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1.  Atrophy and Other Potential Factors Affecting Long Term Deep Brain Stimulation Response: A Case Series 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e111561.
Objective
To describe three DBS cases which presented with new side effects or loss of benefit from stimulation after long-term follow-up and to discuss the potential contributing factors.
Methods
A University of Florida (UF) database (INFORM) search was performed, identifying three patients, two Parkinson's disease (PD) and one Essential Tremor (ET), with an unexpected change in long-term programming thresholds as compared to initial evaluation. Clinical follow-up, programming, imaging studies, and lead measurements were reviewed. The UF Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved this study.
Results
A substantial increase in the 3rd ventricular width (120%), Evans index (6%), ventricular index (5%), and cella media index (17%) was uncovered. A change in thresholds across lead contacts with a decrease in current densities as well as a relative lateral change of lead location was also observed. Hardware-related complications, lead migration, and impedance variability were not identified.
Conclusions
Potential factors contributing to long-term side effects should be examined during a DBS troubleshooting assessment. Clinicians should be aware that in DBS therapy there is delivery of electricity to a changing brain, and atrophy may possibly affect DBS programming settings as part of long-term follow-up.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111561
PMCID: PMC4216112  PMID: 25360599
2.  Cerebral Venous Infarction: A Potentially Avoidable Complication of Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery 
Object
Despite numerous reports on the morbidity and mortality of deep brain stimulation (DBS), cerebral venous infarction has rarely been reported. We present four cases of venous infarct secondary to DBS surgery.
Methods
The diagnosis of venous infarction was based on: 1) delayed onset of new neurologic deficits on post-operative day 1 or 2, and 2) significant edema surrounding the superficial aspect of the implanted lead, with or without subcortical hemorrhage on CT scan.
Results
Four cases (0.8%/lead, 1.3%/patient) of symptomatic cerebral venous infarction were identified out of 500 DBS lead implantation procedures between July 2002 and August 2009. All four patients had Parkinson’s disease (PD). Their DBS leads were implanted in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (n=2), and the internal globus pallidus (GPi) (n=2). Retrospective review of the targeting confirmed that the planned trajectory passed within 3mm of a cortical vein in two cases for which contrast-enhanced pre-operative MRI was available. In the other two cases, contrasted targeting images were not obtained preoperatively.
Conclusion
Cerebral venous infarction is a potentially avoidable, but serious complication. To minimize its incidence, we propose the use of high resolution, contrast-enhanced, T1 weighted MR images to delineate cerebral venous anatomy, along with careful stereotactic planning of the lead trajectory to avoid injury to venous structures.
doi:10.1111/ner.12052
PMCID: PMC3772976  PMID: 23738501
Deep Brain Stimulation; Venous Infarction; Complication; Adverse Event; Hemorrhage
3.  Acute and Chronic Mood and Apathy Outcomes from a Randomized Study of Unilateral STN and GPi DBS 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(12):e114140.
Objective
To study mood and behavioral effects of unilateral and staged bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD).
Background
There are numerous reports of mood changes following DBS, however, most have focused on bilateral simultaneous STN implants with rapid and aggressive post-operative medication reduction.
Methods
A standardized evaluation was applied to a subset of patients undergoing STN and GPi DBS and who were also enrolled in the NIH COMPARE study. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), the Hamilton depression (HAM-D) and anxiety rating scales (HAM-A), the Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive rating scale (YBOCS), the Apathy Scale (AS), and the Young mania rating scale (YMRS) were used. The scales were repeated at acute and chronic intervals. A post-operative strategy of non-aggressive medication reduction was employed.
Results
Thirty patients were randomized and underwent unilateral DBS (16 STN, 14 GPi). There were no baseline differences. The GPi group had a higher mean dopaminergic dosage at 1-year, however the between group difference in changes from baseline to 1-year was not significant. There were no differences between groups in mood and motor outcomes. When combining STN and GPi groups, the HAM-A scores worsened at 2-months, 4-months, 6-months and 1-year when compared with baseline; the HAM-D and YMRS scores worsened at 4-months, 6-months and 1-year; and the UPDRS Motor scores improved at 4-months and 1-year. Psychiatric diagnoses (DSM-IV) did not change. No between group differences were observed in the cohort of bilateral cases.
Conclusions
There were few changes in mood and behavior with STN or GPi DBS. The approach of staging STN or GPi DBS without aggressive medication reduction could be a viable option for managing PD surgical candidates. A study of bilateral DBS and of medication reduction will be required to better understand risks and benefits of a bilateral approach.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0114140
PMCID: PMC4254912  PMID: 25469706
4.  Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor Associated with Underlying Ataxia Syndromes: A Case Series and Discussion of Issues 
Background
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been utilized to treat various symptoms in patients suffering from movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, dystonia, and essential tremor. Though ataxia syndromes have not been formally or frequently addressed with DBS, there are patients with ataxia and associated medication refractory tremor or dystonia who may potentially benefit from therapy.
