Bacterial secondary metabolites are widely used as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, insecticides and food additives. Attempts to engineer their biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) to produce unnatural metabolites with improved properties are often frustrated by the unpredictability and complexity of the enzymes that synthesize these molecules, suggesting that genetic changes within BGCs are limited by specific constraints. Here, by performing a systematic computational analysis of BGC evolution, we derive evidence for three findings that shed light on the ways in which, despite these constraints, nature successfully invents new molecules: 1) BGCs for complex molecules often evolve through the successive merger of smaller sub-clusters, which function as independent evolutionary entities. 2) An important subset of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases evolve by concerted evolution, which generates sets of sequence-homogenized domains that may hold promise for engineering efforts since they exhibit a high degree of functional interoperability, 3) Individual BGC families evolve in distinct ways, suggesting that design strategies should take into account family-specific functional constraints. These findings suggest novel strategies for using synthetic biology to rationally engineer biosynthetic pathways.
Bacterial secondary metabolites mediate a broad range of microbe-microbe and microbe-host interactions, and are widely used in human medicine, agriculture and manufacturing. Despite recent advances in synthetic biology, efforts to engineer their biosynthetic genes for the production of unnatural variants are frustrated by a high failure rate. In an effort to better understand what types of genetic changes are most likely to lead to successful improvements, we systematically analyzed the ways in which biosynthetic genes naturally evolve to generate new compounds. We show that large gene clusters appear to evolve through the merger of sub-clusters, which function independently, and are promising units for cluster engineering. Moreover, a subset of gene clusters evolve by concerted evolution, which generates sets of interoperable domains that may enable predictable domain swapping. Finally, many biosynthetic gene clusters evolve in family-specific modes that differ greatly from each other. Overall, this quantitative perspective on the ways in which gene clusters naturally evolve suggests novel strategies for using synthetic biology to engineer the production of unnatural metabolites.
Our skin is home to a rich community of microorganisms. Recent advances in sequencing technology have allowed more accurate enumeration of these human-associated microbiota and investigation of their genomic content. Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium represent the dominant bacterial genera on skin and illustrate how bacteria adapt to life in this harsh environment and also provide us with unique benefits. In healthy states, our skin peacefully co-exists with commensal bacteria while fending off potentially dangerous invaders. Disruption of this equilibrium, termed “dysbiosis”, can result from changes in the composition of our skin bacteria, an altered immune response to them, or both and may be a driving factor in certain types of inflammatory skin disease. Engineering topical therapeutics to favourably influence the composition of our skin flora and optimize interactions with them represents a real therapeutic opportunity for the field of dermatology and warrants additional investigation into skin microbial ecology and disease mechanisms related to host-microbe dysbiosis.
Long-term diet influences the structure and activity of the trillions of
microorganisms residing in the human gut1–5, but it
remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds
to short-term macronutrient change. Here, we show that the short-term
consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters
microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in
microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of
bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and
Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that
metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium
rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial
activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous
trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes
from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and
even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of
Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a
link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms
capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease6. In concert, these results demonstrate that the
gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the
diversity of human dietary lifestyles.
The majority of bacteria detected in the nostril microbiota of most healthy adults belong to three genera: Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus. Among these staphylococci is the medically important bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Almost nothing is known about interspecies interactions among bacteria in the nostrils. We observed that crude extracts of cell-free conditioned medium from Propionibacterium spp. induce S. aureus aggregation in culture. Bioassay-guided fractionation implicated coproporphyrin III (CIII), the most abundant extracellular porphyrin produced by human-associated Propionibacterium spp., as a cause of S. aureus aggregation. This aggregation response depended on the CIII dose and occurred during early stationary-phase growth, and a low pH (~4 to 6) was necessary but was not sufficient for its induction. Additionally, CIII induced plasma-independent S. aureus biofilm development on an abiotic surface in multiple S. aureus strains. In strain UAMS-1, CIII stimulation of biofilm depended on sarA, a key biofilm regulator. This study is one of the first demonstrations of a small-molecule-mediated interaction among medically relevant members of the nostril microbiota and the first description of a role for CIII in bacterial interspecies interactions. Our results indicate that CIII may be an important mediator of S. aureus aggregation and/or biofilm formation in the nostril or other sites inhabited by Propionibacterium spp. and S. aureus.
