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1.  Care-Seeking Pattern among Persons with Depression and Anxiety: A Population-Based Study in Sweden 
Background. In primary care, a vast majority of patients affected with depression and anxiety present with somatic symptoms. Detection rate of psychiatric symptoms is low, and knowledge of factors influencing care seeking in persons affected by depressive and anxiety disorders on a population level is limited. Objective. This study aims to describe if persons, affected by depression and anxiety disorders, seek care and which type of care they seek as well as factors associated with care seeking. Method. Data derives from a longitudinal population-based study of mental health conducted in the Stockholm County in 1998–2010 and the present study includes 8387 subjects. Definitions of anxiety and depressive disorders were made according to DSM-IV criteria, including research criteria, using validated diagnostic scales. 2026 persons (24%) fulfilled the criteria for any depressive or anxiety disorder. Results. Forty-seven percent of those affected by depression and/or anxiety had been seeking care for psychological symptoms within the last year. A major finding was that seeking care for psychological symptoms was associated with having treatment for somatic problems. Conclusions. As a general practitioner, it is of great importance to increase awareness of mild mental illness, especially among groups that might be less expected to be affected.
doi:10.1155/2012/895425
PMCID: PMC3357962  PMID: 22655197
2.  Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: A population based study in rural Bangladesh 
BMC Women's Health  2011;11:22.
Background
Few studies have examined the associated factors of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS) in low-income countries, yet the World Health Organization identifies depressive disorders as the second leading cause of global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their predictors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of rural Bangladeshi pregnant women.
Methods
The study used cross-sectional data originating from a rural community-based prospective cohort study of 720 randomly selected women in their third trimester of pregnancy from a district of Bangladesh. The validated Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure ADS, and a trait anxiety inventory to assess general anxiety symptoms. Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire at the respondents' homes.
Results
Prevalence of ADS was 18% and AAS 29%. Women's literacy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.95), poor partner relationship (OR 2.23, 95% CI 3.37-3.62), forced sex (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.75), physical violence by spouse (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80), and previous depression (OR 4.62 95% CI 2.72-7.85) were found to be associated with ADS. The associated factors of AAS were illiteracy, poor household economy, lack of practical support, physical partner violence, violence during pregnancy, and interaction between poor household economy and poor partner relationship.
Conclusion
Depressive and anxiety symptoms are found to occur commonly during pregnancy in Bangladesh, drawing attention to a need to screen for depression and anxiety during antenatal care. Policies aimed at encouraging practical support during pregnancy, reducing gender-based violence, supporting women with poor partner relationships, and identifying previous depression may ameliorate the potentially harmful consequences of antepartum depression and anxiety for the women and their family, particularly children.
doi:10.1186/1472-6874-11-22
PMCID: PMC3117808  PMID: 21635722
3.  Low birth weight in offspring of women with depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy: results from a population based study in Bangladesh 
BMC Public Health  2010;10:515.
Background
There is a high prevalence of antepartum depression and low birth weight (LBW) in Bangladesh. In high- and low-income countries, prior evidence linking maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms with infant LBW is conflicting. There is no research on the association between maternal mental disorders and LBW in Bangladesh. This study aims to investigate the independent effect of maternal antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on infant LBW among women in a rural district of Bangladesh.
Methods
A population-based sample of 720 pregnant women from two rural subdistricts was assessed for symptoms of antepartum depression, using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and antepartum anxiety, using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and followed for 6-8 months postpartum. Infant birth weight of 583 (81%) singleton live babies born at term (≥37 weeks of pregnancy) was measured within 48 hours of delivery. Baseline data provided socioeconomic, anthropometric, reproductive, obstetric, and social support information. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and independent-sample t tests were done as descriptive statistics, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of LBW.
Results
After adjusting for potential confounders, depressive (OR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.37-3.68) and anxiety (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.30-3.25) symptoms were significantly associated with LBW (≤2.5 kg). Poverty, maternal malnutrition, and support during pregnancy were also associated with LBW.