Methods
A retrospective database review was performed, searching for cases of ataxia where tremor and/or dystonia were addressed by utilizing DBS at the University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration between 2008 and 2011. Five patients were found who had DBS implantation to address either medication refractory tremor or dystonia. The patient's underlying diagnoses included spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), fragile X associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), a case of idiopathic ataxia (ataxia not otherwise specified [NOS]), spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17), and a senataxin mutation (SETX).
Results
DBS improved medication refractory tremor in the SCA2 and the ataxia NOS patients. The outcome for the FXTAS patient was poor. DBS improved dystonia in the SCA17 and SETX patients, although dystonia did not improve in the lower extremities of the SCA17 patient. All patients reported a transient gait dysfunction postoperatively, and there were no reports of improvement in ataxia-related symptoms.
Discussion
DBS may be an option to treat tremor, inclusive of dystonic tremor in patients with underlying ataxia; however, gait and other symptoms may possibly be worsened.
doi:10.7916/D8542KQ5
PMCID: PMC4101398  PMID: 25120941
Tremor; SCA2; SCA17; fragile X syndrome; myoclonic dystonia; deep brain stimulation; unilateral
5.  Brittle Dyskinesia Following STN but not GPi Deep Brain Stimulation 
Background
The aim was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of difficult to manage dyskinesia associated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). A small subset of STN DBS patients experience troublesome dyskinesia despite optimal programming and medication adjustments. This group of patients has been referred to by some practitioners as brittle STN DBS-induced dyskinesia, drawing on comparisons with brittle diabetics experiencing severe blood sugar regulation issues and on a single description by McLellan in 1982. We sought to describe, and also to investigate how often the “brittle” phenomenon occurs in a relatively large DBS practice.
Methods
An Institutional Review Board-approved patient database was reviewed, and all STN and globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS patients who had surgery at the University of Florida from July 2002 to July 2012 were extracted for analysis.
Results
There were 179 total STN DBS patients and, of those, four STN DBS (2.2%) cases were identified as having dyskinesia that could not be managed without the induction of an “off state,” or by the precipitation of a severe dyskinesia despite vigorous stimulation and medication adjustments. Of 75 GPi DBS cases reviewed, none (0%) was identified as having brittle dyskinesia. One STN DBS patient was successfully rescued by bilateral GPi DBS.
Discussion
Understanding the potential risk factors for postoperative troublesome and brittle dyskinesia may have an impact on the initial surgical target selection (STN vs. GPI) in DBS therapy. Rescue GPi DBS therapy may be a viable treatment option, though more cases will be required to verify this observation.
doi:10.7916/D8KS6PPR
PMCID: PMC4050173  PMID: 24932426
Subthalamic; induced; globus pallidus; adverse event; complication; fluctuation
6.  Stimulation region within the globus pallidus does not affect verbal fluency performance 
Brain stimulation  2012;6(3):248-253.
Background
Subthalamic (STN) and globus pallidus (GP) deep brain stimulation (DBS) have been previously shown to be efficacious in the treatment of selected Parkinson patients with medication resistant motor fluctuations and/or tremor. Deep brain stimulation of the STN has been implicated with more cognitive and mood side effects as compared to GP DBS; however, more studies are needed to better understand possible target differences. Previously, Mikos et al. (1) reported worsening of verbal fluency depending on the stimulation location within the STN region.
Objective/Hypothesis
The current study applied the methods used by Mikos et al. (2011) to a different sample of Parkinson patients who underwent GP DBS. Based on differences in the size and functional somatotopy between structures (GP 412mm3 vs. STN 167mm3), we hypothesized that there would be a less robust relationship between volume of tissue activated, fluency performance, and stimulation contact within the GP compared to what was reported in the STN.
Methods
Patient-specific DBS models were created and the volume of tissue activated within the GP was calculated. These data were correlated with patients’ verbal fluency performance at dorsal, optimal, and ventral stimulation contacts.
Results
In contrast to STN findings, there was no significant relationship between stimulation location and fluency performance in patients who received GP DBS.
Conclusion(s)
These results suggest that fluency may be less sensitive to stimulation location in the globus pallidus and thus there may be more flexibility in terms of DBS programming with GP DBS patients.
doi:10.1016/j.brs.2012.05.011
PMCID: PMC3491090  PMID: 22766102
DBS; Parkinson’s; globus pallidus; verbal fluency; cognition
7.  The “Brittle Response” to Parkinson’s Disease Medications: Characterization and Response to Deep Brain Stimulation 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94856.
Objective
Formulate a definition and describe the clinical characteristics of PD patients with a “brittle response” (BR) to medications versus a “non-brittle response” (NBR), and characterize the use of DBS for this population.
