Although a major mechanism for cardioprotection is altered metabolism, little is known regarding metabolic changes in ischaemic preconditioning and subsequent ischaemia. Our objective was to examine the effects of the second window of preconditioning (SWOP), the delayed phase of preconditioning against infarction and stunning, on long-chain free fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation during ischaemia in chronically instrumented, conscious pigs.
Methods and results
We studied three groups: (i) normal baseline perfusion (n = 5); (ii) coronary artery stenosis (CAS; n = 5); (iii) CAS 24 h following 2 × 10 min coronary occlusions and 10 min reperfusion (n = 7). Ischaemia was induced by a left anterior descending (LAD) stenosis (40% flow reduction) for 90 min, dropping systolic wall thickening by 72%. LCFA oxidation was assessed following LAD infusion of 13C palmitate, i.e. during control or stenosis, by in vitro nuclear magnetic resonance of the sampled myocardium. Stenosis reduced subendocardial blood flow subendocardially, but not subepicardial, yet induced transmural reductions in LCFA oxidation and increased non-oxidative glycolysis. During stenosis, preconditioned hearts showed normalized contributions of LCFA to oxidative ATP synthesis, despite increased lactate accumulation. SWOP induced a shift towards LCFA oxidation during stenosis, despite increased malonyl-CoA, and marked protection of contractile function with a significant improvement in systolic wall thickening.
Thus, the second window of preconditioning normalized oxidative metabolism of LCFA during subsequent ischaemia despite elevated non-oxidative glycolysis and malonyl-CoA and was linked to protection of regional contractile function resulting in improved mechanical performance. Interestingly, the metabolic responses occurred transmurally while ischaemia was restricted solely to the subendocardium.
Mitochondria; Coronary stenosis; Long-chain fatty acids; β-Oxidation; Ischaemic preconditioning
Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (CTSL) is believed to play a role in tumor progression and is considered a marker for clinically invasive tumors. Studies from our laboratory using the classical mouse skin carcinogenesis model, with 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA) for initiation and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for promotion, showed that expression of CTSL is increased in papillomas and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We also carried out carcinogenesis studies using Ctsl-deficient nackt (nkt) mutant mice on three different inbred backgrounds. Unexpectedly, the multiplicity of papillomas were significantly higher in Ctsl-deficient than in wild-type mice on two unrelated backgrounds. Topical applications of TPA or DMBA alone to the skin of nkt/nkt mice did not induce papillomas, and there was no increase in spontaneous tumors in nkt/nkt mice on any of the three inbred backgrounds. Reduced epidermal cell proliferation in Ctsl-deficient nkt/nkt mice after TPA treatment suggested that they are not more sensitive than wild-type mice to TPA promotion. We also showed that deficiency of CTSL delays terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, and we propose that decreased elimination of initiated cells is at least partially responsible for the increased papilloma formation in the nackt model.
mouse models; proteases; cysteine cathepsins; skin cancer; two-stage carcinogenesis
This article endeavors to evaluate the data on the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Coxibs in preclinical studies on cancer prevention carried out by the authors. The overall objective was to address questions that we see as significant for the field. The preclinical studies evaluated here are restricted to our rodent studies on colon/intestinal, bladder and non-melanoma skin cancer in which NSAIDs or celecoxib were administered as either prevention agents or therapeutic agents. These studies may shed light on several questions. Should human use of NSAIDs/Coxibs consider not only efficacy but also whether celecoxib is unique compared to other NSAIDs? Are standard NSAIDs as effective as celecoxib in animal studies? Is the efficacy of celecoxib in particular or NSAIDs in general due to their off-target effects or to their effects on COX-1 and COX-2? What is the likely efficacy of low dose aspirin? Some questions raised by human trials and human epidemiology are discussed and related to our observations in animal models. We also considered the problem with cardiovascular (CV) events and whether animal models are predictive of efficacy in humans. Based on human epidemiological studies and its CV profile, it appears that aspirin is the most promising NSAID for the prevention of human colon, bladder and skin cancer, although the animal data for aspirin is less conclusive. We hope that this discussion of the results in animal studies may help inform and shape human trials of these commonly employed, relatively inexpensive and highly effective classes of compounds.
