on perceived impact were collected from a national survey and independent data on clinical efficiency from a companion study of managed care. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A participative, flexible, risk-taking organizational culture was significantly related to quality improvement implementation. Quality improvement implementation, in turn, was positively associated with greater perceived patient outcomes and human resource development. Larger-size hospitals experienced lower clinical efficiency with regard to higher charges and higher length of stay, due in part to having more bureaucratic and hierarchical cultures that serve as a barrier to quality improvement implementation. CONCLUSIONS: What really matters is whether or not a hospital has a culture that supports quality improvement work and an approach that encourages flexible implementation. Larger-size hospitals face more difficult challenges in this regard.
In mitogenically stimulated cells, a specific complex forms between the Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP) and the cellular protein p190. We have previously reported that p190 contains a carboxy-terminal domain that functions as a GAP for the Rho family GTPases. Thus, the RasGAP-p190 complex may serve to couple Ras- and Rho-mediated signalling pathways. In addition to its RhoGAP domain, p190 contains an amino-terminal domain that contains sequence motifs found in all known GTPases. Here, we report that p190 binds GTP and GDP through this conserved domain and that the structural requirements for binding are similar to those seen with other GTPases. While the purified protein is unable to hydrolyze GTP, we detect an activity in cell lysates that can promote GTP hydrolysis by p190. A mutated form of p190 that fails to bind nucleotide retains its RasGAP binding and RhoGAP activities, indicating that GTP binding by p190 is not required for these functions. The sequence of p190 in the GTP-binding domain, which shares structural features with both the Ras-like small GTPases and the larger G proteins, suggests that this protein defines a novel class of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SWI4 gene encodes an essential transcription factor which controls gene expression at the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. SWI4 transcription itself is cell cycle regulated, and this periodicity is crucial for the normal cell cycle regulation of HO and at least two of the G1 cyclins. Since the regulation of SWI4 is required for normal cell cycle progression, we have characterized cis- and trans-acting regulators of SWI4 transcription. Deletion analysis of the SWI4 promoter has defined a 140-bp region which is absolutely required for transcription and can function as a cell cycle-regulated upstream activating sequence (UAS). The SWI4 UAS contains three potential MluI cell cycle boxes (MCBs), which are known cell cycle-regulated promoter elements. Deletion of all three MCBs in the SWI4 UAS decreases the level of SWI4 mRNA 10-fold in asynchronous cultures but does not abolish periodicity. These data suggest that MCBs are involved in SWI4 UAS activity, but at least one other periodically regulated element must be present. Since SWI6 is known to bind to MCBs and regulate their activity, the role of SWI6 in SWI4 expression was analyzed. Although the MCBs cannot account for the full cell cycle regulation of SWI4, mutations in SWI6 eliminate the normal periodicity of SWI4 transcription. This suggests that the novel cell cycle-regulated element within the SWI4 promoter is also SWI6 dependent. The constitutive transcription of SWI4 in SWI6 mutant cells occurs at an intermediate level, which indicates that SWI6 is required for the full activation and repression of SWI4 transcription through the cell cycle. It also suggests that there is another pathway which can activate SWI4 transcription in the absence of SWI6. The second activator may also target MCB elements, since SWI4 transcription drops dramatically when they are deleted.
The level of expression of a transfected metallothionein (MT)-IGcat fusion gene in response to cadmium differed from that of the endogenous MT-IG gene. Atomic absorption analysis indicated that the total cellular content of cadmium and zinc increased upon calcium phosphate-mediated transfection. Thus, changes in the influx/efflux of metals may regulate the level of MT gene expression.
Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus which fail to express alpha-toxin (Hly), beta-toxin (Hlb), or both have been constructed by site-specific mutagenesis. The virulence of the mutants was compared with that of wild-type toxigenic strains by intramammary inoculation of lactating mice. A bovine strain, M60, and a laboratory strain, 8325-4, caused acute mastitis and death within 48 h for 60% of the mice inoculated. Animals inoculated with Hly mutants also developed acute mastitis, but no deaths occurred. Comparisons of Hly- or Hlb-positive strains with the double mutation Hly Hlb showed that both toxins led to a significantly higher recovery of S. aureus from the gland 48 h postinfection. Histopathological examination of mammary glands showed that phagocytosis of bacteria occurred irrespective of toxigenicity, but toxigenic strains, particularly those which were Hly+, continued to multiply, invaded the interalveolar tissues, and produced severe lesions. Stimulation of an inflammatory response by inoculation of the mammary gland with endotoxin prior to challenge with S. aureus reduced recovery of the bacteria 10- to 100-fold and, under these conditions, neither alpha-toxin nor beta-toxin contributed significantly to growth and survival.
The majority of the phosphotyrosine recovered from partial acid hydrolysates of 32P-labeled Escherichia coli is derived from a single prominent protein. We show here by biochemical, genetic, and immunological criteria that this protein is actually glutamine synthetase adenylylated (not phosphorylated) at tyrosine. Furthermore, all of the phosphotyrosine detectable in partial acid hydrolysates of 32P-labeled Salmonella typhimurium was eliminated in a strain deficient in both glutamine synthetase and uridylyltransferase, an enzyme which uridylylates the regulatory protein PII at a tyrosine residue. These results suggest that protein-tyrosine phosphorylation represents a rare modification in eubacterial cells.
Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has shown glycerol to be the major osmotically significant low-molecular-weight solute in exponentially growing, salt-stressed cells of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and Debaromyces hansenii. Measurement of the intracellular nonosmotic volume (i.e., the fraction of the cell that is osmotically unresponsive) by using the Boyle-van't Hoff relationship (for nonturgid cells, the osmotic volume is directly proportional to the reciprocal of the external osmotic pressure) showed that the nonosmotic volume represented up to 53% of the total cell volume; the highest values were recorded in media with maximum added NaCl. Determinations of intracellular glycerol levels with respect to cell osmotic volumes showed that increases in intracellular glycerol may counterbalance up to 95% of the external osmotic pressure due to added NaCl. The lack of other organic osmotica in 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicates that inorganic ions may constitute the remaining component of intracellular osmotic pressure.