Methods
An UF IRB approved protocol used a retrospective chart review of 400 consecutive PD patients presenting to the UF Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration. Patient records were anonymized and de-identified prior to analysis. SPSS statistics were used to analyze data.
Results
Of 345 included patients, 19 (5.5%) met criteria for BR PD. The BR group was comprised of 58% females, compared to 29% in the NBR group (P = .008). The former had a mean age of 63.4 compared to 68.1 in the latter. BR patients had lower mean weight (63.5 vs. 79.6, P = <.001), longer mean disease duration (12.6 vs. 8.9 years, P = .003), and had been on LD for more years compared to NBR patients (9.8 vs. 5.9, P = .001). UPDRS motor scores were higher (40.4 vs. 30.0, P = .001) in BR patients. No differences were observed regarding the Schwab and England scale, PDQ-39, and BDI-II. Sixty-three percent of the BR group had undergone DBS surgery compared to 18% (P = .001). Dyskinesias were more common, severe, and more often painful (P = <.001) in the BR group. There was an overall positive benefit from DBS.
Conclusion
BR PD occurred more commonly in female patients with a low body weight. Patients with longer disease duration and longer duration of LD therapy were also at risk. The BR group responded well to DBS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094856
PMCID: PMC3986256  PMID: 24733172
8.  Coordinate-Based Lead Location Does Not Predict Parkinson's Disease Deep Brain Stimulation Outcome 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e93524.
Background
Effective target regions for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been well characterized. We sought to study whether the measured Cartesian coordinates of an implanted DBS lead are predictive of motor outcome(s). We tested the hypothesis that the position and trajectory of the DBS lead relative to the mid-commissural point (MCP) are significant predictors of clinical outcomes. We expected that due to neuroanatomical variation among individuals, a simple measure of the position of the DBS lead relative to MCP (commonly used in clinical practice) may not be a reliable predictor of clinical outcomes when utilized alone.
Methods
55 PD subjects implanted with subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS and 41 subjects implanted with globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS were included. Lead locations in AC-PC space (x, y, z coordinates of the active contact and sagittal and coronal entry angles) measured on high-resolution CT-MRI fused images, and motor outcomes (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale) were analyzed to confirm or refute a correlation between coordinate-based lead locations and DBS motor outcomes.
Results
Coordinate-based lead locations were not a significant predictor of change in UPDRS III motor scores when comparing pre- versus post-operative values. The only potentially significant individual predictor of change in UPDRS motor scores was the antero-posterior coordinate of the GPi lead (more anterior lead locations resulted in a worse outcome), but this was only a statistical trend (p<.082).
Conclusion
The results of the study showed that a simple measure of the position of the DBS lead relative to the MCP is not significantly correlated with PD motor outcomes, presumably because this method fails to account for individual neuroanatomical variability. However, there is broad agreement that motor outcomes depend strongly on lead location. The results suggest the need for more detailed identification of stimulation location relative to anatomical targets.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0093524
PMCID: PMC3972103  PMID: 24691109
9.  Rescue GPi-DBS for a Stroke-associated Hemiballism in a Patient with STN-DBS 
Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements  2014;4:tre-04-214-4855-1.
Background
Hemiballism/hemichorea commonly occurs as a result of a lesion in the subthalamic region.
Case Report
A 38-year-old male with Parkinson’s disease developed intractable hemiballism in his left extremities due to a small lesion that was located adjacent to the right deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead, 10 months after bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS placement. He underwent a right globus pallidus internus (GPi)-DBS lead implantation. GPi-DBS satisfactorily addressed his hemiballism.
Discussion
This case offered a unique look at basal ganglia physiology in human hemiballism. GPi-DBS is a reasonable therapeutic option for the treatment of medication refractory hemiballism in the setting of Parkinson’s disease.
doi:10.7916/D8XP72WF
PMCID: PMC3918512  PMID: 24587970
Globus pallidus internus; subthalamic nucleus; deep brain stimulation; hemiballism; stroke
10.  Deep brain stimulation in the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens region: responses observed during active and sham programming 
Background
Recently, anterior limb of the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been used in the treatment of medication‐refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). This region has been previously explored with lesion therapy, but with the advent of DBS there exists the possibility of monitoring the acute and chronic effects of electrical stimulation. The stimulation‐induced benefits and side effects can be reversibly and blindly applied to a variety of locations in this region.
Objective
To explore the acute effects of DBS in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens region.
Methods
Ten total DBS leads in five patients with chronic and severe treatment‐refractory OCD were tested. Patients were examined 30 days after DBS placement and received either “sham” testing or actual testing of the acute effects of DBS (the alternative condition tested 30 days later).