chemoprevention; prostaglandins; COX-2; NSAIDs
Prokaryotes have developed several strategies to defend themselves against foreign genetic elements. One of those defense mechanisms is the recently identified CRISPR/Cas system, which is used by approximately half of all bacterial and almost all archaeal organisms. The CRISPR/Cas system differs from the other defense strategies because it is adaptive, hereditary and it recognizes the invader by a sequence specific mechanism. To identify the invading foreign nucleic acid, a crRNA that matches the invader DNA is required, as well as a short sequence motif called protospacer adjacent motif (PAM). We recently identified the PAM sequences for the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii, and found that several motifs were active in triggering the defense reaction. In contrast, selection of protospacers from the invader seems to be based on fewer PAM sequences, as evidenced by comparative sequence data. This suggests that the selection of protospacers has stricter requirements than the defense reaction. Comparison of CRISPR-repeat sequences carried by sequenced haloarchaea revealed that in more than half of the species, the repeat sequence is conserved and that they have the same CRISPR/Cas type.
Haloferax volcanii; CRISPR/Cas; PAM; archaea; prokaryotic immune system; haloarchaea
Changes in metabolic and myofilament phenotypes coincide in developing hearts. Posttranslational modification of sarcomere proteins influences contractility, affecting the energetic cost of contraction. However, metabolic adaptations to sarcomeric phenotypes are not well understood, particularly during pathophysiological stress. This study explored metabolic adaptations to expression of the fetal, slow skeletal muscle troponin I (ssTnI). Hearts expressing ssTnI exhibited no significant ATP loss during 5 minutes of global ischemia, while non-transgenic littermates (NTG) showed continual ATP loss. At 7 min ischemia TG-ssTnI hearts retained 80±12% of ATP vs. 49±6% in NTG (P<0.05). Hearts expressing ssTnI also had increased AMPK phosphorylation. The mechanism of ATP preservation was augmented glycolysis. Glycolytic end products (lactate and alanine) were 38% higher in TG-ssTnI than NTG at 2 min and 27% higher at 5 min. This additional glycolysis was supported exclusively by exogenous glucose, and not glycogen. Thus, expression of a fetal myofilament protein in adult mouse hearts induced elevated anaerobic ATP production during ischemia via metabolic adaptations consistent with the resistance to hypoxia of fetal hearts. The general findings hold important relevance to both our current understanding of the association between metabolic and contractile phenotypes and the potential for invoking cardioprotective mechanisms against ischemic stress.
Troponin; Glycolysis; Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP); AMP Activated Protein Kinase, (AMPK); NMR Spectroscopy
Non-coding RNAs are key players in many cellular processes within organisms from all three domains of life. The range and diversity of small RNA functions beyond their involvement in translation and RNA processing was first recognized for eukaryotes and bacteria. Since then, small RNAs were also found to be abundant in archaea. Their functions include the regulation of gene expression and the establishment of immunity against invading mobile genetic elements. This review summarizes our current knowledge about small RNAs used for regulation and defence in archaea.
sRNA; Lsm; Hfq; Archaea; CRISPR; crRNA
Background: CRISPR/Cas systems allow archaea and bacteria to resist invasion by foreign nucleic acids.
Results: The CRISPR/Cas system in Haloferax recognized six different PAM sequences that could trigger a defense response.
Conclusion: The PAM sequence specificity of the defense response in type I CRISPR systems is more relaxed than previously thought.
Significance: The PAM sequence requirements for interference and adaptation appear to differ markedly.