Very little is known about interspecies interactions among the bacteria that inhabit the adult nostril, including Staphylococcus aureus, a potential pathogen that colonizes about a quarter of adults. We demonstrated that coproporphyrin III (CIII), a diffusible small molecule excreted by nostril- and skin-associated Propionibacterium spp., induces S. aureus aggregation in a manner dependent on dose, growth phase, and pH. CIII also induces S. aureus to form a plasma-independent surface-attached biofilm. This report is the first description of a role for CIII in bacterial interspecies interactions at any human body site and a novel demonstration that nostril microbiota physiology is influenced by small-molecule-mediated interactions.
Elizabeth Sattely, Anne Osbourn, and colleagues discuss in this Essay four long-standing challenges in plant metabolic engineering: to create plants that provide their own nitrogen, have improved nutrient content, function better as biofuels, and have increased photosynthetic efficiency.
Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field.
Experimental efforts to characterize the human microbiota often use bacterial strains that were chosen for historical rather than biological reasons. Here, we report an analysis of 380 whole-genome shotgun samples from 100 subjects from the NIH Human Microbiome Project. By mapping their reads to 1,751 reference genome sequences and analyzing the resulting relative strain abundance in each sample we present metrics and visualizations that can help identify strains of interest for experimentalists. We also show that approximately 14 strains of 10 species account for 80% of the mapped reads from a typical stool sample, indicating that the function of a community may not be irreducibly complex. Some of these strains account for >20% of the sequence reads in a subset of samples but are absent in others, a dichotomy that could underlie biological differences among subjects. These data should serve as an important strain selection resource for the community of researchers who take experimental approaches to studying the human microbiota.
This review presents recommended nomenclature for the biosynthesis of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs), a rapidly growing class of natural products. The current knowledge regarding the biosynthesis of the >20 distinct compound classes is also reviewed, and commonalities are discussed.
The switch from culture-based enumeration to deep sequencing has enabled microbial community composition to be profiled en masse. In a new article, Maurice et al. (2013) report the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to perform a high-throughput analysis of gut microbiota community function.
Bacteria construct elaborate nanostructures, obtain nutrients and energy from diverse sources, synthesize complex molecules, and implement signal processing to react to their environment. These complex phenotypes require the coordinated action of multiple genes, which are often encoded in a contiguous region of the genome, referred to as a gene cluster. Gene clusters sometimes contain all of the genes necessary and sufficient for a particular function. As an evolutionary mechanism, gene clusters facilitate the horizontal transfer of the complete function between species. Here, we review recent work on a number of clusters whose functions are relevant to biotechnology. Engineering these clusters has been hindered by their regulatory complexity, the need to balance the expression of many genes, and a lack of tools to design and manipulate DNA at this scale. Advances in synthetic biology will enable the large-scale bottom-up engineering of the clusters to optimize their functions, wake up cryptic clusters, or to transfer them between organisms. Understanding and manipulating gene clusters will move towards an era of genome engineering, where multiple functions can be “mixed-and-matched” to create a designer organism.
Systems Biology; Genetic Parts; Devices; Refactoring; Biotechnology
Guadinomines are a recently discovered family of anti-infective compounds produced by Streptomyces sp. K01-0509 with a novel mode of action. With an IC50 of 14 nM, guadinomine B is the most potent known inhibitor of the Type III Secretion System (TTSS) of Gram-negative bacteria. TTSS activity is required for the virulence of many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., Chlamydia spp., Vibrio spp., and Pseudomonas spp. The guadinomine (gdn) biosynthetic gene cluster has been cloned and sequenced, and includes 26 open reading frames spanning 51.2 kb. It encodes a chimeric multimodular polyketide synthase – nonribosomal peptide synthetase, along with enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the unusual aminomalonyl-ACP extender unit and the signature carbamoylated cyclic guanidine. Its identity was established by targeted disruption of the gene cluster, as well as by heterologous expression and analysis of key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway. Identifying the guadinomine gene cluster provides critical insight into the biosynthesis of these scarce but potentially important natural products.