Conclusions
This study provides evidence that maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy predict the LBW of newborns and replicates results found in other South Asian countries. Policies aimed at the detection and effective management of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy may reduce the burden on mothers and also act as an important measure in the prevention of LBW among offspring in Bangladesh.
doi:10.1186/1471-2458-10-515
PMCID: PMC2939645  PMID: 20796269
4.  CRY2 Is Associated with Depression 
PLoS ONE  2010;5(2):e9407.
Background
Abnormalities in the circadian clockwork often characterize patients with major depressive and bipolar disorders. Circadian clock genes are targets of interest in these patients. CRY2 is a circadian gene that participates in regulation of the evening oscillator. This is of interest in mood disorders where a lack of switch from evening to morning oscillators has been postulated.
Principal Findings
We observed a marked diurnal variation in human CRY2 mRNA levels from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and a significant up-regulation (P = 0.020) following one-night total sleep deprivation, a known antidepressant. In depressed bipolar patients, levels of CRY2 mRNA were decreased (P = 0.029) and a complete lack of increase was observed following sleep deprivation. To investigate a possible genetic contribution, we undertook SNP genotyping of the CRY2 gene in two independent population-based samples from Sweden (118 cases and 1011 controls) and Finland (86 cases and 1096 controls). The CRY2 gene was significantly associated with winter depression in both samples (haplotype analysis in Swedish and Finnish samples: OR = 1.8, P = 0.0059 and OR = 1.8, P = 0.00044, respectively).
Conclusions
We propose that a CRY2 locus is associated with vulnerability for depression, and that mechanisms of action involve dysregulation of CRY2 expression.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009407
PMCID: PMC2827563  PMID: 20195522
5.  Supported local implementation of clinical guidelines in psychiatry: a two-year follow-up 
Background
The gap between evidence-based guidelines for clinical care and their use in medical settings is well recognized and widespread. Only a few implementation studies of psychiatric guidelines have been carried out, and there is a lack of studies on their long-term effects.
The aim of this study was to measure compliance to clinical guidelines for treatment of patients with depression and patients with suicidal behaviours, two years after an actively supported implementation.
Methods
Six psychiatric clinics in Stockholm, Sweden, participated in an implementation of the guidelines. The guidelines were actively implemented at four of them, and the other two only received the guidelines and served as controls. The implementation activities included local implementation teams, seminars, regular feedback, and academic outreach visits. Compliance to guidelines was measured using quality indicators derived from the guidelines. At baseline, measurements of quality indicators, part of the guidelines, were abstracted from medical records in order to analyze the gap between clinical guidelines and current practice. On the basis of this, a series of seminars was conducted to introduce the guidelines according to local needs. Local multidisciplinary teams were established to monitor the process. Data collection took place after 6, 12, and 24 months and a total of 2,165 patient records were included in the study.
Results
The documentation of the quality indicators improved from baseline in the four clinics with an active implementation, whereas there were no changes, or a decline, in the two control clinics. The increase was recorded at six months, and persisted over 12 and 24 months.
Conclusions
Compliance to the guidelines increased after active implementation and was sustained over the two-year follow-up. These results indicate that active local implementation of clinical guidelines involving clinicians can change behaviour and maintain compliance.
doi:10.1186/1748-5908-5-4
PMCID: PMC2832625  PMID: 20181013
6.  Implementing clinical guidelines in psychiatry: a qualitative study of perceived facilitators and barriers 
BMC Psychiatry  2010;10:8.
Background
Translating scientific evidence into daily practice is complex. Clinical guidelines can improve health care delivery, but there are a number of challenges in guideline adoption and implementation. Factors influencing the effective implementation of guidelines remain poorly understood. Understanding of barriers and facilitators is important for development of effective implementation strategies. The aim of this study was to determine perceived facilitators and barriers to guideline implementation and clinical compliance to guidelines for depression in psychiatric care.