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system provides adaptive and heritable immunity against foreign genetic elements in most archaea and many bacteria. Although this system is widespread and diverse with many subtypes, only a few species have been investigated to elucidate the precise mechanisms for the defense of viruses or plasmids. Approximately 90% of all sequenced archaea encode CRISPR/Cas systems, but their molecular details have so far only been examined in three archaeal species: Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus islandicus, and Pyrococcus furiosus. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR/Cas system of Haloferax volcanii using a plasmid-based invader assay. Haloferax encodes a type I-B CRISPR/Cas system with eight Cas proteins and three CRISPR loci for which the identity of protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) was unknown until now. We identified six different PAM sequences that are required upstream of the protospacer to permit target DNA recognition. This is only the second archaeon for which PAM sequences have been determined, and the first CRISPR group with such a high number of PAM sequences. Cells could survive the plasmid challenge if their CRISPR/Cas system was altered or defective, e.g. by deletion of the cas gene cassette. Experimental PAM data were supplemented with bioinformatics data on Haloferax and Haloquadratum.
Archaea; Microbiology; RNA; RNA Metabolism; RNA Processing; CRISPR/Cas; Haloferax volcanii; PAM
Risk of pancreatic cancer, the fourth deadliest cancer in the U.S., is increased by obesity. Calorie restriction (CR) prevents obesity, suppresses carcinogenesis in many models, and reduces serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. In the present study, we examined the impact of CR on a model of inflammation-associated pancreatitis and pancreatic dysplasia, with a focus on the mechanistic contribution of systemic IGF-1. Administration of a 30% CR diet for 14 weeks decreased serum IGF-1 and hindered pancreatic ductal lesion formation and dysplastic severity, relative to a higher calorie control diet, in transgenic mice overexpressing cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (BK5.COX-2). These findings in CR mice correlated with reductions in Ki-67-positive cells, vascular luminal size, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and phosphorylation and total expression of downstream mediators of the IGF-1 pathway. Cell lines derived from BK5.COX-2 ductal lesions (JC101cells) formed pancreatic tumors in wild-type FVB mice that were significantly reduced in size by a 14-week CR regimen, relative to the control diet. To further understand the impact of circulating levels of IGF-1 on tumor growth in this model, we orthotopically injected JC101 cells into liver-specific IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice. The ~65% reduction of serum IGF-1 in LID mice resulted in significantly decreased burden of JC101 tumors, despite modestly elevated levels of circulating insulin and leptin. These data show that CR prevents development of dysplasia and growth of pancreatic cancer through alterations in IGF-1, suggesting that modulation of this pathway with dietary and/or pharmacologic interventions is a promising pancreatic cancer prevention strategy.
Pancreatic cancer; Calorie restriction; Insulin-like growth factor-1; Energy balance; pancreatitis; BK5.COX-2
Etiologic factors for pancreatic cancer, the fourth deadliest malignant neoplasm in the United States, include obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism. Calorie restriction (CR) and rapamycin each affect energy metabolism and cell survival pathways via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Using a Panc02 murine pancreatic cancer cell transplant model in 45 male C57BL/6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that rapamycin mimics the effects of CR on pancreatic tumor growth. A chronic regimen of CR, relative to an ad libitum-fed control diet, produced global metabolic effects such as reduced body weight (20.6±1.6g vs. 29.3±2.3g; p<0.0001), improved glucose responsiveness, and decreased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 (126±8ng/mL vs. 199±11ng/mL; p=0.0006) and leptin (1.14±0.2 ng/mL vs. 5.05±1.2 ng/mL; p=0.01). In contrast, rapamycin treatment (2.5mg/kg i.p. every other day, initiated in mice following 20 weeks of ad libitum control diet consumption), relative to control diet, produced no significant change in body weight, IGF-1 or leptin levels, but decreased glucose responsiveness. Pancreatic tumor volume was significantly reduced in the CR group (221±107mm3; p<0.001) and, to a lesser extent, the rapamycin group (374±206mm3; p=0.04) relative to controls (550±147mm3), and this differential inhibition correlated with expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. Both CR and rapamycin decreased phosphorylation of mTOR, p70/S6K and S6 ribosomal protein, but only CR decreased phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, ERK/MAPK, and STAT-3TYR705. These findings suggest rapamycin partially mimics the anticancer effects of calorie restriction on tumor growth in a murine model of pancreatic cancer.