Results
Pooled responses were reviewed for comparability of distribution using standard descriptive methods, and relationships between the variables of interest were sought using χ2 analysis. A total of 845 stimulation trials across the five patients were recorded and pooled. Of these 16% were elicited from sham stimulation and 17% from placebo (0 V stimulation). A comparison of active to sham trials showed that sham stimulation was not associated with significant side effects or responses from patients. Non‐mood‐related responses were found to be significantly associated with the ventral lead contacts (0 and 1) (p = 0.001). Responses such as taste, smell and smile were strongly associated with the most ventral lead positions. Similarly, physiological responses—for example, autonomic changes, increased breathing rate, sweating, nausea, cold sensation, heat sensation, fear, panic and panic episodes—were significantly associated with ventral stimulation (p = 0.001). Fear and panic responses appeared clustered around the most ventral electrode (0). Acute stimulation resulted in either improved or worsened mood responses in both the dorsal and ventral regions of the anterior limb of the internal capsule.
Conclusion
The acute effects of DBS in the region of the anterior limb of the internal capsule and nucleus accumbens, particularly when obtained in a blinded fashion, provide a unique opportunity to localise brain regions and explore circuitry.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2006.095315
PMCID: PMC2117652  PMID: 17012341
11.  Unilateral deep brain stimulation surgery in Parkinson’s disease improves ipsilateral symptoms regardless of laterality 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2011;17(10):745-748.
Purpose
Researchers have consistently observed in right-handed individuals across normal and disease states that the ‘dominant’ left hemisphere has greater ipsilateral control of the left side than the right hemisphere has over the right. We sought to determine whether this ipsilateral influence of the dominant hemisphere reported in Parkinson’s disease extends to treatments such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and whether it affects outcome. We hypothesised that among Parkinson right-handers, unilateral left DBS would provide greater ipsilateral motor improvement compared with the ipsilateral motor improvement experienced on the right side.
Scope
A total of 73 Parkinson patients who underwent unilateral DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or globus palidus internus (GPi) participated. Left and right ‘composite scores’, were computed by separately adding all items on the left and right side from the motor section of the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. The change in the pre- and 4-month post-implantation score was the primary outcome measure. The mean motor scores improved by 4.96 ± 11.79 points (p < 0.001) post-surgery on the ipsilateral side of the DBS implantation. Regression analyses revealed that the side (left vs. right) and target (STN vs. GPi) did not significantly contribute in the effect of ipsilateral motor improvement (p = 0.3557).
Conclusion
While DBS on the ‘dominant’ left side failed to exert a greater ipsilateral influence compared with DBS on the non-dominant right side, significant ipsilateral motor improvements were observed after unilateral stimulation regardless of site of implantation and laterality.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.07.010
PMCID: PMC3791592  PMID: 21856205
Unilateral DBS; STN; GPi; Parkinson’s disease; UPDRS
12.  DBS Candidates That Fall Short on a Levodopa Challenge Test 
The neurologist  2011;17(5):263-268.
Introduction
Candidacy for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) is typically assessed by the preoperative motor response to levodopa along with an interdisciplinary evaluation. However, recent cases treated at our institution have achieved good outcomes with DBS despite a sub-30% improvement in motor scores. The aim of this study was to examine the outcomes of DBS in a subset of patients who failed to reach the 30% motor improvement threshold.
Methods
A review of all DBS patients treated at the University of Florida Movement Disorders Center between 2002 and 2009 was performed utilizing a DBS database. All patients with sub-30% improvement in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Part III after dopaminergic medication administration were included.
Results
Nine patients were identified; DBS was performed for severe dyskinesia (n = 5), “on/off motor” fluctuations (n = 1) and medication-refractory tremor (n = 3). The target symptoms were improved in all patients. Postoperatively, scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale Part II and III and subscores on Parkinson disease questionnaire-39 improved (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
Although motor response to levodopa remains the primary selection criteria for DBS candidacy in Parkinson disease, patients who do not meet the 30% threshold and have disabling symptoms may still benefit from DBS. Select patients with severe dyskinesia, “on/off” motor fluctuations, and/or medication-refractory tremor may experience significant benefits from DBS and should be considered on a case by case basis through an interdisciplinary team evaluation.
doi:10.1097/NRL.0b013e31822d1069
PMCID: PMC3789884  PMID: 21881468
deep brain stimulation; Parkinson disease; levodopa challenge test; dyskinesia; on-off motor fluctuations; tremor; quality of life
13.  Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review 
Parkinsonism & related disorders  2013;19(9):783-788.
The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. “on” vs. “off”, pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2013.05.001
PMCID: PMC3775508  PMID: 23726461
DBS; Dysphagia; Swallow; Aspiration pneumonia; Parkinson’s disease; Review
14.  Dystonia, facial dysmorphism, intellectual disability and breast cancer associated with a chromosome 13q34 duplication and overexpression of TFDP1: case report 
BMC Medical Genetics  2013;14:70.