Two decades ago, the pharmaceutical industry—long dominated by small-molecule drugs—was revolutionized by the the advent of biologics. Today, biomedicine sits on the cusp of a new revolution: the use of microbial and human cells as versatile therapeutic engines. Here, we discuss the promise of this “third pillar” of therapeutics in the context of current scientific, regulatory, economic, and perceptual challenges. History suggests that the advent of cellular medicines will require the development of a foundational cellular engineering science that provides a systematic framework for safely and predictably altering and regulating cellular behaviors.
Many microbes can be cultured as single-species communities. Often, these colonies are controlled and maintained via the secretion of metabolites. Such metabolites have been an invaluable resource for the discovery of therapeutics (e.g. penicillin, taxol, rapamycin, epothilone). In this article, written for a special issue on imaging mass spectrometry, we show that MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry can be adapted to observe, in a spatial manner, the metabolic exchange patterns of a diverse array of microbes, including thermophilic and mesophilic fungi, cyanobacteria, marine and terrestrial actinobacteria, and pathogenic bacteria. Dependent on media conditions, on average and based on manual analysis, we observed 11.3 molecules associated with each microbial IMS experiment, which was split nearly 50:50 between secreted and colony-associated molecules. The spatial distributions of these metabolic exchange factors are related to the biological and ecological functions of the organisms. This work establishes that MALDI-based IMS can be used as a general tool to study a diverse array of microbes. Furthermore the article forwards the notion of the IMS platform as a window to discover previously unreported molecules by monitoring the metabolic exchange patterns of organisms when grown on agar substrates.
A common human gut bacterium, Bacteroides fragilis, produces a sphingolipid ligand for the conserved host receptor CD1d and can modulate natural killer T cell activity.
While the human gut microbiota are suspected to produce diffusible small molecules that modulate host signaling pathways, few of these molecules have been identified. Species of Bacteroides and their relatives, which often comprise >50% of the gut community, are unusual among bacteria in that their membrane is rich in sphingolipids, a class of signaling molecules that play a key role in inducing apoptosis and modulating the host immune response. Although known for more than three decades, the full repertoire of Bacteroides sphingolipids has not been defined. Here, we use a combination of genetics and chemistry to identify the sphingolipids produced by Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. We constructed a deletion mutant of BF2461, a putative serine palmitoyltransferase whose yeast homolog catalyzes the committed step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. We show that the Δ2461 mutant is sphingolipid deficient, enabling us to purify and solve the structures of three alkaline-stable lipids present in the wild-type strain but absent from the mutant. The first compound was the known sphingolipid ceramide phosphorylethanolamine, and the second was its corresponding dihydroceramide base. Unexpectedly, the third compound was the glycosphingolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCerBf), which is structurally related to a sponge-derived sphingolipid (α-GalCer, KRN7000) that is the prototypical agonist of CD1d-restricted natural killer T (iNKT) cells. We demonstrate that α-GalCerBf has similar immunological properties to KRN7000: it binds to CD1d and activates both mouse and human iNKT cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our study reveals BF2461 as the first known member of the Bacteroides sphingolipid pathway, and it indicates that the committed steps of the Bacteroides and eukaryotic sphingolipid pathways are identical. Moreover, our data suggest that some Bacteroides sphingolipids might influence host immune homeostasis.