Pancreatic cancer; Calorie restriction; Rapamycin; Insulin-like growth factor-1; IGF-1; Energy balance; mammalian target of rapamycin; mTOR
Testosterone is necessary for the development of male pattern baldness, known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA); yet, the mechanisms for decreased hair growth in this disorder are unclear. We show that prostaglandin D2 synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA. The product of PTGDS enzyme activity, prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), is similarly elevated in bald scalp. During normal follicle cycling in mice, Ptgds and PGD2 levels increase immediately preceding the regression phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect on hair growth. We show that PGD2 inhibits hair growth in explanted human hair follicles and when applied topically to mice. Hair growth inhibition requires the PGD2 receptor G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide)–coupled receptor 44 (GPR44), but not the PGD2 receptor 1 (PTGDR). Furthermore, we find that a transgenic mouse, K14-Ptgs2, which targets prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 expression to the skin, demonstrates elevated levels of PGD2 in the skin and develops alopecia, follicular miniaturization, and sebaceous gland hyperplasia, which are all hallmarks of human AGA. These results define PGD2 as an inhibitor of hair growth in AGA and suggest the PGD2-GPR44 pathway as a potential target for treatment.
The metallo-β-lactamase family of enzymes comprises a large group of proteins with diverse functions in the metabolism of the cell. Among others, this superfamily contains proteins which are involved in DNA and RNA metabolism, acting as nucleases in e.g. repair and maturation. Many proteins have been annotated in prokaryotic genomes as being potential metallo-β-lactamases, but very often the function has not been proven. The protein HVO_2763 from Haloferax volcanii is such a potential metallo-β-lactamase. HVO_2763 has sequence similarity to the metallo-β-lactamase tRNase Z, a tRNA 3′ processing endonuclease. Here, we report the characterisation of this metallo-β-lactamase HVO_2763 in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. Using different in vitro assays with the recombinant HVO_2763, we could show that the protein does not have tRNA 3′ processing or exonuclease activity. According to transcriptome analyses of the HVO_2763 deletion strain, expression of proteins involved in membrane transport is downregulated in the mutant. Therefore, HVO_2763 might be involved directly or indirectly in membrane transport.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00792-012-0433-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Metallo-β-lactamase; tRNase Z; Haloferax volcanii; PhnP; HVO_2763
Many tumor cells have elevated rates of glucose uptake that can be measured quantitatively, noninvasively and repeatedly by positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). Clinical imaging with 18F-FDG PET has been used for detection and staging of primary and metastatic tumors. High-resolution microPET scanning and murine cancer models make it possible to analyze longitudinally glucose metabolism during the appearance, development and progression of individual experimental tumors. In this study, we used 18F-FDG microPET and micro computerized tomography (microCT) to investigate glucose uptake in the DMBA/TPA chemically-induced multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. 18F-FDG uptake is significantly higher in all papillomas than in surrounding skin. Elevated 18F-FDG uptake is observed when tumors can be identified morphologically, but not before. Although 18F-FDG uptake is high in all fully invasive, malignant skin squamous cell carcinomas, uptake in papillomas and microinvasive malignant squamous cell carcinomas is variable and does not exhibit any correlation with tumor stage.
glucose metabolism; PET; skin cancer; molecular imaging; fluorodeoxyglucose
In this report, we describe the development of a transgenic mouse in which a rat probasin promoter (ARR2Pb) was used to direct prostate specific expression of a constitutively active form of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (i.e., Stat3C). ARR2Pb.Stat3C mice exhibited hyperplasia and prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions in both ventral and dorsolateral prostate lobes at 6 and 12 months; however, no adenocarcinomas were detected. The effect of combined loss of PTEN was examined by crossing ARR2Pb.Stat3C mice with PTEN+/- null mice. PTEN+/- null mice on an ICR genetic background developed only hyperplasia and PIN at 6 and 12 months, respectively. ARR2Pb.Stat3C x PTEN+/- mice exhibited a more severe prostate phenotype compared with ARR2Pb.Stat3C and PTEN+/- mice. ARR2Pb.Stat3C x PTEN+/- mice developed adenocarcinomas in the ventral prostate as early as 6 months (22% incidence) that reached an incidence of 61% by 12 months. Further evaluations indicated that phospho-Stat3, phospho-Akt, phospho-nuclear factor κB, cyclin D1, and Ki67 were upregulated in adenocarcinomas from ARR2Pb.Stat3C x PTEN+/- mice. In addition, membrane staining for β-catenin and E-cadherin was reduced. The changes in Stat3 and nuclear factor κB phosphorylation correlated most closely with tumor progression. Collectively, these data provide evidence that Stat3 and Akt signaling cooperate in prostate cancer development and progression and that ARR2Pb.Stat3C x PTEN+/- mice represent a novel mouse model of prostate cancer to study these interactions.