Background
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary sustained muscle contractions causing twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. Some cases of primary and neurodegenerative dystonia have been associated with mutations in individual genes critical to the G1-S checkpoint pathway (THAP1, ATM, CIZ1 and TAF1). Secondary dystonia is also a relatively common clinical sign in many neurogenetic disorders. However, the contribution of structural variation in the genome to the etiopathogenesis of dystonia remains largely unexplored.
Case presentation
Cytogenetic analyses with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0 identified a chromosome 13q34 duplication in a 36 year-old female with global developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, tall stature, breast cancer and dystonia, and her neurologically-normal father. Dystonia improved with bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Genomic breakpoint analysis, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and leukocyte gene expression were used to characterize the structural variant. The 218,345 bp duplication was found to include ADPRHL1, DCUN1D2, and TMCO3, and a 69 bp fragment from a long terminal repeat (LTR) located within Intron 3 of TFDP1. The 3' breakpoint was located within Exon 1 of a TFDP1 long non-coding RNA (NR_026580.1). In the affected subject and her father, gene expression was higher for all three genes located within the duplication. However, in comparison to her father, mother and neurologically-normal controls, the affected subject also showed marked overexpression (2×) of the transcription factor TFDP1 (NM_007111.4). Whole-exome sequencing identified an SGCE variant (c.1295G > A, p.Ser432His) that could possibly have contributed to the development of dystonia in the proband. No pathogenic mutations were identified in BRCA1 or BRCA2.
Conclusion
Overexpression of TFDP1 has been associated with breast cancer and may also be linked to the tall stature, dysmorphism and dystonia seen in our patient.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-14-70
PMCID: PMC3722009  PMID: 23849371
Dystonia; Chromosome 13q34; Duplication; TFDP1; Breast cancer; G1-S Checkpoint pathway
15.  Neurogenic Potential of Progenitor Cells Isolated from Post-mortem Human Parkinsonian Brains 
Brain Research  2012;1464:61-72.
The success of cellular therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) will depend not only a conducive growth environment in vivo, but also on the ex vivo amplification and targeted neural differentiation of stem/progenitor cells. Here, we demonstrate the in vitro proliferative and differentiation potential of stem/progenitor cells, adult human neural progenitor cells (“AHNPs”) isolated from idiopathic PD postmortem tissue samples and, to a lesser extent, discarded deep brain stimulation electrodes. We demonstrate that these AHNPs can be isolated from numerous structures (e.g. substantia nigra, “SN”) and are able to differentiate into both glia and neurons, but only under particular growth conditions including co-culturing with embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursors; this suggests that PD multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells do reside with the SN and other areas, but by themselves appear to lack key factors required for neural differentiation. AHNPs engraft following ex vivo expansion and transplantation into the rodent brain, demonstrating their regenerative potential. Our data demonstrate the presence and capacity of endogenous stem/progenitor cells in the PD brain.
doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2012.04.039
PMCID: PMC3372664  PMID: 22652067
Parkinson’s disease; neurogenesis; neural stem cell; neural progenitor cell; cell culture
16.  Do Stable Patients With a Premorbid Depression History Have a Worse Outcome After Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease? 
Neurosurgery  2011;69(2):357-361.
BACKGROUND
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been associated with mood sequelae in a subset of patients operated on in either the subthalamic nucleus or the globus pallidus internus for the treatment of Parkinson disease.
OBJECTIVE
To compare mood and motor outcomes in those with and without a presurgical history of depression.
METHODS
Unilateral subthalamic nucleus or unilateral globus pallidus internus DBS patients followed up for a minimum of 6 months were included. All patients underwent a comprehensive outpatient psychiatric evaluation by a board-certified psychiatrist. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition, text revision, nomenclature (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Motor and mood outcomes were compared.
RESULTS
A total of 110 patients were included. There were no significant differences in baseline variables between the 2 groups. Those with a preoperative history of depression had significantly higher Beck Depression Inventory scores than the nondepression group after DBS (8.97 ± 7.55 vs 5.92 ± 5.71; P = .04). Patients with a depression history had less improvement (11.6%) in pre/post-DBS change when Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor scores were compared (P = .03) after adjustment for stimulation site and baseline demographic and clinical variables. Patients with a higher levodopa equivalent dose had a worse clinical motor outcome.
CONCLUSION
Patients with a preoperative depression history had higher Beck Depression Inventory scores after DBS and significantly less (albeit small) improvement in pre/post-DBS change in Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor scores than patients without a history of depression.
doi:10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182160456
PMCID: PMC3593636  PMID: 21415789
DBS; Deep brain stimulation; Depression; DSM; Outcomes; Psychiatry; Psychology
17.  Management of Deep Brain Stimulator Battery Failure: Battery Estimators, Charge Density, and Importance of Clinical Symptoms 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58665.