While human gut bacteria are thought to produce diffusible molecules that influence host biology, few of these molecules have been identified. Species of Bacteroides, a Gram-negative bacterial genus whose members often comprise >50% of the gut community, are unusual in that they produce sphingolipids, signaling molecules that play a key role in modulating the host immune response. Sphingolipid production is ubiquitous among eukaryotes but present in only a few bacterial genera. We set out to construct a Bacteroides strain that is incapable of producing sphingolipids, knocking out a gene predicted to encode the first enzymatic step in the Bacteroides sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. The resulting mutant is indeed deficient in sphingolipid production, and we purified and solved the structures of three sphingolipids that are present in the wild-type strain but absent in the mutant. To our surprise, one of these molecules is a close chemical relative of a sponge sphingolipid that is the prototypical ligand for a host receptor that controls the activity of natural killer T cells. Like the sponge sphingolipid, the Bacteroides sphingolipid can modulate natural killer T cell activity, suggesting a novel mechanism by which Bacteroides in the gut might influence the host immune response.
The communities constituting our microbiotas are emerging as mediators of the health-disease continuum. However, deciphering the functional impact of microbial communities on host pathophysiology represents a formidable challenge, due to the heterogeneous distribution of chemical and microbial species within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Herein, we apply imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to localize metabolites from the interaction between the host and colonizing microbiota. This approach complements other molecular imaging methodologies in that analytes need not be known a priori, offering the possibility of untargeted analysis. Localized molecules within the GI tract were then identified in situ by surface sampling with nano-desorption electrospray ionization (nanoDESI) FT-MS. Products from diverse structural classes were identified including cholesterol-derived lipids, glycans, and polar metabolites. Specific chemical transformations performed by the microbiota were validated with bacteria in culture. This study illustrates how untargeted spatial characterization of metabolites can be applied to the molecular dissection of complex biology in situ.
Microbial secondary metabolites are a potent source of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals. Genome mining of their biosynthetic gene clusters has become a key method to accelerate their identification and characterization. In 2011, we developed antiSMASH, a web-based analysis platform that automates this process. Here, we present the highly improved antiSMASH 2.0 release, available at http://antismash.secondarymetabolites.org/. For the new version, antiSMASH was entirely re-designed using a plug-and-play concept that allows easy integration of novel predictor or output modules. antiSMASH 2.0 now supports input of multiple related sequences simultaneously (multi-FASTA/GenBank/EMBL), which allows the analysis of draft genomes comprising multiple contigs. Moreover, direct analysis of protein sequences is now possible. antiSMASH 2.0 has also been equipped with the capacity to detect additional classes of secondary metabolites, including oligosaccharide antibiotics, phenazines, thiopeptides, homo-serine lactones, phosphonates and furans. The algorithm for predicting the core structure of the cluster end product is now also covering lantipeptides, in addition to polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides. The antiSMASH ClusterBlast functionality has been extended to identify sub-clusters involved in the biosynthesis of specific chemical building blocks. The new features currently make antiSMASH 2.0 the most comprehensive resource for identifying and analyzing novel secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways in microorganisms.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is a multi-host pathogen that infects plants, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Many PA14 factors are required for virulence in more than one of these hosts. Noting that plants have a fundamentally different cellular architecture from animals, we sought to identify PA14 factors that are specifically required for plant pathogenesis. We show that synthesis by PA14 of the disaccharide trehalose is required for pathogenesis in Arabidopsis, but not in nematodes, insects, or mice. In-frame deletion of two closely-linked predicted trehalose biosynthetic operons, treYZ and treS, decreased growth in Arabidopsis leaves about 50 fold. Exogenously co-inoculated trehalose, ammonium, or nitrate, but not glucose, sulfate, or phosphate suppressed the phenotype of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant. Exogenous trehalose or ammonium nitrate does not suppress the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS mutant by suppressing the plant defense response. Trehalose also does not function intracellularly in P. aeruginosa to ameliorate a variety of stresses, but most likely functions extracellularly, because wild-type PA14 rescued the in vivo growth defect of the ΔtreYZΔtreS in trans. Surprisingly, the growth defect of the double ΔtreYZΔtreS double mutant was suppressed by various Arabidopsis cell wall mutants that affect xyloglucan synthesis, including an xxt1xxt2 double mutant that completely lacks xyloglucan, even though xyloglucan mutants are not more susceptible to pathogens and respond like wild-type plants to immune elicitors. An explanation of our data is that trehalose functions to promote the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients in a process that involves the xyloglucan component of the plant cell wall, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how P. aeruginosa, a multi-host opportunistic pathogen, has repurposed a highly conserved “house-keeping” anabolic pathway (trehalose biosynthesis) as a potent virulence factor that allows it to replicate in the intercellular environment of a leaf.