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author:("frodin, U")
1.  The risk for multiple sclerosis in female nurse anaesthetists: a register based study 
Background
Previous studies have suggested that exposure to organic solvents, including volatile anaesthetic agents, may be a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), possibly in combination with genetic and other environmental factors.
Aims
To further investigate the role of volatile anaesthetic agents having similar acute toxic effects to other organic solvents.
Methods
Female nurse anaesthetists, other female nurses, and female teachers from middle and upper compulsory school levels were identified and retrieved from the 1985 census, Statistics Sweden. By means of the unique personal identity number in Sweden, these individuals were linked with the disability pension registers at The National Social Insurance Board and also with data on hospital care 1985–2000 at The National Board of Health and Welfare.
Results
The cumulative incidence rate ratio of MS was found to be increased in female nurse anaesthetists in relation to other nurses (statistically not significant) and teachers (statistically significant), respectively.
Conclusions
These findings give some support to previous findings of an increased risk for MS in nurse anaesthetists. This is interesting in the context of previous observations of organic solvents in general as a potential risk factor in MS.
doi:10.1136/oem.2005.024604
PMCID: PMC2078114  PMID: 16709703
exposure; volatile anaesthetic gases; organic solvents; risk
2.  Multiple sclerosis in nurse anaesthetists 
Background: Volatile anaesthetics are chemically related to organic solvents used in industry. Exposure to industrial solvents may increase the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS).
Aim: To examine the risk among nurse anaesthetists of contracting MS.
Methods: Nurses with MS were identified by an appeal in the monthly magazine of the Swedish Nurse Union and a magazine of the Neurological Patients Association in Sweden. Ninety nurses with MS responded and contacted our clinic. They were given a questionnaire, which was filled in by 85 subjects; 13 of these were nurse anaesthetists. The questionnaire requested information about work tasks, exposure, diagnosis, symptoms, and year. The number of active nurse anaesthetists was estimated based on information from the National Board of Health and Welfare and The Nurse Union. Incidence data for women in the region of Gothenburg and Denmark were used as the reference to estimate the risk by calculation of the standardised incidence ratio (SIR).
Results: Eleven of the 13 nurse anaesthetists were exposed to anaesthetic gases before onset of MS. Mean duration of exposure before diagnosis was 14.4 years (range 4–27 years). Ten cases were diagnosed in the study period 1980–99, resulting in significantly increased SIRs of 2.9 and 2.8 with the Gothenburg and the Danish reference data, respectively.
Conclusion: Although based on crude data and a somewhat approximate analysis, this study provides preliminary evidence for an excess risk of MS in nurse anaesthetists. The risk may be even greater than observed, as the case ascertainment might have been incomplete because of the crude method applied. Further studies in this respect are clearly required to more definitely assess the risk.
doi:10.1136/oem.60.1.66
PMCID: PMC1740375  PMID: 12499460
3.  Neuropsychiatric effects of low exposure to styrene. 
Workers exposed to styrene concentrations of about 50 mg/m3 at a plant manufacturing reinforced polyester boats were examined for neuropsychiatric symptoms both in close connection with exposure and also seven months after exposure had ceased. Physical workload is important for the uptake of styrene and was about 50 W at this plant. On the first occasion, after one week with no exposure, the workers reported a high frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as fatigue, irritation, and forgetfulness whereas seven months later the frequency of these symptoms was low. These observations indicate that exposure to styrene at about 50 mg/m3 may induce reversible neuraesthenic symptoms. Even the relatively low Swedish standard (110 mg/m3 = 25 ppm) may, therefore, need revising.
PMCID: PMC1009872  PMID: 2590646
4.  Chronic lymphatic leukaemia and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and DDT: a case-referent study. 
The effect of potential risk factors for chronic lymphatic leukaemia was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 111 cases and 431 randomised referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained by questionnaires posted to the subjects. Crude rate ratios were increased for occupational exposure to solvents. DDT, engine exhausts, fresh wood (lumberjacks, paper pulp workers, and sawmill workers, for example) and also in farming. Further analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique reduced the number of rate ratios significantly exceeding unity to encompass only occupational exposure to engine exhaust, fresh wood, DDT, and contact with horses.
PMCID: PMC1007942  PMID: 2449239
5.  Cancer mortality among leather tanners. 
Workers were studied at a tannery that operated from 1873 to 1960, once one of the biggest in Scandinavia. The results show a slight numerical increase of deaths from cancer of the stomach and a significant, threefold excess mortality from cancer of the pancreas. Even in view of critical questions about validity it seems likely that this excess might be related to exposure to chemicals in tannery work.
PMCID: PMC1007690  PMID: 3718898

Results 1-5 (5)