Objective
We aimed in this investigation to study deep brain stimulation (DBS) battery drain with special attention directed toward patient symptoms prior to and following battery replacement.
Background
Previously our group developed web-based calculators and smart phone applications to estimate DBS battery life (http://mdc.mbi.ufl.edu/surgery/dbs-battery-estimator).
Methods
A cohort of 320 patients undergoing DBS battery replacement from 2002–2012 were included in an IRB approved study. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 (IBM, Armonk, NY).
Results
The mean charge density for treatment of Parkinson’s disease was 7.2 µC/cm2/phase (SD = 3.82), for dystonia was 17.5 µC/cm2/phase (SD = 8.53), for essential tremor was 8.3 µC/cm2/phase (SD = 4.85), and for OCD was 18.0 µC/cm2/phase (SD = 4.35). There was a significant relationship between charge density and battery life (r = −.59, p<.001), as well as total power and battery life (r = −.64, p<.001). The UF estimator (r = .67, p<.001) and the Medtronic helpline (r = .74, p<.001) predictions of battery life were significantly positively associated with actual battery life. Battery status indicators on Soletra and Kinetra were poor predictors of battery life. In 38 cases, the symptoms improved following a battery change, suggesting that the neurostimulator was likely responsible for symptom worsening. For these cases, both the UF estimator and the Medtronic helpline were significantly correlated with battery life (r = .65 and r = .70, respectively, both p<.001).
Conclusions
Battery estimations, charge density, total power and clinical symptoms were important factors. The observation of clinical worsening that was rescued following neurostimulator replacement reinforces the notion that changes in clinical symptoms can be associated with battery drain.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058665
PMCID: PMC3594176  PMID: 23536810
18.  Deep Brain Stimulation Response in Pathologically Confirmed Cases of Multiple System Atrophy 
Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for select cases of medication refractory movement disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Deep brain stimulation has not been recommended for treatment in multiple system atrophy patients. However, the paucity of literature documenting the effects of deep brain stimulation in multiple system atrophy patients and the revelation of a levodopa-responsive subtype of multiple system atrophy suggests further investigation is necessary.
This study summarizes the positive and negative effects of deep brain stimulation treatment in two pathologically confirmed multiple system atrophy patients from the University of Florida Deep Brain Stimulation-Brain Tissue Network. Clinical diagnosis for the two patient cases did not match the neuropathological diagnosis. We noted that in both pathologically confirmed multiple system atrophy patients, death occurred as a result of myocardial infarction. Importantly, there was reported transient benefit in levodopa responsive features that indicate deep brain stimulation may be an option for select multiple system atrophy patients.
doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2011.09.008
PMCID: PMC3593085  PMID: 21983018
Deep Brain Stimulation; Pathology; Multiple System Atrophy
19.  Correction: Increased Thalamic Gamma Band Activity Correlates with Symptom Relief following Deep Brain Stimulation in Humans with Tourette’s Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):10.1371/annotation/446ec4cb-63da-42d2-afc6-7e8459b2abbe.
doi:10.1371/annotation/446ec4cb-63da-42d2-afc6-7e8459b2abbe
PMCID: PMC3514330
20.  Increased Thalamic Gamma Band Activity Correlates with Symptom Relief following Deep Brain Stimulation in Humans with Tourette’s Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44215.
Tourette syndrome (TS) is an idiopathic, childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder, which is marked by persistent multiple motor and phonic tics. The disorder is highly disruptive and in some cases completely debilitating. For those with severe, treatment-refractory TS, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as a possible option, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. We performed a longitudinal study of the effects of DBS on TS symptomatology while concomitantly examining neurophysiological dynamics. We present the first report of the clinical correlation between the presence of gamma band activity and decreased tic severity. Local field potential recordings from five subjects implanted in the centromedian nucleus (CM) of the thalamus revealed a temporal correlation between the power of gamma band activity and the clinical metrics of symptomatology as measured by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Modified Rush Tic Rating Scale. Additional studies utilizing short-term stimulation also produced increases in gamma power. Our results suggest that modulation of gamma band activity in both long-term and short-term DBS of the CM is a key factor in mitigating the pathophysiology associated with TS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044215
PMCID: PMC3435399  PMID: 22970181
21.  Low-Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation for Dystonia: Lower is Not Always Better 
Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements  2012;2:tre-02-55-272-1.
Background
It has been observed that low-frequency stimulation (LFS) may be effective for dystonia, and the use of LFS may alleviate the need for frequent battery changes in a subset of patients. The aim of this study was to analyze LFS as a strategy to treat deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients with various dystonias.
Methods
Subjects had to receive a minimum of 6 months of clinical follow-up at the University of Florida, and were required to have a minimum of 3 months on a LFS trial. Twenty-seven dystonia DBS patients were retrospectively analyzed from the UF-INFORM database.