Methods
This qualitative study was conducted at two psychiatric clinics in Stockholm, Sweden. The implementation activities at one of the clinics included local implementation teams, seminars, regular feedback and academic detailing. The other clinic served as a control and only received guidelines by post. Data were collected from three focus groups and 28 individual, semi-structured interviews. Content analysis was used to identify themes emerging from the interview data.
Results
The identified barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of guidelines could be classified into three major categories: (1) organizational resources, (2) health care professionals' individual characteristics and (3) perception of guidelines and implementation strategies. The practitioners in the implementation team and at control clinics differed in three main areas: (1) concerns about control over professional practice, (2) beliefs about evidence-based practice and (3) suspicions about financial motives for guideline introduction.
Conclusions
Identifying the barriers to, and facilitators of, the adoption of recommendations is an important way of achieving efficient implementation strategies. The findings of this study suggest that the adoption of guidelines may be improved if local health professionals actively participate in an ongoing implementation process and identify efficient strategies to overcome barriers on an organizational and individual level. Getting evidence into practice and implementing clinical guidelines are dependent upon more than practitioners' motivation. There are factors in the local context, e.g. culture and leadership, evaluation, feedback on performance and facilitation, -that are likely to be equally influential.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-10-8
PMCID: PMC2822755  PMID: 20089141
7.  An approach to measure compliance to clinical guidelines in psychiatric care 
BMC Psychiatry  2008;8:64.
Background
The aim of this study was to measure six months compliance to Swedish clinical guidelines in psychiatric care after an active supported implementation process, using structured measures derived from the guidelines.
Methods
In this observational study four psychiatric clinics each participated in active implementation of the clinical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of depression and guidelines for assessment and treatment of patients with suicidal behaviours developed by The Stockholm Medical Advisory Board for Psychiatry. The implementation programme included seminars, local implementation teams, regular feedback and academic visits. Additionally two clinics only received the guidelines and served as controls. Compliance to guidelines was measured using indicators, which operationalised requirements of preferred clinical practice. 725 patient records were included, 365 before the implementation and 360 six months after.
Results
Analyses of indicators registered showed that the actively implementing clinics significantly improved their compliance to the guidelines. The total score differed significantly between implementation clinics and control clinics for management of depression (mean scores 9.5 (1.3) versus 5.0 (1.5), p < 0.001) as well as for the management of suicide (mean scores 8.1 (2.3) versus 4.5 (1.9), p < 0.001). No changes were found in the control clinics and only one of the OR was significant.
Conclusion
Compliance to clinical guidelines measured by process indicators of required clinical practice was enhanced by an active implementation.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-8-64
PMCID: PMC2525637  PMID: 18657263
8.  Psychosocial correlates with depressive symptoms six years after a first episode of psychosis as compared with findings from a general population sample 
BMC Psychiatry  2004;4:29.
Background
Depression is frequently occurring during and after psychosis. The aim of this study was to analyze if the psychosocial characteristics associated with depression/depressive symptoms in the late phase of a first episode psychosis (FEP) population were different compared to persons from the general population.
Methods
A questionnaire was sent out to all individuals six years after their FEP and to a general population sample. Depressive symptoms were recorded using a self-rating scale, the Major Depression Inventory.
Results
Formerly FEP persons had a higher representation of depressive symptoms/depression, unemployment, financial problems and insufficient social network. Depressive symptoms/depression were found to be associated with psychosocial problems. An age and gender effect was found in the general population, but not in the FEP sample. When the psychosocial characteristics were taken into account there were no association between having had FEP and depressive symptoms.
Conclusions
The association between having been a FEP patient and depressive symptoms/depression disappeared when negative social aspects were taken into account.
doi:10.1186/1471-244X-4-29
PMCID: PMC526192  PMID: 15461826

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