Multiple molecular mechanisms are involved in the promotion of skin carcinogenesis. Induction of sustained proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia by direct activation of mitotic signaling pathways or indirectly in response to chronic wounding and/or inflammation, or due to a block in terminal differentiation or resistance to apoptosis is necessary to allow clonal expansion of initiated cells with DNA mutations to form skin tumors. The mitotic pathways include activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Chronic inflammation results in inflammatory cell secretion of growth factors and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species, all of which can stimulate proliferation. Persistent activation of these pathways leads to tumor promotion.
skin carcinogenesis; tumor promoters; 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA); protein kinase C (PKC); epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ); tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα); interleukins; cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); ornithine decarboxylase (ODC)
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-delta (PPAR-δ) is overexpressed in human colon cancer, but its contribution to colonic tumorigenesis is controversial. We generated a mouse model in which PPAR-δ was genetically disrupted in colonic epithelial cells by targeted deletion of exon 4. Elimination of colon-specific PPAR-δ expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and activity assays. Mice with and without targeted PPAR-δ genetic disruption (10–11 mice per group) were tested for incidence of azoxymethane-induced colon tumors. The effects of targeted PPAR-δ deletion on vascular endothelial growth factor expression were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Targeted PPAR-δ genetic disruption inhibited colonic carcinogenesis: Mice with PPAR-δ(−/−) colons developed 98.5% fewer tumors than wild-type mice (PPAR-δ(−/−) vs wild-type, mean = 0.1 tumors per mouse vs 6.6 tumors per mouse, difference = 6.5 tumors per mouse, 95% confidence interval = 4.9 to 8.0 tumors per mouse, P < .001, two-sided test). Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in colon tumors vs normal colon was suppressed by loss of PPAR-δ expression. These findings indicate that PPAR-δ has a crucial role in promoting colonic tumorigenesis.
Expression of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) inhibits gastrointestinal tumorigenesis in NAG-1 transgenic mice (C57/BL6 background). In the present study, we investigated whether NAG-1 protein would alter urethane-induced pulmonary lesions in NAG-1 transgenic mice on an FVB background (NAG-1Tg+/FVB). NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice had both decreased number and size of urethane-induced tumors, compared to control littermates (NAG-1Tg+/FVB = 16 ± 4 per mouse versus control = 20 ± 7 per mouse, p<0.05). Urethane-induced pulmonary adenomas (PAs) and adenocarcinomas (PACs) were observed in control mice, but only PAs were observed in NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice. Urethane-induced tumors from control littermates and NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice highly expressed proteins in the arachidonic acid pathway (cyclooxygenases 1/2, prostaglandin E synthase, and prostaglandin E2 receptor) and highly activated several kinases (phospho-Raf-1 and phospho-ERK1/2). However, only urethane-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation was decreased in NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice. Furthermore, significantly increased apoptosis in tumors of NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice compared to control mice was observed as assessed by caspase 3/7 activity. In addition, fewer inflammatory cells were observed in the lung tissue isolated from urethane-treated NAG-1Tg+/FVB mice compared to control mice. These results paralleled in vitro assays using human A549 pulmonary carcinoma cells. Less phosphorylated p38 MAPK was observed in cells over-expressing NAG-1, compared to control cells. Overall, our study revealed for the first time that NAG-1 protein inhibits urethane-induced tumor formation, probably mediated by the p38 MAPK pathway, and is a possible new target for lung cancer chemoprevention.