Results
Thirteen subjects met inclusion criteria. Of the 13 subjects, all had bilateral internal pallidum (GPi) DBS, and five (38.5%) remained with at least one side on LFS settings at their last follow up (average follow up 24 months, range 6–46 months). Within the first 6 months, six (46%) subjects remained on LFS and seven (54%) were changed to high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Those who remained on LFS settings at 6 months were characterized by shorter disease durations than those on HFS settings. There were no significant differences in dystonia severity (Unified Dystonia Rating Scale and Burke–Fahn–Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale) at baseline between the two settings. The estimated battery life for LFS (79.9±30.5) was significantly longer than for HFS settings (32.2±13.1, p<0.001)
Discussion
LFS was ultimately chosen for 38.5% of all subjects. Although this study failed to yield solid predictive features, subjects on LFS tended to have shorter disease durations.
PMCID: PMC3584502  PMID: 23450104
Deep brain stimulation; dystonia; voltage; rate; complications; outcome
22.  Effects of STN and GPi Deep Brain Stimulation on Impulse Control Disorders and Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(1):e29768.
Objective
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) and dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) are important behavioral problems that affect a subpopulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and typically result in markedly diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. We aimed to investigate the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) on ICD/DDS frequency and dopaminergic medication usage.
Methods
A retrospective chart review was performed on 159 individuals who underwent unilateral or bilateral PD DBS surgery in either STN or GPi. According to published criteria, pre- and post-operative records were reviewed to categorize patients both pre- and post-operatively as having ICD, DDS, both ICD and DDS, or neither ICD nor DDS. Group differences in patient demographics, clinical presentations, levodopa equivalent dose (LED), and change in diagnosis following unilateral/bilateral by brain target (STN or GPi DBS placement) were examined.
Results
28 patients met diagnostic criteria for ICD or DDS pre- or post-operatively. ICD or DDS classification did not differ by GPi or STN target stimulation. There was no change in DDS diagnosis after unilateral or bilateral stimulation. For ICD, diagnosis resolved in 2 of 7 individuals after unilateral or bilateral DBS. Post-operative development of these syndromes was significant; 17 patients developed ICD diagnoses post-operatively with 2 patients with pre-operative ICD developing DDS post-operatively.
Conclusions
Unilateral or bilateral DBS did not significantly treat DDS or ICD in our sample, even though a few cases of ICD resolved post-operatively. Rather, our study provides preliminary evidence that DDS and ICD diagnoses may emerge following DBS surgery.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029768
PMCID: PMC3266249  PMID: 22295068
23.  Smile and Laughter Induction and Intraoperative Predictors of Response to Deep Brain Stimulation for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 
NeuroImage  2010;54S1:S247-S255.
We recently treated six patients for OCD utilizing deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the nucleus accumbens region (ALIC-NA). We individually tested leads via a scripted intraoperative protocol designed to determine DBS-induced side effects and mood changes. We previously published qualitative data regarding our observations of induced emotional behaviors in our first five subjects. We have now studied these same behaviors in the full cohort of six patients over two years of follow-up and have examined the relationship of these behaviors to intraoperative mood changes and postoperative clinical outcomes.
Five patients experienced at least one smile response during testing. At higher voltages of stimulation some of these smiles progressed to natural laughter. Smiles and laughter were associated with mood elevation. At stimulation locations at which smiles were observed, voltage and mood were significantly correlated (p=0.0004 for right brain and p<0.0001 for left brain). In contrast, at contacts where smiles were not observed, mood was negatively correlated with voltage (p=0.0591 for right brain and p=0.0086 for left). Smile and laughter-inducing sites were located relatively medial, posterior, and deep in the ALIC-NA.
The presence of stimulation induced laughter predicted improvement in OCD symptoms at two years. The higher the percentage of laugh conditions experienced in an individual patient, the greater the reduction in YBOCS (24 months, p=0.034). Other correlations between clinical outcomes and percent of smile/laugh conditions were not significant. These stimulation-induced behaviors were less frequently observed with one and two-month postoperative test stimulation and were not observed at subsequent test stimulation sessions.
Intraoperative stimulation-induced laughter may predict long-term OCD response to DBS. Identifying other potential response predictors for OCD will become increasingly important as more patients are implanted with DBS devices. A larger study is needed to better delineate the relationship between induced intraoperative and postoperative emotional behavior and clinical outcome in patients treated with DBS therapy.
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.009
PMCID: PMC2907450  PMID: 20226259
24.  Do Patient's Get Angrier Following STN, GPi, and Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation 
NeuroImage  2010;54S1:S227-S232.
Objective
The objective of the study was to examine whether deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the globus pallidus internus (GPi), and/or the ventralis intermedius thalamic nucleus (Vim) was associated with making patients angrier pre to post-surgical intervention.