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen that infects a wide range of plants and animals, including the model laboratory plant Arabidopsis thaliana. P. aeruginosa utilizes many of the same virulence-related factors to infect both plants and animals. However, because plants have fundamentally different cellular architecture than animals, we hypothesized that P. aeruginosa synthesizes specific factors required for infecting plants but not animals. We found that synthesis of the sugar molecule trehalose, an unusual dimer of glucose, is required for plant but not animal pathogenesis. Although P. aeruginosa mutants defective in trehalose synthesis are non-pathogenic in Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis mutants that lack the polysaccharide xyloglucan in their cell walls can be infected by P. aeruginosa trehalose mutants. Moreover, application of ammonium nitrate overcomes the requirement for trehalose for infecting an Arabidopsis leaf. Our data suggest that trehalose promotes the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the nutrient-poor intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how an opportunistic pathogen has repurposed a highly conserved “house-keeping” function (trehalose biosynthesis) as a potent virulence factor.
In bacterial communities, ‘tight economic times’ are the norm. Of the many challenges bacteria face in making a living, perhaps none are more important than generating energy, maintaining redox balance, and acquiring carbon and nitrogen to synthesize primary metabolites. The ability of bacteria to meet these challenges depends heavily on the rest of their community. Indeed, the most fundamental way in which bacteria communicate is by importing the substrates for metabolism and exporting metabolic end products. As an illustration of this principle, we will travel down a carbohydrate catabolic pathway common to many species of Bacteroides, highlighting the interspecies interactions established (often inevitably) at its key steps. We also discuss the metabolic considerations in maintaining the stability of host-associated microbial communities.
New drug development strategies are needed to combat antimicrobial resistance. The object of this perspective is to highlight one such strategy: treating infections with sets of drugs rather than individual drugs. We will highlight three categories of combination therapy: those that inhibit targets in different pathways; those that inhibit distinct nodes in the same pathway; and those that inhibit the very same target in different ways. We will then consider examples of naturally occurring combination therapies produced by microorganisms, and conclude by discussing key opportunities and challenges for making more widespread use of drug combinations.
Peptide natural products exhibit broad biological properties and are commonly produced by orthogonal ribosomal and nonribosomal pathways in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To harvest this large and diverse resource of bioactive molecules, we introduce Natural Product Peptidogenomics (NPP), a new mass spectrometry-guided genome mining method that connects the chemotypes of peptide natural products to their biosynthetic gene clusters by iteratively matching de novo MSn structures to genomics-based structures following current biosynthetic logic. In this study we demonstrate that NPP enabled the rapid characterization of >10 chemically diverse ribosomal and nonribosomal peptide natural products of novel composition from streptomycete bacteria as a proof of concept to begin automating the genome mining process. We show the identification of lantipeptides, lasso peptides, linardins, formylated peptides and lipopeptides, many of which from well-characterized model streptomycetes, highlighting the power of NPP in the discovery of new peptide natural products from even intensely studied organisms.
We are never alone. Humans coexist with diverse microbial species that live within and upon us—our so-called microbiota. It is now clear that this microbial community is essentially another organ that plays a fundamental role in human physiology and disease. Basic and translational research efforts have begun to focus on deciphering mechanisms of microbiome function—and learning how to manipulate it to benefit human health. In this Perspective, we discuss therapeutic opportunities in the human microbiome.
Longitudinal studies examining the baseline predictors of fatigue in SSc have not been reported. Our objectives were to examine the course of fatigue severity over time and to identify baseline clinical, demographic, and psychosocial predictors of sequentially obtained fatigue scores in early SSc. We also examined baseline predictors of change in fatigue severity over time.