NAG-1; lung tumorigenesis; p38 MAPK; apoptosis; inflammation
Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown by pharmacological and genetic studies to be important in skin cancer, the molecular mechanism(s) by which it contributes to tumor growth is not well understood. In this study we investigated the mechanisms by which PGE2 stimulates murine keratinocyte proliferation using in vitro and in vivo models. In primary mouse keratinocyte (PMK) cultures, PGE2 activated the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling pathways as well as increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and activated the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). EGFR activation was not significantly inhibited by pretreatment with a c-src inhibitor (PP2), nor by a protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89). However, PGE2-stimulated extracellularly-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was completely blocked by EGFR, ERK1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway inhibitors. In addition, these inhibitors attenuated the PGE2-induced proliferation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and CREB binding to the promoter regions of the cyclin D1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF in PMKs. Similarly, in vivo, we found that wild type (WT) mice treated with PGE2 and untreated COX-2 overexpressing transgenic mice had higher levels of cell proliferation and expression of cyclin D1 and VEGF, as well as higher levels of activated EGFR, NF-κB, AP-1 and CREB, than vehicle-treated WT mice. Our findings provide evidence for a link between COX-2 overexpression and EGFR-, ERK-, PI3-K-, cAMP-mediated cell proliferation, and the tumor promoting activity of PGE2 in mouse skin.
A large body of studies has suggested that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligands, such as thiazolidinedione, are potent candidates for chemopreventive agents. MCC-555 is a PPARγ/α dual agonist and has been previously shown to induce apoptosis in vitro; however, the molecular mechanisms by which MCC-555 affects anti-tumorigenesis in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic effects of MCC-555 both in cell culture and in Apc-deficient mice, an animal model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. MCC-555 increased MUC2 expression in colorectal and lung cancer cells, and treatment with the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 revealed that MUC2 induction by MCC-555 was mediated in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Moreover, MCC-555 increased transcriptional activity of human and mouse MUC2 promoters. Subsequently, treatment with MCC-555 (30 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks reduced the number of small intestinal polyps to 54.8% of that in control mice. In agreement with in vitro studies, enhanced Muc2 expression was observed in the small intestinal tumors of Min mice treated with MCC-555, suggesting that MUC2 expression may be associated at least in part with the anti-tumorigenic action of MCC-555. In addition, highly phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was found in the intestinal tumors of MCC-555-treated Min mice, and inhibition of the ERK pathway by a specific inhibitor markedly suppressed MCC-555-induced Muc2 expression in vitro. Overall, these results indicate that MCC-555 has a potent tumor suppressor activity in intestinal tumorigenesis, likely involving MUC2 up-regulation by ERK and PPARγ pathways.
MCC-555; colorectal cancer; ApcMin/+ mice; MUC2; PPARs; ERK pathway
Urothelial differentiation is essential for the maintenance of urinary bladder function. We explored expression and function of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) during urothelial differentiation.
Expression of PGDH was evaluated by Northern and Western blotting and immunostaining in human urothelial cultures, cell lines and tissues. Enzymatic function was determined using enyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Small inhibitory ribonucleic acids were used to inhibit PGDH expression in human bladder cancer cells.
PGDH messenger ribonucleic acid was increased in an in vitro model of human urothelial differentiation by Northern blotting. Western blotting of human bladder cancer cell lines showed expression in the well-differentiated RT4 cells, and no expression in poorly-differentiated UC3 cells. Immunostaining showed that PGDH expression increased with differentiation in normal bladder urothelium. The enzyme is functional in the well-differentiated RT4 human bladder cancer cell line. Inhibition of PGDH expression results in disruption of E-cadherin expression at cell-cell contacts in well-differentiated RT4 bladder cancer cells.
These studies indicate that PGDH expression is associated with urothelial differentiation, and loss of PGDH expression results in disruption of urothelial differentiation.