Background
Secondary outcome analysis of the NIH COMPARE Parkinson's Disease DBS trial revealed that participants were angrier and had more mood and cognitive side effects following DBS. Additionally blinded on/off analysis did not change anger scores. The sample size was small but suggested that STN DBS may have been worse than GPi in provoking anger. We endeavored to examine this question utilizing a larger dataset (the UF INFORM database), and also we included a third surgical target (Vim) which has been utilized for a different disease, essential tremor.
Methods
Consecutive patients from the University of Florida Movement Disorders Center who were implanted with unilateral DBS for Parkinson's Disease (STN or GPi) or Essential Tremor (Vim) were included. Patients originally implanted at outside institutions were excluded. Pre- and 4-6 month postoperative Visual Analog Mood Scales (VAMS) scores for all three groups were compared; additionally, pre- and 1-3 month scores were compared for STN and GPi patients. A linear regression model was utilized to analyze the relationship between the VAMS anger score and the independent variables of age, years with symptoms, Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) score, handedness, ethnicity, gender, side of surgery, target of surgery, baseline Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) total score, baseline Beck Depression Index (BDI) score, micro and macro electrode passes, and years of education. Levodopa equivalent dosages and dopamine agonist use was analyzed for a potential impact on anger scores.
Results
A total of 322 unilateral DBS procedures were analyzed, with STN (n= 195), Vim (n=71), and GPi (n=56) making up the cohort. An ANOVA analysis was used to detect significant differences among the three targets in the changes pre- to post-operatively. Similar to the COMPARE dataset, at four months the only subscore of VAMS to reveal a significant difference between the three targets was the angry subscore, with GPi revealing a mean (standard) change of 2.38 (9.53), STN 4.82 (14.52), and Vim -1.17 (11.51) (p-value = 0.012). At 1-3 months postop, both STN and GPi groups were significantly angrier (p= 0.004), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. However, GPi patients were significantly more confused as compared to STN patients (p= 0.016). The linear regression model which sought independent explanatory variables revealed a relationship between the VAMS anger score and the surgical target and the disease duration. The mean changes for STN and GPi DBS pre- to post were 11.67 (p= 0.001) and 8.21 (p= 0.022) units more than those with Vim, respectively. For every year added of disease duration, the VAMS anger score increased by 0.24 (p= 0.022). For the GPi and STN groups, number of microelectrode passes was significantly associated with angry score changes (p= 0.014), with the anger score increasing 2.29 units per microelectrode pass. Independent variables not associated with the VAMS anger score included the surgery side, handedness, gender, ethnicity, education, age at surgery, MMSE, DRS, and BDI scores. Although the STN group significantly decreased in LED when compared to GPi, there was no relationship to anger scores. Similarly dopamine agonist use was not different between STN and GPi groups, and did not correlate with the VAMS anger score changes.
Conclusions
STN and GPi DBS for Parkinson's disease were associated with significantly higher anger scores pre- to post-DBS as compared to Vim for essential tremor. Anger score changes in STN and GPi patients seem to be associated with microelectrode passes, suggesting it may be a lesional effect. PD patients with longer disease durations may be particularly susceptible, and this should be kept in mind when discussing the potential of DBS surgery for an individual patient. Essential tremor patients who on average have much longer disease durations did not get angrier. The changes in anger scores were not related to LED change or dopamine agonist use. Whether the induction of anger is disease specific or target specific is not currently known, however our data would suggest that PD patients implanted in STN or GPi are at a potential risk. Finally, on closer inspection of the COMPARE DBS data VAMS anger scores did not change on or off DBS, suggesting that anger changes may be more a lesional effect rather than a stimulation induced one(Okun et al., 2009).
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.077
PMCID: PMC3014411  PMID: 20932923
Subthalamic nucleus; globus pallidus; ventralis intermedius nucleus; deep brain stimulation; anger; Parkinson's disease; tremor
25.  A Three-dimensional Deformable Brain Atlas for DBS Targeting. I. Methodology for Atlas Creation and Artifact Reduction 
Background:
Targeting in deep brain stimulation (DBS) relies heavily on the ability to accurately localize particular anatomic brain structures. Direct targeting of subcortical structures has been limited by the ability to visualize relevant DBS targets.
Methods and Results:
In this work, we describe the development and implementation, of a methodology utilized to create a three dimensional deformable atlas for DBS surgery. This atlas was designed to correspond to the print version of the Schaltenbrand-Bailey atlas structural contours. We employed a smoothing technique to reduce artifacts inherent in the print version.
Conclusions:
We present the methodology used to create a three dimensional patient specific DBS atlas which may in the future be tested for clinical utility.
doi:10.2174/1874440001206010092
PMCID: PMC3474940  PMID: 23091579
Deep brain stimulation; Targeting; deep brain stimulation; atlas.

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