We analyzed 1090 longitudinal Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) scores belonging to 256 patients who were enrolled in the Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcomes Study (GENISOS). Predictive significance of baseline variables for sequentially obtained FSS scores was examined with generalized linear mixed models. Predictors of change in FSS over time were examined by adding an interaction term between the baseline variable and time-in-study to the model.
The patients' mean age was 48.6 years, 47% were Caucasians, and 59% had diffuse cutaneous involvement. The mean disease duration at enrollment was 2.5 years. The FSS was obtained at enrollment and follow-up visits (mean follow-up time = 3.8 years). Average baseline FSS score was 4.7(±0.96). The FSS was relatively stable and did not show a consistent trend for change over time (p = 0.221). In a multivariable model of objective clinical variables, higher Medsger Gastrointestinal (p = 0.006) and Joint (p = 0.024) Severity Indices, and anti-U1-RNP antibodies (p = 0.024) were independent predictors of higher FSS. In the final model, ineffective coping skills captured by higher Illness Behavior Questionnaire scores (p<0.001), higher self-reported pain (p = 0.006), and higher Medsger Gastrointestinal Severity Index (p = 0.009) at enrollment were independent predictors of higher longitudinal FSS scores. Baseline DLco % predicted was the only independent variable that significantly predicted a change in FSS scores over time (p = 0.013), with lower DLco levels predicting an increase in FSS over time.
This study identified potentially modifiable clinical and psychological factors that predict longitudinal fatigue severity in early SSc.
As genetically encoded small molecules, antibiotics are phenotypes that have resulted from mutation and natural selection. Advances in genetics, biochemistry, and bioinformatics have connected hundreds of antibiotics to the gene clusters that encode them, allowing these molecules to be analyzed using the tools of evolutionary biology. This review surveys examples of convergent evolution from microbially produced antibiotics, including the convergence of distinct gene clusters on similar phenotypes and the merger of distinct gene clusters into a single functional unit. Examining antibiotics through an evolutionary lens highlights the versatility of biosynthetic pathways, reveals lessons for combating antibiotic resistance, and provides an entry point for studying the natural roles of these natural products.
Bacterial and fungal secondary metabolism is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications as antibiotics, anti-tumor drugs or cholesterol-lowering drugs. To find new drug candidates, microbiologists are increasingly relying on sequencing genomes of a wide variety of microbes. However, rapidly and reliably pinpointing all the potential gene clusters for secondary metabolites in dozens of newly sequenced genomes has been extremely challenging, due to their biochemical heterogeneity, the presence of unknown enzymes and the dispersed nature of the necessary specialized bioinformatics tools and resources. Here, we present antiSMASH (antibiotics & Secondary Metabolite Analysis Shell), the first comprehensive pipeline capable of identifying biosynthetic loci covering the whole range of known secondary metabolite compound classes (polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, terpenes, aminoglycosides, aminocoumarins, indolocarbazoles, lantibiotics, bacteriocins, nucleosides, beta-lactams, butyrolactones, siderophores, melanins and others). It aligns the identified regions at the gene cluster level to their nearest relatives from a database containing all other known gene clusters, and integrates or cross-links all previously available secondary-metabolite specific gene analysis methods in one interactive view. antiSMASH is available at http://antismash.secondarymetabolites.org.
Streptomyces clavuligerus is an important industrial strain that produces a number of antibiotics, including clavulanic acid and cephamycin C. A high-quality draft genome sequence of the S. clavuligerus NRRL 3585 strain was produced by employing a hybrid approach that involved Sanger sequencing, Roche/454 pyrosequencing, optical mapping, and partial finishing. Its genome, comprising four linear replicons, one chromosome, and four plasmids, carries numerous sets of genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including a variety of antibiotics.
Systems biology is set to go beyond single species to the study of interspecies interactions.
Systems approaches are not so different in essence from classical genetic and biochemical approaches, and in the future may become adopted so widely that the term 'systems biology' itself will become obsolete.