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression is an established factor linking chronic inflammation with metaplastic and neoplastic change in various tissues. We generated transgenic mice (BK5.COX-2) in which elevation of COX-2 and its effectors trigger a metaplasia-dysplasia sequence in exocrine pancreas. Histologic evaluation revealed a chronic pancreatitis-like state characterized by acinar-to-ductal metaplasia and a well-vascularized fibroinflammatory stroma that develops by 3 months. By 6 to 8 months, strongly dysplastic features suggestive of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma emerge in the metaplastic ducts. Increased proliferation, cellular atypia, and loss of normal cell/tissue organization are typical features in transgenic pancreata. Alterations in biomarkers associated with human inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic disease were detected using immunohistochemistry. The abnormal pancreatic phenotype can be completely prevented by maintaining mice on a diet containing celecoxib, a well-characterized COX-2 inhibitor. Despite the high degree of atypia, only limited evidence of invasion to adjacent tissues was observed, with no evidence of distant metastases. However, cell lines derived from spontaneous lesions are aggressively tumorigenic when injected into syngeneic or nude mice. The progressive nature of the metaplastic/dysplastic changes observed in this model make it a valuable tool for examining the transition from chronic inflammation to neoplasia.
While it has been established that both the constitutive and inducible forms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2, respectively) play important roles in chemical initiation-promotion protocols with phorbol ester tumor promoters, the contribution of these two enzymes to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced skin tumors has not been fully assessed. To better understand the contribution of COX-1 and COX-2 to UV carcinogenesis, we transferred the null allele for each isoform onto the SKH-1 hairless strain of mouse. Due to low viability on this background with complete knockout of COX-2, heterozygous mice were used in UV carcinogenesis experiments. While the lack of one allele of COX-1 had no effect on tumor outcome, the lack of one allele of COX-2 resulted in a 50–65% reduction in tumor multiplicity and a marked decrease in tumor size. Additionally, transgenic SKH-1 mice that overexpress COX-2 under the control of a keratin 14 promoter developed 70% more tumors than wild-type SKH-1 mice. The lack of one allele of either COX-1 or COX-2 reduced prostaglandin (PG) E2 levels in response to a single UV treatment. The proliferative response to UV was significantly reduced in COX-2, but not COX-1, heterozygous mice. UV-induced apoptosis, however, was greater in COX-2 heterozygous mice. Collectively, these results clearly establish the requirement for COX-2 in the development of skin tumors.
COX-2; prostaglandins; UV carcinogenesis
Terminal differentiation is an important event for maintaining normal homeostasis in the colorectal epithelium, and the loss of apoptosis is an important mechanism underlying colorectal tumorigenesis. The very limited current data on the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolism in tumorigenesis suggest that the oxidative metabolism of linoleic and arachidonic acid possibly shifts from producing antitumorigenic 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 products to producing pro-tumorigenic 5-LOX and 12-LOX products. We examined whether this shift occurs in vitro in the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2 in association with the loss of terminal differentiation and apoptosis or in vivo during the formation of colorectal adenomas in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Restoring terminal differentiation and apoptosis of Caco-2 cells increased mRNA levels of 5-LOX, 15-LOX-2 and 15-LOX-1, but the only significant increases in protein expression and enzymatic activity were of 15-LOX-1. In FAP patients, 15-LOX-1 expression and activity were significantly down-regulated in adenomas (versus in paired non-neoplastic epithelial mucosa), whereas 5-LOX and 15-LOX-2 protein expressions and enzymatic activities were not. We conducted a validation study with immunohistochemical testing in a second group of FAP patients; 15-LOX-1 expression was down-regulated in colorectal adenomas (versus in non-neoplastic epithelial mucosa) in 87% (13/15) of this group. We confirmed the mechanistic relevance of these findings by demonstrating that ectopically restoring 15-LOX-1 expression re-established apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, 15-LOX-1 down-regulation rather than a shift in the balance of LOXs is likely the dominant alteration in LOX metabolism that contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis through repressing apoptosis.
