Six new 5,6-dihydro-α-pyrone derivatives (1–6), namely, brevipolides A–F, together with seven known compounds, including a 5,6-dihydro-α-pyrone derivative (7), three flavonoids, a steroid glycoside, and two triterpenoids, were isolated from the entire plant of Hyptis brevipes. Compounds 1–7 were assigned with the absolute configuration, 5R, 6S, 7S, and 9S, as elucidated by analysis of data obtained from their CD spectra and by Mosher ester reactions. Compounds 2, 6, and 7 exhibited ED50 values of 6.1, 6.7 and 3.6 μM against MCF-7 cells, and compounds 1, 2, 6, and 8 (the known 5,6,3′-trihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone) gave ED50 values of 5.8, 6.1 7.5, and 3.6 μM against HT-29 cells, respectively. However, no significant cytotoxicity was found against Lu1 cells for any of the compounds isolated. When these compounds were subjected to evaluation in a panel of mechanism-based in vitro assays, compound 7 were found to be active in an enzyme-based ELISA NF-κB assay, with an ED50 value of 15.3 μM. In a mitochondrial transmembrane potential assay, compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed ED50 values of 8.5, 75, and 310 nM, respectively. However, no potent activity was found in a proteasome inhibition assay for any of the isolated compounds.