Lipoxygenases; colon cancer; apoptosis
Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that strongly influence molecular events in normal and cancer cells. PPAR-beta/delta overexpression suppresses the activity of PPAR-gamma and -alpha. This interaction has been questioned, however, by studies with synthetic ligands of PPARs in PPAR-beta/delta–null cells, and it is not known whether an interaction between PPAR-beta/delta and -gamma exists, especially in relation to the signaling by natural PPAR ligands. Oxidative metabolites of linoleic and arachidonic acids are natural ligands of PPARs. 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-S-HODE), the main product of 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) metabolism of linoleic acid, downregulates PPAR-beta/delta. We tested (a) whether PPAR-beta/delta expression modulates PPAR-gamma activity in experimental models of the loss and gain of PPAR-beta/delta function in colon cancer cells and (b) whether 15-LOX-1 formation of 13-S-HODE influences the interaction between PPAR-beta/delta and PPAR-gamma. We found that (a) 15-LOX-1 formation of 13-S-HODE promoted PPAR-gamma activity, (b) PPAR-beta/delta expression suppressed PPAR-gamma activity in models of both loss and gain of PPAR-beta/delta function, (c) 15-LOX-1 activated PPAR-gamma by downregulating PPAR-beta/delta , and (d) 15-LOX-1 expression induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells via modulating PPAR-beta/delta suppression of PPAR-gamma. These findings elucidate a novel mechanism of the signaling by natural ligands of PPARs, which involves modulating the interaction between PPAR-beta/delta and PPAR-gamma.
Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug, inhibited cytokine-induced production of NO and the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in human U373MG astroglial cells and primary astrocytes. Similar to gemfibrozil, clofibrate, another fibrate drug, also inhibited the expression of iNOS. Inhibition of human iNOS promoter-driven luciferase activity by gemfibrozil in cytokine-stimulated U373MG astroglial cells suggests that this compound inhibits the transcription of iNOS. Since gemfibrozil is known to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), we investigated the role of PPAR-α in gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of iNOS. Gemfibrozil induced peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE)-dependent luciferase activity, which was inhibited by the expression of ΔhPPAR-α, the dominant-negative mutant of human PPAR-α. However, ΔhPPAR-α was unable to abrogate gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of iNOS suggesting that gemfibrozil inhibits iNOS independent of PPAR-α. The human iNOS promoter contains consensus sequences for the binding of transcription factors, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ) regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) binding to interferon-stimulated responsive element (ISRE), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) binding to γ-activation site (GAS), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ); therefore, we investigated the effect of gemfibrozil on the activation of these transcription factors. The combination of interleukin (IL)-1β and IFN-γ induced the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, C/EBPβ, and GAS but not that of ISRE, suggesting that IRF-1 may not be involved in cytokine-induced expression of iNOS in human astrocytes. Interestingly, gemfibrozil strongly inhibited the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and C/EBPβ but not that of GAS in cytokine-stimulated astroglial cells. These results suggest that gemfibrozil inhibits the induction of iNOS probably by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and C/EBPβ and that gemfibrozil, a prescribed drug for humans, may further find its therapeutic use in neuroinflammatory diseases.
A study was carried out to investigate the impact of a computerized drug prescription monitoring system (the MSIS Drug Exception Reporting System) on clinicians' prescribing behaviors and their knowledge of pharmacotherapy. Thirty-one clinicians exposed only to a computerized drug order system (controls), and 42 exposed, in addition, to computerized monitoring (experimental), were sampled from New York State doctors working in either psychiatric or developmental disability centers. Comparisons were made of their drug prescribing behaviors and knowledge of drug prescribing. Assessments were made early on in the use of the system(s) (pre), and after the system(s) had been in use for some time (post). It was shown that computerized monitoring can have an impact on the prescribing behaviors of clinicians who work in institutional settings, acting to significantly reduce the number of orders written in exception to guidelines. Only slight changes in clinicians' knowledge about pharmacotherapy were attributed to the use of the monitoring system. Clinicians retained the position that clinicians should be monitored and that guidelines are necessary.